Focused Cardiac Ultrasound for the Evaluation of Heart Valve Disease in Resource-Limited Settings
AbstractPurpose of reviewsThere are many places in the world where comprehensive echocardiography is not available, including remote or rural regions of high-income countries and outside urban centers of low- to middle-income countries. In this review, we discuss the use case for focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS) in remote and low-resource settings including its use by non-expert providers as well as its accuracy and limitations in the assessment of the most common heart valve lesions.Recent findingsFoCUS requires a different workflow compared to comprehensive echocardiography including a system for remote review and repo...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 5, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Utilization for Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death
AbstractPurpose of reviewImplantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation is a guideline-recommended indication for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in high-risk patients. ICD implantation is lower in women than in men, a difference that has persisted over the last two decades. The goal of this review is to explore potential factors in under- utilization of ICDs in women and to provide information on gender differences in mortality benefit of ICDs.Recent findingsEpidemiological evidence shows that women with cardiovascular disease tend to present at an older age, have more non-ischemic cardiomyopat...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 5, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Managing Cancer Patients and Survivors With Advanced Heart Failure
AbstractPurpose of reviewThe number of cancer patients grows globally. An important subset may develop heart failure.Recent findingsA paucity of data exists regarding outcomes and response to traditional intervention in cancer patients who develop heart failure. Advanced HF treatments in this population require special considerations. Since cancer treatment schedules are anticipated, emphasis should be placed on preventive interventions. Once left ventricular dysfunction ensues, early recognition and prompt treatment of heart failure may improve prognosis. Small studies have shown that guideline-directed medical therapies,...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 5, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Focused Cardiac Ultrasound for the Evaluation of Heart Valve Disease in Resource-Limited Settings
AbstractPurpose of reviewsThere are many places in the world where comprehensive echocardiography is not available, including remote or rural regions of high-income countries and outside urban centers of low- to middle-income countries. In this review, we discuss the use case for focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS) in remote and low-resource settings including its use by non-expert providers as well as its accuracy and limitations in the assessment of the most common heart valve lesions.Recent findingsFoCUS requires a different workflow compared to comprehensive echocardiography including a system for remote review and repo...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 5, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Utilization for Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death
AbstractPurpose of reviewImplantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation is a guideline-recommended indication for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in high-risk patients. ICD implantation is lower in women than in men, a difference that has persisted over the last two decades. The goal of this review is to explore potential factors in under- utilization of ICDs in women and to provide information on gender differences in mortality benefit of ICDs.Recent findingsEpidemiological evidence shows that women with cardiovascular disease tend to present at an older age, have more non-ischemic cardiomyopat...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 5, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Managing Cancer Patients and Survivors With Advanced Heart Failure
AbstractPurpose of reviewThe number of cancer patients grows globally. An important subset may develop heart failure.Recent findingsA paucity of data exists regarding outcomes and response to traditional intervention in cancer patients who develop heart failure. Advanced HF treatments in this population require special considerations. Since cancer treatment schedules are anticipated, emphasis should be placed on preventive interventions. Once left ventricular dysfunction ensues, early recognition and prompt treatment of heart failure may improve prognosis. Small studies have shown that guideline-directed medical therapies,...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 5, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Echocardiographic Imaging for Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Interventions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTricuspid regurgitation (TR) represents an important, overlooked, and often undertreated valve disorder. The advent of novel transcatheter approaches directed towards the mitral and aortic valves has generated interest in the possible management of right-sided valve disease using similar strategies. The identification of anatomically suitable candidates by echocardiography is essential in ensuring good outcomes. The assessment of tricuspid valve (TV) morphology and regurgitation severity poses challenges to cardiac imagers and requires careful analysis of two- and three-dimensional echocardiographi...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 3, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction and Cardiomyopathy: an Under-recognized Complication of Systemic Sclerosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHeart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and diastolic dysfunction are major sequelae of primary cardiac disease in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and contribute to increased mortality in this population.Recent FindingsStudies of animal models of SSc and human tissue samples indicate that the pathophysiology underlying these conditions involves microvascular dysfunction, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and replacement fibrosis. Diagnostic recommendations for HFpEF in SSc include clinical examination and screening with laboratory studies and cardiac imaging to detect diastolic dysfunc...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 29, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Virtual Transformation and the Use of Social Media: Cardiac Electrophysiology Education in the Post-COVID-19 Era
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the delivery of education for all specialties, including cardiac electrophysiology. This review will provide an overview of the COVID-19 spurred digital transformation of electrophysiology education for practicing clinicians and trainees in electrophysiology and cover the use of social media in these educational efforts.Recent FindingsMajor international, national, and local meetings and electrophysiology fellowship –specific educational sessions have transitioned rapidly to virtual and distanced learning, enhanced by social media. This has all...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 19, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Advances in Mapping of Ventricular Tachycardia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImplantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks are common with catheter ablation procedures being increasingly used to minimize recurrent ventricular tachycardia (VT). The purpose of the review is to provide an update on approaches to identify critical portions of VT circuits.Recent FindingsVT ablation has evolved from a surgical approach to a percutaneous minimally invasive approach. Pre-procedural planning including the use of cardiac MRI can provide valuable information about the underlying substrate. Mapping of the VT circuit with multipolar catheters and improved detection of slow conduction zo...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 15, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

COVID-19: the Risk to Athletes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on athletics, and the question of safely resuming competitive sports at all levels has been a source of significant debate. Concerns regarding myocarditis and the risk of arrhythmias and sudden death in athletes have prompted heightened attention to the role of cardiovascular screening. In this review, we aim to comprehensively outline the cardiovascular manifestations associated with COVID-19 infection, to discuss screening, diagnosis, and treatment strategies, and to evaluate the current literature on the risk to athletes and recommendations regardi...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 15, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Valvular Heart Disease in Athletes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewValvular heart disease is prevalent in older athletes with primarily degenerative valvular disorders and younger athletes with congenital or genetic syndromes. Limited data exist on the risks and benefits of exercise for athletes with underlying valvular disorders, so current guidelines are primarily based upon expert consensus. This review focuses on the current data, guideline recommendations, and emerging clinical conundrums for athletes with common valvular heart conditions including aortic stenosis, bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), mitral regurgitation (MR), mitral valve prolapse (MVP), and thorac...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 15, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Assessment of Atrial Fibrosis and Its Implications in Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke
AbstractPurpose of reviewCardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) can be used to accurately define atrial fibrosis burden and is increasingly available, which has led to a renaissance in our understanding of atrial fibrosis as a major component of the atrial disease substrate. The purpose of this review is to provide information on our current understanding of atrial fibrosis and its relation to atrial fibrillation (AFib) and stroke, highlight its implications in the treatment of these conditions, and discuss potential therapies for atrial fibrosis.Recent findingsCMRI-defined atrial fibrosis has a proven utility in strati...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 15, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Advances in Mapping of Ventricular Tachycardia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImplantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks are common with catheter ablation procedures being increasingly used to minimize recurrent ventricular tachycardia (VT). The purpose of the review is to provide an update on approaches to identify critical portions of VT circuits.Recent FindingsVT ablation has evolved from a surgical approach to a percutaneous minimally invasive approach. Pre-procedural planning including the use of cardiac MRI can provide valuable information about the underlying substrate. Mapping of the VT circuit with multipolar catheters and improved detection of slow conduction zo...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 15, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

COVID-19: the Risk to Athletes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on athletics, and the question of safely resuming competitive sports at all levels has been a source of significant debate. Concerns regarding myocarditis and the risk of arrhythmias and sudden death in athletes have prompted heightened attention to the role of cardiovascular screening. In this review, we aim to comprehensively outline the cardiovascular manifestations associated with COVID-19 infection, to discuss screening, diagnosis, and treatment strategies, and to evaluate the current literature on the risk to athletes and recommendations regardi...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 15, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Valvular Heart Disease in Athletes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewValvular heart disease is prevalent in older athletes with primarily degenerative valvular disorders and younger athletes with congenital or genetic syndromes. Limited data exist on the risks and benefits of exercise for athletes with underlying valvular disorders, so current guidelines are primarily based upon expert consensus. This review focuses on the current data, guideline recommendations, and emerging clinical conundrums for athletes with common valvular heart conditions including aortic stenosis, bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), mitral regurgitation (MR), mitral valve prolapse (MVP), and thorac...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 15, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Assessment of Atrial Fibrosis and Its Implications in Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke
AbstractPurpose of reviewCardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) can be used to accurately define atrial fibrosis burden and is increasingly available, which has led to a renaissance in our understanding of atrial fibrosis as a major component of the atrial disease substrate. The purpose of this review is to provide information on our current understanding of atrial fibrosis and its relation to atrial fibrillation (AFib) and stroke, highlight its implications in the treatment of these conditions, and discuss potential therapies for atrial fibrosis.Recent findingsCMRI-defined atrial fibrosis has a proven utility in strati...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 15, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Current and Potential Applications of Wearables in Sports Cardiology
AbstractPurpose of the reviewCommercial wearable biosensors are commonly used among athletes and highly active individuals, although their value in sports cardiology is not well established. In this review, we discuss the evidence for the current applications of wearables and provide our outlook for promising future directions of this emerging field.Recent findingsThe integration of routine assessment of physiological parameters, activity data, and features such as electrocardiogram recording has generated excitement over a role for wearables to help diagnose and monitor cardiovascular disease. Presently, however, there ar...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 14, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Antiarrhythmic Agents: a Review and Comment on Relevance in the Current Era —Part 2
AbstractPurpose of reviewThere is apprehension and a general lack of familiarity with regards to using the “membrane-active” antiarrhythmic agents among internists and even general cardiologists.Recent findingsThis hesitancy regarding use of these agents may be related to their relative infrequent use, complicated mechanisms of actions, and real or perceived risks involved with their use. For example, the fact that dofetilide requires prescription only by certified electrophysiologists and hospitalization for initiation creates a mystique about its use.SummaryThis review paper will attempt to lay out the genera...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 18, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Running the Risk: Exercise and Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy
AbstractPurpose of reviewThe purpose of this review is to summarize what is known about the relationship between exercise and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) with regard to disease onset, diagnosis, progression, and clinical severity. This relationship forms the basis of the management recommendations for restricting physical activity in individuals with and at risk for ARVC.Recent findingsWhile ARVC can be challenging to diagnose, there are several diagnostic testing and imaging modalities that may help distinguish athletic heart remodeling from ARVC. There is an increased risk of adverse clinical o...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 18, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Antiarrhythmic Agents: a Review and Comment on Relevance in the Current Era —Part 2
AbstractPurpose of reviewThere is apprehension and a general lack of familiarity with regards to using the “membrane-active” antiarrhythmic agents among internists and even general cardiologists.Recent findingsThis hesitancy regarding use of these agents may be related to their relative infrequent use, complicated mechanisms of actions, and real or perceived risks involved with their use. For example, the fact that dofetilide requires prescription only by certified electrophysiologists and hospitalization for initiation creates a mystique about its use.SummaryThis review paper will attempt to lay out the genera...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 18, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Running the Risk: Exercise and Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy
AbstractPurpose of reviewThe purpose of this review is to summarize what is known about the relationship between exercise and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) with regard to disease onset, diagnosis, progression, and clinical severity. This relationship forms the basis of the management recommendations for restricting physical activity in individuals with and at risk for ARVC.Recent findingsWhile ARVC can be challenging to diagnose, there are several diagnostic testing and imaging modalities that may help distinguish athletic heart remodeling from ARVC. There is an increased risk of adverse clinical o...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 18, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Troubleshooting Left Ventricular Assist Devices: Modern Technology and Its Limitations
AbstractPurpose of reviewAs the incidence of heart failure continues to rise, modern generation left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have become the primary therapeutic modality used as both bridge to transplant (BTT) and destination therapy (DT) in patients with acute and chronic heart failure. This review aims to highlight the progression of LVAD technology, outline LVAD complications and manifestations, and provide evidence-based therapeutic methods to troubleshoot such adverse events.Recent findingsDespite modern innovation, LVAD adverse events continue to hinder the progress of HF paradigms and are associated with ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - August 2, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Anti-arrhythmic Drugs —a Review and Comment on Relevance in the Current Era: Part 1
AbstractPurpose of reviewThere is apprehension and a general lack of familiarity with regard to using the ionic channel specific anti-arrhythmic agents among internists and even general cardiologists.Recent findingsThis may be related to their relative infrequent use, complicated mechanisms of actions, and real or perceived risks involved with their use. For example, the fact that coronary artery disease is listed as contraindication to the prescription of class IC agents, when so many patients are noted to have presence of non-obstructive disease on increasingly done CT scans, causes confusion and uncertainty about their ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 21, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Tricuspid Regurgitation: When and How to Treat
AbstractPurpose of reviewClinically significant tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is increasingly prevalent in the aging population. TR is a progressive disease associated with worse outcomes, and therefore should be treated appropriately and in a timely manner. This review will summarize the indications for treatment of TR, and the invasive modalities currently available or under development for the management of TR.Recent findingsDespite its association with increased morbidity and mortality, surgery for isolated TR is uncommon due to increased operative risk. Various transcatheter tricuspid valve (TV) therapies have been dev...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 21, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Postpartum Hypertension and the Role of Postpartum Clinics and Digital Health
AbstractPurpose of reviewPostpartum hypertension is common, vastly underrecognized and increases the risk for future cardiovascular events. One of the most common risk factors for the development of postpartum hypertension is preexistent hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). According to Cirillo and Cohn (2015), HDP complicate 5 –10% of pregnancies worldwide, and their prevalence is increasing. Unfortunately, many clinicians and patients are not aware of the risks associated with HDP, nor are they aware of the importance of monitoring blood pressure in the postpartum period. Telemedicine and digital health may i...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 21, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Anti-arrhythmic Drugs —a Review and Comment on Relevance in the Current Era: Part 1
AbstractPurpose of reviewThere is apprehension and a general lack of familiarity with regard to using the ionic channel specific anti-arrhythmic agents among internists and even general cardiologists.Recent findingsThis may be related to their relative infrequent use, complicated mechanisms of actions, and real or perceived risks involved with their use. For example, the fact that coronary artery disease is listed as contraindication to the prescription of class IC agents, when so many patients are noted to have presence of non-obstructive disease on increasingly done CT scans, causes confusion and uncertainty about their ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 21, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Tricuspid Regurgitation: When and How to Treat
AbstractPurpose of reviewClinically significant tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is increasingly prevalent in the aging population. TR is a progressive disease associated with worse outcomes, and therefore should be treated appropriately and in a timely manner. This review will summarize the indications for treatment of TR, and the invasive modalities currently available or under development for the management of TR.Recent findingsDespite its association with increased morbidity and mortality, surgery for isolated TR is uncommon due to increased operative risk. Various transcatheter tricuspid valve (TV) therapies have been dev...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 21, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Postpartum Hypertension and the Role of Postpartum Clinics and Digital Health
AbstractPurpose of reviewPostpartum hypertension is common, vastly underrecognized and increases the risk for future cardiovascular events. One of the most common risk factors for the development of postpartum hypertension is preexistent hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). According to Cirillo and Cohn (2015), HDP complicate 5 –10% of pregnancies worldwide, and their prevalence is increasing. Unfortunately, many clinicians and patients are not aware of the risks associated with HDP, nor are they aware of the importance of monitoring blood pressure in the postpartum period. Telemedicine and digital health may i...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 21, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Exercise and Sports Participation in Adolescents and Young Adults With Congenital Heart Disease
AbstractPurpose of reviewChildren and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) have historically been restricted from vigorous exercise or competitive sports. With our growing understanding of the benefits of exercise and sports participation, we aim to review current recommendations for safe sports participation in children and adolescents with congenital heart disease.Recent findingsRecently published studies identify obesity to be highly prevalent in patients with CHD, especially as they age. This is more evident if the patients lead a sedentary lifestyle or are restricted from engaging in exercise. Recently publ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 26, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Evidence of Aspirin Use in Prevention of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (APOs): Should It Be Continued Long Term After an APO?
AbstractPurpose of reviewAspirin is one of the only proven therapeutic options for the prevention of preeclampsia, an important adverse pregnancy outcome with detrimental short- and long-term consequences to a woman ’s health. The goal of this review is to provide information about the current recommendations for the use of aspirin to prevent preeclampsia and whether there is evidence for postpartum continuation.Recent findingsPreeclampsia is linked to the development of future cardiovascular disease and adverse outcomes in women including stroke, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. This is likely due to vascu...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 11, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Post-transplant Management in Heart Transplant Recipients: New Drugs and Prophylactic Strategies
AbstractPurpose of reviewToday, heart transplant offers a 1-year survival of 91% to select patients with end-stage heart failure. Since the implementation of heart allocation system change in Oct 2018, transplantation needs have to be met in critically ill candidates with high waitlist mortality. This brings forth the contemporary challenges of use of more patients bridged from mechanical circulatory support, use of marginal hearts, older donor age, allosensitization, donation after circulatory death, and hepatitis C-positive donors.Recent findingsAdvances in rejection surveillance and diagnosis, immunosuppression, and pro...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 3, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Echocardiography for the Pregnant Heart
AbstractPurpose of reviewPregnancy is associated with significant hemodynamic changes, making it a potentially high-risk period for women with underlying cardiovascular disease. Echocardiography remains the preferred modality for diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women with cardiovascular disease as it is widely available and does not require radiation. This paper reviews the role of echocardiography along the continuum of pregnancy in at-risk patients, with a focus on key cardiac disease states in pregnancy.Recent findingsIn the preconception stage, risk stratification scores such as CARPREG II, ZAHARA and the modified...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 28, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Their Association With Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Long-Term Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for Counseling Patients
AbstractPurpose of reviewAssisted reproductive technology (ART) has continued to emerge as a treatment option for infertility, a condition that affects a significant proportion of couples of reproductive age. The goal of this review is to provide information on the link between adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) and ART and long-term cardiovascular consequences associated with these therapies.Recent findingsIncreasing use and advancing maternal age have raised concerns regarding the short- and long-term use of such technologies. ART and associated hormonal therapies are known to cause potential vascular effects and have an ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 25, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Updates Through the Lens of Sports Cardiology
AbstractPurpose of reviewThis review will summarize the distinction between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (EICR), describe treatments of particular relevance to athletes with HCM, and highlight the evolution of recommendations for exercise and competitive sport participation relevant to individuals with HCM.Recent findingsWhereas prior guidelines have excluded individuals with HCM from more than mild-intensity exercise, recent data show that moderate-intensity exercise improves functional capacity and indices of cardiac function and continuation of competitive sports may not be a...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 25, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Their Association With Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Long-Term Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for Counseling Patients
AbstractPurpose of reviewAssisted reproductive technology (ART) has continued to emerge as a treatment option for infertility, a condition that affects a significant proportion of couples of reproductive age. The goal of this review is to provide information on the link between adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) and ART and long-term cardiovascular consequences associated with these therapies.Recent findingsIncreasing use and advancing maternal age have raised concerns regarding the short- and long-term use of such technologies. ART and associated hormonal therapies are known to cause potential vascular effects and have an ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 25, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Updates Through the Lens of Sports Cardiology
AbstractPurpose of reviewThis review will summarize the distinction between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (EICR), describe treatments of particular relevance to athletes with HCM, and highlight the evolution of recommendations for exercise and competitive sport participation relevant to individuals with HCM.Recent findingsWhereas prior guidelines have excluded individuals with HCM from more than mild-intensity exercise, recent data show that moderate-intensity exercise improves functional capacity and indices of cardiac function and continuation of competitive sports may not be a...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 25, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Novel Myosin-Based Therapies in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
AbstractPurpose of reviewHypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common genetic disease of myocardium and is recognized to have substantial clinical impact including sudden cardiac death, arrhythmias, and heart failure. Historically medical therapies have been used in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with limited prospective randomized data to support their effectiveness. In this review, we discuss a novel class of drug that inhibits myosin (myo-blocker) which was developed to precisely target the mechanism of HCM in detail.Recent findingsWe discuss and contextualize the clinical trial results for mavacamten, positioning ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 12, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Management Considerations for Lipid Disorders During Pregnancy
AbstractPurpose of reviewDyslipidemias including familial hypercholesterolemia and elevated lipoprotein (a) are not uncommon in young women who may desire pregnancy. In all women, abnormal lipid metabolism has been linked to adverse outcomes during pregnancy, including hypertensive disease of pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, and preterm birth. Optimal management of dyslipidemias in pregnant women remains undefined, as statins are contraindicated in this group.Recent findingsRecent literature questions this traditional avoidance of statins, however, as well as explores their potential benefit in pre-eclampsia speci...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 12, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Athletes: Expect the Unexpected
AbstractPurpose of reviewCardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a tool designed to assess the integrated function of the cardiac, pulmonary, vascular, and musculoskeletal systems to produce an exercise effort. CPET may be performed for performance purposes as part of optimizing a training program or for clinical purposes in athletes with established cardiovascular disease or in those with symptoms suggestive of cardiopulmonary pathology. Most normative values used for CPET parameters have been derived in the general population, in whom there will be expected differences in exercise physiology as compared to a trained a...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 12, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Risk Stratification of Acute Pulmonary Embolism
AbstractPurpose of reviewAcute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a heterogeneous disease process whose presentation varies widely between individuals who are asymptomatic, develop cardiogenic shock, or experience acute PE-related mortality. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available tools used to risk stratify patients presenting with acute PE. We will particularly focus on the demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, and multifactor tools used to predict mortality, PE-related morbidity, and bleeding complications.Recent findingsEstablished risk assessment strategies incorporate clinical and demographic informati...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 12, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research