Effect of Intravitreal Injections on Retinal Imaging Metrics in Glaucomatous and Non-Glaucomatous Eyes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the available literature on retinal imaging metrics in the context of intravitreal injections in glaucomatous and non-glaucomatous eyes.Recent FindingsThe retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in injected non-glaucomatous eyes appears to thin at a similar rate to uninjected fellow eyes. A total of four studies evaluating RNFL thinning in injected glaucomatous eyes yielded mixed results, with more recent longitudinal investigations suggesting a potential association. The ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer is also being studied as a potential endpoint in both glaucomatous and non-glaucomatou...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - June 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Glaucoma and Pregnancy
This article is a review of studies relating to glaucoma in pregnancy. It also examines medical, laser, and surgical options specific to the particular needs of this population.Recent FindingsIn general, there is limited data on management of glaucoma in pregnancy, and no guidelines for treatment have been established. In one recent case series, pregnant women exposed to glaucoma medications were found to have no difference in pregnancy or fetal/neonatal outcomes compared with a control group. There are no available data for the use of the newer intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering agents (latanoprostene bunod, netarsudil) ...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - June 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Pros and Cons of Bilateral Immediately Sequential Cataract Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImmediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) has been gaining attention over the past decade as a more efficient way to address the growing need for cataract removal in an aging population, and yet delayed sequential bilateral cataract surgery (DSBCS) remains the standard of care in many ophthalmologic communities. This review discusses some of the reasons surgeons have been hesitant to adopt ISBCS and hopes to address both the pros and cons of the procedure in the current medical environment.Recent FindingsMany of the current arguments against the practice of ISBCS involve potential b...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - May 31, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Uveitis –Glaucoma–Hyphema Syndrome: a Review and Exploration of New Concepts
We present a variety of recent studies describing novel treatment methods and diagnostic techniques, as well as IOL exchange techniques. (Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports)
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Glaucoma and Driving
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLoss of the ability to drive is highly associated with depressive symptoms in older persons. There are many reasons why an individual may give up driving, poor vision being an important one. Given the high prevalence of glaucoma in this population and the critical role that vision plays in the ability to drive, it is therefore important to consider how glaucomatous vision loss plays into the ability to drive safely.Recent FindingsIn this review article, we will summarize the literature on the topic of glaucoma and driving and the studies that have been done to evaluate this topic. Studies of both t...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - May 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Management of Large or Recurrent Macular Holes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review and critically appraise the recent literature about new surgical techniques for the management of large or recurrent macular holes.Recent FindingsA variety of surgical approaches have recently been developed ranging from autologous retinal grafts to amniotic membrane transplant with varying levels of anatomical and visual success.SummaryMore data is needed to determine if one technique is superior to others. However, with a variety of grafts, adhesives, and tamponades at their disposal, vitreoretinal surgeons have an extensive array of options to approach complex macular holes. (Source: C...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - April 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Optoelectronic Devices for Vision Restoration
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal is providing an update to the latest research surrounding optoelectronic devices, highlighting key studies and benefits and limitations of each device.Recent FindingsThe Argus II demonstrated long-term safety after a 5-year follow-up. Due to lack of tack fixation, subretinal implants appear to displace over time. PRIMA ’s completed primate trial showed initial safety and potential for improved vision, resulting in ongoing clinical trials; Bionic Vision Australia developed a new 44-electrode suprachoroidal device currently in a clinical trial. Orion (cortical stimulation) is currently...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - April 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Neurotrophic Keratopathy: Current Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNeurotrophic keratopathy (NK) is a challenging ophthalmological disease. In this review, we present an updated evidence-based summary on the pathophysiology, classification, diagnosis, and how novel therapies have changed the management of NK.Recent FindingsNew specific medical and surgical modalities are emerging, such as Cenegermin (Oxervate ®, Dompé) and neurotization procedures, which are changing the paradigm of the treatment of NK. In addition, more diagnostic resources are available, such as corneal confocal microscopy in vivo, non-contact esthesiometers, and common ocular surface...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - April 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Current Concepts on Aqueous Misdirection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the current understanding of the pathophysiology and management of aqueous misdirection syndrome.Recent FindingsAqueous misdirection syndrome represents a spectrum of disorders that converge on a common pathway of increasing posterior segment pressure and secondary angle closure glaucoma. Although the etiology of aqueous misdirection remains unclear and is likely multifactorial, recent data supports choroidal expansion as an inciting event in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. As such, the term aqueous misdirection may be a misnomer. Some would argue that the use of terminology such as acu...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - April 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Ocular Graft-Versus-Host Disease Topic Review
AbstractPurposeThis review offers an informed insight on the pathophysiology of ocular graft-versus-host disease in addition to up-to-date recommendations for monitoring and management.Recent FindingsOcular GVHD is estimated to affect tens of thousands of individuals in the USA. It is not known how many of these patients are aware of their condition or seek therapy for it. Diagnosis of ocular GVHD poses a difficult challenge due to the unspecific nature of the presentation. However, improvement in diagnostic criteria through available testing and updated guidelines can allow early identification promoting appropriate inter...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - March 26, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

In-Depth Thinking About the Diagnostic Methods and Treatment Strategies for the Corneal Nerves in Ocular Surface Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe summarize recent developments in modern diagnostic tools for the corneal nerves, the diseased status reflected in corneal nerve changes, and the possible corneal nerve regenerative treatments.Recent FindingsIn vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and en face optical coherence tomography (EFOCT) are reliable tools for detecting the morphological changes of corneal nerves; while the esthesiometry is useful for studying the functional status of the corneal nerves. Corneal tortuosity increases in dry eye disease (DED) and neuropathic pain. Decreased of corneal nerve density in neurotrophic keratopathy (N...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - February 8, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review offers an informed insight on the pathophysiology of ocular cicatricial pemphigoid in addition to up-to-date recommendations for monitoring and management.Recent FindingsSystemic immunosuppression is required for treatment of ocular cicatricial pemphigoid when there is high suspicion, even in the absence of diagnostic findings on biopsy. New therapeutic modalities continue to emerge and provide promising results. In addition, improved options for adjunctive care are also available.SummaryOcular cicatricial pemphigoid is a systemic illness and a subset of mucous membrane pemphigoid that ...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - February 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

A New Approach for Diabetic Macular Edema Treatment: Review of Clinical Practice Results with 0.19  mg Fluocinolone Acetonide Intravitreal Implant Including Vitrectomized Eyes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFluocinolone acetonide is a synthetic fluorinated glucocorticoid. It has selective and potent agonist properties by binding to the cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor with high affinity; it is devoid of mineralocorticoid activity. Two extended-release (i.e., lasting up to 3  years) drug delivery systems containing fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) have been approved by the FDA for intravitreal use: Retisert® (Bausch&Lomb, NJ, USA) and Iluvien ® (Alimera Sciences, Atlanta, USA). The former contains 0.59 mg of FAc, which is approved for the treatment of chronic non-infectious posterior...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - January 14, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Intraoperative Aberrometry for IOL Selection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the clinical use, advantages, and potential limitations of intraoperative aberrometry (IA) and its application in cataract surgery in the normal, astigmatic, and atypical eye.Recent FindingsThe use of IA is similar to traditional preoperative biometry methods for intraocular lens (IOL) determination in short and normal eyes. The use of IA resulted in equivalent outcomes to modern formulas with optimized axial lengths in long eyes and exceeded traditional formulas. Improved outcomes compared to traditional methods were noted with the use of IA when used for both astigmatism correction and ...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - December 6, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Review of Efficacy and Comparison of Intracameral Antibiotics for Postcataract Surgery Endophthalmitis Prophylaxis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewJustify universal adoption of intracameral antibiotic for prophylaxis against postcataract endophthalmitis.Recent FindingsReview of both placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials for intracameral cefuroxime and moxifloxacin as well as large retrospective studies demonstrate efficacy in reducing the risk of postcataract endophthalmitis when the intracameral antibiotic choice is targeted to the causative pathogens of the demographic studied.SummaryClinical evidence demonstrates the benefit of intracameral antibiotic use from statistical, clinical, and cost-effective analyses. Cases with higher ri...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - November 28, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

An Update on Microinvasive Glaucoma Surgery Concurrent With Cataract Extraction
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this article, we review the current options for microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) combined with cataract extraction in the USA and the efficacy of the various approaches.Recent FindingsMIGS is a rapidly growing area of research and clinical interest. Available surgeries aim to reduce intraocular pressure by improving aqueous outflow through the trabecular or subconjunctival pathways or by reducing aqueous production.SummaryMultiple approaches to MIGS are utilized in clinical practice. On average, these surgeries are safe and modestly effective in reducing intraocular pressure. Future researc...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - November 25, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Review of the Evidence for Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Post-cataract Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this article, we review the recent literature surrounding the use of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drops for prophylaxis of cystoid macular edema following uncomplicated cataract surgery.Recent FindingsAs has been found with past research, most recent studies suggest that topical NSAIDs may help reduce the incidence of postoperative cystoid macular edema. The effect may be minimal in patients at low risk for macular edema, and more pronounced in those at high risk. The evidence suggests that the effect is maximized when used in combination with topical corticosteroids.SummaryAlthough th...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - November 25, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Anterior Capsulotomy Innovations and Techniques: Review
ConclusionManually creating the anterior capsulorhexis remains the gold standard because of efficiency and cost but consistent outcomes require significant experience and technical skill. New automated technologies aim to provide the desired consistency and precision with visual axis centration without compromising surgical workflow. These technologies show promise and may yield superior visual and refractive outcomes but research will be valuable for evaluating these devices. (Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports)
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - November 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Update on the Use of Premium Intraocular Lenses in Glaucoma
In this report, we review the latest evidence for and against the use of premium intraocular lenses (IOL) in patients with glaucoma.Recent FindingsVisual outcomes from clinical studies of newer Extend Depth of Focus (EDF) IOLs and low add apodized diffractive-refractive IOLs are significantly better than prior generations of multifocal (MF) IOLs. Clinical studies show that EDF and monofocal IOLs have similar contrast sensitivities in photopic conditions independent of spatial frequency.SummaryPremium IOLs restore uncorrected visual function, but intolerable visual disturbances and contrast impairment are uncommon side effe...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - August 13, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The Microbiome and Ocular Surface Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe human body lives in a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that make up the microbiome. In this review, we discuss the compositions of the gut and ocular surface microbiomes in relationship to health and disease.Recent FindingsThe gut microbiome is dominated by Firmicutes, whereas the ocular surface is dominated by Proteobacteria. The compositions of the microbiome are similar between individuals at the phyla level, but differ at the genus level. Alterations in the microbiome have been associated with disease. For example, ocular diseases such as uveitis, dry e...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - July 24, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Molecular Biomarkers for Glaucoma
This article summarizes the current studies on molecular biomarkers with potential implications in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to treatment in patients with glaucoma.Recent FindingsImportant advances have occurred in the understanding of the pathogenesis of glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Protein biomarkers associated with inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and other molecular pathways have been described in glaucoma patients in tear film, aqueous fluid, vitreous fluid, and serum, however, we are still far from having a clear picture of the whole molecular network that relates to the disease and its implications in cl...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - July 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Facts vs Fiction: the Role of Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Glaucoma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMarijuana has been known to decrease intraocular pressure in humans since the early 1970s. However, its broad side effect profile, short half-life, and limited corneal penetration have prevented its development into a commercial ocular anti-hypertensive. Our paper aims to evaluate the latest research on the role of cannabinoids in the treatment of glaucoma and whether or not there is any progress in overcoming the above limitations.Recent FindingsSeveral techniques for retaining the therapeutic effect and minimizing or eliminating the side effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol are being investi...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - July 22, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence in Corneal Diagnosis: Where Are we?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this paper, we prospectively review some artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and models used to enhance clinical decisions for patients with corneal diseases and conditions.Recent FindingsCornea subspeciality was a pioneer in aggregating technology to clinical practice. It provided the ability to early diagnose diseases and improve treatments. Currently, we face the challenge of dealing with a tremendous amount of information from complementary multimodal imaging devices. The analysis of such data for enhancing clinical decisions is perfectly suitable for AI. While AI models are rapidly grow...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - July 9, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Evaluation in Dry Eye and Related Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe reviewed recent findings on in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) of the ocular surface in dry eye and related diseases.Recent FindingsIn dry eye disease, IVCM allows for corneal structure evaluation at the cellular level and is frequently used in diagnosis, disease course follow-up, and management. IVCM also enables a detailed examination of variations, such as abnormal hyperreflexia keratocytes and inflammatory cells, altered corneal superficial cell density, and basal cell density. In addition, several cellular alterations in ocular surface diseases have been detected using IVCM. Many studies ha...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - July 9, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The Role of Artificial Intelligence in the Diagnosis and Management of Glaucoma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to highlight the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma.Recent FindingsNumerous AI strategies have been reported that could potentially help interpret clinical data and imaging studies relevant to glaucoma.SummaryGroups around the world have developed and evaluated AI programs that gather data from diagnostic modalities —including optical coherence tomography, fundus photography, visual fields, and other clinical ophthalmological features—that assist in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma with a high accura...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - May 18, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Current Concepts on Aqueous Misdirection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this article, we review the pathophysiology and recent advances in the management of aqueous misdirection.Recent FindingsAqueous misdirection remains a rarely encountered and incompletely understood ophthalmologic problem. Despite advances in surgical techniques, with a great variety of interventions available to surgeons, durable success is limited with relatively high recurrence rates. Core vitrectomy with hyaloidectomy/zonulectomy/iridectomy continues to be regarded as the most definitive therapy, although limited anterior vitrectomy may have comparable efficacy.SummaryAqueous misdirection is...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - May 4, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Adenoviral Keratoconjunctivitis: Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review will provide an updated overview of the diagnosis, management, and prevention of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis.Recent FindingsHuman adenovirus (HAdV) is undergoing nomenclature changes because of whole genome sequencing. Recombination has led to newly identified ocular pathogens like HAdV-D53, HAdV-D54, and HAdV-D56. No quick, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic test is available for ocular adenoviral infections. PCR takes a few hours but is not widely available. Results of using PCR in employees at one medical center support the view of endemic HAdV in the community.SummaryInfec...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

MRSA Keratitis and Conjunctivitis: What Does It Mean Practically?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of two of the most common ophthalmic manifestations of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, conjunctivitis, and keratitis. Recent data on antimicrobial resistance patterns and its clinical implications will be reviewed, as well as strategies for ophthalmologists to adequately treat infections and curtail the progress of resistance.Recent FindingsThere have been reports that the prevalence of MRSA ocular infections has been increasing and is associated with an increase in resistance to fluoroquinolones based on ...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - April 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Novel Drug Delivery Systems for the Treatment of Glaucoma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this article, we review new and emerging drug delivery methods used in the treatment of glaucoma.Recent FindingsSeveral methods for sustained delivery of glaucoma medications have shown promise recently. Drug-eluting punctal plugs, contact lenses, and fornix-based silicone rings as well as subconjunctival and intracameral injections or implants are either in development or clinical trials. Thus far, those studied have demonstrated significant intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering ability with favorable safety profiles. However, long-term clinical safety data and comparative trials with existing th...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - April 29, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Immunomodulation as a Neuroprotective Strategy for Glaucoma Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to highlight the current knowledge about inflammatory mechanisms of neurodegeneration in glaucoma with emphasis on potential immunomodulation strategies.Recent FindingsGlaucomatous retina and optic nerve present multiple evidences of inflammatory responses of astroglia, microglia, and blood-borne immune cells. Although adaptive/protective responses of resident or systemic immune cells can support neurons and promote tissue repair mechanisms after injurious insults, prolonged inflammatory processes can also produce neurotoxic mediators. Treatments targeting these neurodestructive ou...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - April 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysms: Updating Your Memory on RAM Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis is a comprehensive review of management options for retinal arterial macroaneurysms (RAMs). Although close observation is typically recommended for RAMs not involving or threatening the macula, other treatment modalities can be considered for exudative or hemorrhagic complications that are vision-threatening.Recent FindingsNew imaging technologies like optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) have been able to detect RAMs without the need of dye injection, further elucidating our understanding of blood flow within and around them. Observation alone is usually an adequate treatment when...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Clinical Factors for Rapid Endothelial Cell Loss After Corneal Transplantation: Novel Findings From the Aqueous Humor
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the clinical factors for endothelial cell density (ECD) loss and graft failure after corneal transplantation.Recent FindingsReduction of ECD after corneal transplantation is associated with various clinical factors, such as the presence of glaucoma, graft diameter, donor age, donor diabetes, and donor gender. Recently, we reported the severe preexisting iris damage was one of the clinical factors for rapid ECD loss and graft failure. We also showed that preexisting iris damage causes chronic elevation of cytokine levels in the aqueous humor (AqH). Furthermore, the higher preoperative leve...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Trabecular Meshwork Regeneration —a Potential Treatment for Glaucoma
AbstractPurpose of reviewIn this review, we overview the pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma as it relates to the trabecular meshwork (TM), exploring modes of TM dysfunction and regeneration via stem cell therapies.Recent FindingsStem cells from a variety of sources, including trabecular meshwork, mesenchymal, adipose, and induced pluripotent stem cells, have shown the potential to differentiate into TM cells in vitro or in vivo and to regenerate the TM in vivo, lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) and reducing glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell damage.SummaryStem cell therapies for TM regeneration provide a robu...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Management of CMV Endotheliitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to elucidate the recent developments in the diagnostic armamentarium and the treatment strategy of CMV endotheliitis.Recent FindingsCMV endotheliitis is now increasingly recognized entity especially in the Asian population. The exact pathogenesis is still unknown but many risk factors have been identified. A strong suspicion based on clinical features with the use of modern diagnostic tools like PCR and high resolution imaging modalities can lead to early confirmation of the disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment at the initial stage are crucial to avoid th...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - April 15, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Endophthalmitis Following Intravitreal Injections Performed in the Office Versus Operating Room Setting
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the safety of performing intravitreal injections in the office compared with the operating room setting.Recent FindingsFew studies directly compare outcomes, including endophthalmitis rate, following intravitreal injections performed in the office versus operating room setting. Instead, the literature on post-injection endophthalmitis consists mostly of retrospective series separately assessing outcomes of injections performed in either the office or in the operating room. These studies consistently show that the rates of endophthalmitis are low in each setting. Of the studies reviewed, 1...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - April 9, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Optic Nerve Regeneration: Considerations on Treatment of Acute Optic Neuropathy and End-Stage Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAcute and chronic optic neuropathies lead to irreversible vision loss, prompting considerations of regenerative therapy. Th e insult commonly occurs primarily in the anterior optic nerve, which leads to degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons and loss of oligodendrocytes. We review important aspects of optic nerve regeneration and animal models of disease.Recent FindingsPreclinical studies in animals showed that approaches that improve RGC survival and axon regeneration include neurotrophic factor delivery, genetic manipulation, visual stimulation, and cell therapies, but impa...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - March 8, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization: Diagnosis and Treatment Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the diagnosis and treatment of myopic choroidal neovascularization. Imaging tests currently available and the advantages of each modality for detecting choroidal neovascularization signs are discussed. The management options and the outcomes of different treatment options are also reviewed.Recent FindingsAnti-vascular endothelial growth factor has become the preferable choice of treatment in myopic choroidal neovascularization cases with improved results. The benefits of a single injection followed by PRN dosing were supported by randomized clinical trials.SummaryChoroidal neovascularizat...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - February 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Updates on Corneal Xenotransplantation
This article reviews current knowledge of the antigenicity and bio-physical properties of pig corneal grafts in corneal xenotransplantation, including efficacy and safety data of corneal xenotransplantation using genetically engineered (GE) or wild-type (WT) porcine grafts and decellularized porcine grafts in nonhuman primates as a proof-of-concept. Recent advances in regulatory issues and standardization of protocols for their use are also discussed to help facilitate clinical trials of corneal xenotransplantation in the future.SummaryThis review posits that a proof-of-concept opportunity exists in certain breeds of pigs ...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - February 19, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Decoding PERG: a Neuro-Ophthalmic Retinal Ganglion Cell Function Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCurrently, the clinical evaluation of neuro-ophthalmologic diseases is mainly focused on identifying stages where structural or functional damage occurs. Recognition of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) functional patterns as well as monitoring RGC dysfunction can be performed using steady-state pattern electroretinogram (PERG). The analysis of the amplitude and latency shift aids on providing information on early damage or monitoring of the RGC, allowing for prompt clinical intervention and management modification, potentially changing the natural history of the disease. The purpose of this article is t...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - February 13, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Decision Making in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the recent advances in the management options for proliferative diabetic retinopathy.Recent FindingsFor many years, cases of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) have been managed by pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP). The advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents has changed the future of PDR management and has provided an alternative to PRP.SummaryManagement of PDR requires the identification of high-risk characteristics for PDR and the decision regarding the most appropriate treatment modality. The risk...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - February 4, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review is to summarize developments in the treatment of active polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). PCV is associated with a poor visual prognosis as a consequence of the condition ’s hallmark polypoidal dilatation and a branching network resulting in recurrent hemorrhages and serous leakage.Recent FindingsRecent research has provided new insights into the pathogenesis of PCV. While still considered a subtype of age-related macular degeneration, suggestions that PCV belongs to a spectrum of conditions that present with a pachychoroid are increasingly well accepted. Treatme...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - February 2, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Adult Stem Cells, Tools for Repairing the Retina
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRetinal degenerative diseases lead to the death of retinal neurons causing visual impairment and blindness. In lower order vertebrates, the retina and its surrounding tissue contain stem-cell niches capable of regenerating damaged tissue. Here, we examine these niches and review their capacity to be used as retinal stem/progenitor cells (RSCs/RPCs) for retinal repair.Recent FindingsExogenous factors can control the in vitro activation of RSCs/PCs found in several niches within the adult eye including cells in the ciliary margin, the retinal pigment epithelium, iris pigment epithelium, as well as th...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - January 24, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

New Insights Into Corneal Endothelial Regeneration
This article reviews our current understanding of the regenerative capacity of the corneal endothelium and critically evaluates new and important research in the treatment of endothelial dysfunction.Recent FindingsThe development and application of new surgical (Descemet ’s membrane stripping only), pharmacologic (rho kinase inhibitors, such as ripasudil), and injectable cell culture modalities for the treatment of endothelial dysfunction have sparked debate in the cornea world and may revolutionize future clinical practice.SummaryThe exact mechanisms involved in corneal endothelial regeneration remain elusive. The l...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - January 22, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Emerging Approaches for Ocular Surface Regeneration
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this manuscript, the recent advancements and novel approaches for regeneration of the ocular surface are summarized.Recent FindingsFollowing severe injuries, persistent inflammation can alter the rehabilitative capability of the ocular surface environment. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is one of the most characterized ocular surface disorders mediated by deficiency and/or dysfunction of the limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) located in the limbal niche. Currently, the most advanced approach for revitalizing the ocular surface and limbal niche is based on transplantation of limbal tissues ...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - January 17, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Update on the Surgical Reconstruction of Ocular Surface in Eyes with Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo determine indications, advantages, disadvantages, and potential complications of current surgical approaches for reconstruction of ocular surface in subjects with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD).Recent FindingsRecently, autologous limbal stem cell transplant (LSCT) has demonstrated to have positive clinical outcomes for visual rehabilitation. Simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) in subjects with unilateral LSCD and wet ocular surface is a clear example of this. Keratoprosthetic devices and their late modifications remain the best option for subjects with bilateral LSCD and a wet oc...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - November 29, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery vs. Phacoemulsification: Overall Safety and the Effect on the Corneal Endothelium
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize current evidence on the safety of cataract surgery with and without the femtosecond laserRecent FindingsLarge studies, including a government-financed randomized controlled trial, have consistently failed to demonstrate any additional safety benefit from femtosecond laser –assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) when compared to manual phaco. Additional high-quality studies, such as the European Society for Cataract and Refractive Surgery EUREQUO FLACS Study, suggest that manual cataract surgery actually has fewer complications. The data on whether FLACS reduces endothel ial cell count...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - November 29, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Characterization of the Dysfunctional Lens Syndrome and a Review of the Literature
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewTo characterize the dysfunctional lens syndrome and review the literature on the topic.Recent FindingsDiagnostic devices may be used to objectively evaluate the aging changes of the crystalline lens in order to better characterize the entity. Opportunities exist for future evaluation of this emerging concept.SummaryThe term dysfunctional lens syndrome is gaining acceptance in our field. Objective diagnostic evaluation of aging crystalline lenses has been demonstrated to be useful in identification and characterization of the dysfunctional lens. (Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports)
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - November 12, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Advanced Technology IOL Cataract Surgery Optimized for Pre-existing Corneal Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiscuss the management of ocular surface disease for favorable outcomes with advanced technology IOLs.Recent FindingsOcular surface disease poses a challenge for favorable outcomes with advanced technology IOLs, especially given current patient expectations that glasses-free outcomes are guaranteed. Long-established and recent techniques for optimizing the ocular surface prior to cataract surgery, combined with education and careful selection of IOLs can help meet patient expectations.SummaryCareful measurement, planning, and treatment of ocular surface disorders can enable more patients to benefit...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The Latest in IOLs: Light Adjustable and Trifocal IOLs —Experience from Aboard
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo investigate the latest findings in the field of intraocular lenses and their future development.Recent FindingsThe idea of intraocular lenses (IOLs) has changed the clinical practice of cataract surgery over the last 50  years. Technology and scientific studies have created IOLs of different designs, with ultraviolet filters for UV protection, different types of haptics to ensure stability, multifocal designs for distant, and near vision. IOLs’ development is fast and it is time to explore the new designs and th eir usefulness.SummaryThe newest data from the IOL field are on light adj...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Mastering Lens Calculations: New Formulas and Comparisons
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide a glimpse into some of the newer methods of performing IOL calculations and recent literature on which formulas and calculation strategies have been recommended for a certain subset of eyes.Recent FindingsA literature review was performed to investigate all the relevant, recently published studies on the progress, comparisons, and recent advancements of IOL calculations. Based on this review, the appropriate history, evolution, progress, limitation, and recent advancements are analyzed and explained. A plethora of IOL formulas and calculation strategies have been developed to help surgeo...
Source: Current Ophthalmology Reports - October 16, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research