Cardiovascular PET/MRI: Technical Considerations and Outlook
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe aim to provide insights into current and future applications of cardiac PET/MRI and the logistical issues one should consider when implementing a program using this still novel technology.Recent FindingsSince their introduction around 15  years ago, PET/CT and SPECT/CT hybrid imaging devices saw high clinical utilization, which was driven clearly by oncology. Fortunately, the basic availability in a clinical setting enabled the investigation of the cardiac imaging perspective and facilitated numerous research activities. Given the fact that cardiac MRI is a very attractive research field wi...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - September 22, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Anomalous Coronary Arteries on Computer Tomography Angiography: a Pictorial Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCoronary artery anomalies (CAA) are a commonly encountered entity on computer tomography angiography (CTA) with observational studies suggesting a prevalence of 1 –3%. The purpose of this pictorial review is to succinctly review the recent literature in regards to their individual prevalence, assessment and management strategies when indicated.Recent FindingsClinically, the most important anomalies are those with either a malignant course or origin. Recent studies have suggested that anomalous coronary arteries arising from the opposite sinus (ACAOS) are best detected on CTA. In particular, t...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - September 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantification of Myocardial Blood Flow with CZT SPECT Imaging: Is It Ready for Clinical Use?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMyocardial blood flow (MBF) quantification with positron emission tomography (PET) is well validated and has established diagnostic and prognostic value for patient management. New cardiac dedicated solid-state single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) cameras using cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) crystals have better temporal and spatial resolution and increased count sensitivity than conventional SPECT systems and can measure MBF. We review recent validation studies using CZT technology for measurement of MBF and assess its readiness for clinical application.Recent FindingsOne preclinical study show...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - August 19, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring: a Valuable Aid in Shared Decision Making Among Non-traditional Risk Markers
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring and compare it with other non-traditional cardiovascular risk markers for improvement in cardiovascular risk assessment.Recent FindingsCAC scoring refines risk assessment among asymptomatic patients eligible for primary prevention across the spectrum of cardiovascular risk. Its use has been well-validated in several multi-ethnic population-based cohorts. With the recent ACC/AHA cholesterol treatment guidelines expanding the eligibility for statin therapy for primary prevention, the absence of CAC can ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - August 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Detection of the Vulnerable Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque —Promises and Limitations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe merit of imaging “vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques” remains highly controversial. This review aims at providing current evidence for both its benefit and limitations.Recent FindingsResults from optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound imaging in patients with coronary heart disease suggest that certain individual coronary atherosclerotic plaque characteristics, e.g., large lipid core in a fibroatheroma, are associated with greater risk of adverse patient outcome. However, a closer look at these studies reveals that these associations are confounded by the relation...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - July 20, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiac CT for Guiding Mitral Valve Interventions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this paper is to review the current role of contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT) in the peri-procedural planning of mitral valve (MV) repair.Recent FindingsCardiac CT is increasingly implemented in the peri-interventional management of patients undergoing MV repair or MV replacement due to its widespread availability and its ability to provide detailed information on the complex cardiac and valvular anatomy.SummaryThe complex anatomy of the MV challenges the management of minimally invasive MV repair with respect to device sizing and procedural planning. Advances in CT ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - July 19, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of Longitudinal Shortening in Cardiomyopathies with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLongitudinal shortening (LS) allows additive information in the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiomyopathies. This review provides an overview of different LS assessment techniques using CMR and their supplemental value in various cardiomyopathies.Recent FindingsAssessment of LS using CMR-derived mitral and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE and TAPSE) as well as feature tracking imaging (FTI) has been proven useful in the diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathies (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathies (HCM), ischemic heart disease, pulmonary artery hypertension, Brugada syndrome, arrhythmo...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - July 11, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical Utility of Virtual Histology Intravascular Ultrasound
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTissue characterization using imaging is important to understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and subsequent outcomes. In this review, the clinical utility of virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS), which provides a quantitative and more objective evaluation of tissue characterization compared with grayscale IVUS, will be summarized.Recent FindingsPatient clinical characteristics, including coronary risk factors and medications, are associated with lesion morphology, especially plaque vulnerability. Different levels of vulnerability cause different clinical presentations and...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - July 10, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Current Clinical Applications of Intravascular Ultrasound in Coronary Artery Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDuring the 20  years since the introduction of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to catheterization laboratory, there has been growing evidence supporting the role of IVUS. In this article, we review clinical application of routine use of IVUS with recent evidences, a dominant strategy even in the era of drug-elut ing stents.Recent FindingsIVUS provides pre-procedural information to evaluate stenosis severity and plaque characteristics. In addition, IVUS helps optimal stent deployment, minimizing underexpansion and geographic miss, which are major mechanisms of stent failure. Large-scale clinica...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - July 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Myocardial CT Perfusion: A Review of Current Modalities, Technology, and Clinical Performance
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review describes the current techniques for CT myocardial perfusion, reviews the current literature, and discusses future directions for CT perfusion.Recent FindingsMyocardial CT perfusion (CTP) is an emerging technology for evaluation of myocardial ischemia and infarction, and has the benefit of having both morphologic (coronary CT angiography) and physiologic (CTP) measures in the same setting. CTP has primarily been developed as an adjunct to coronary CT angiography in an effort to improve diagnostic performance, specifically in patients with luminal coronary artery disease. The principle o...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 27, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radionuclide Imaging of Infective Endocarditis: State of Art and Future Perspective
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInfectious endocarditis is a serious disease requiring rapid diagnosis and accurate risk stratification to offer the best therapeutic strategy. Infection of prosthetic valve (PV) and cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) is increasing due to the ageing of the population and the growing number of implants. Foreign material infection remains clinically challenging given the limitation of ultrasound techniques in this context whereas the diagnosis must be precocious.Recent Findings18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([18F]FDG PET/CT) and radiolabelled ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 27, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of the Transplanted Heart: A Mechanistic Approach to Graft Survival
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we will discuss recent developments in noninvasive molecular imaging of immune-mediated changes seen in cardiac allograft rejection.Recent FindingsThe significant developments of molecular imaging agents across various modalities, including MRI, PET/SPECT, optical imaging, and echocardiography, provide us with opportunities to image specific immunological pathways of cardiac allograft rejection that were previously not possible. Recent studies using novel molecular imaging modalities have shown us new understanding of immune-mediated mechanisms involved in allograft rejection. Thoug...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 27, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging the Coronary Artery Plaque: Approaches, Advances, and Challenges
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, largely due to the disruption of high-risk plaques (HRP). Understanding how best to identify HRP, using imaging, has the potential to improve assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and facilitate better targeting of care to patients.Recent FindingsTechnological advances have been made across several imaging modalities, which provide opportunities to image HRP. Advances in computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical coherence ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 19, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Recent Advances in the Field of Optical Coherence Tomography
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe scope of this text is to critically review the most important recent advances in the field of optical coherence tomography, both from a clinical, scientific, and technical point of view.Recent FindingsIn recent years, important steps forward have been put in the field of optimization of PCI (with a focus on optimal sizing of stents and optimization of stent expansion after implantation) and the differentiation and its possible applications of various underlying morphologic characteristics of acute coronary syndrome lesions. Several efforts have been made to elucidate underlying mechanical cause...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 2, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Role of Nuclear Cardiac Imaging in Infective Endocarditis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInfective endocarditis (IE) remains a deadly disease despite improvements in its management. Echocardiography is crucial for the diagnosis of IE; however, its value is operator-dependent and its sensitivity can decrease in the presence of valvular prosthesis. This review aims to provide an overview on the role of nuclear cardiac imaging in the diagnosis of IE.Recent FindingsAmong all nuclear cardiac imaging modalities, both radiolabeled leukocyte scintigraphy and 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([18F]FDG-PET/CT) have been recently introduced ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - May 20, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

3D Printing from Cardiac Computed Tomography for Procedural Planning
This article summarizes the uses of 3D-printed models in preoperative cardiac procedure planning and intraprocedural navigation during surgeries organized on a case-by-case basis.Recent FindingsThe 3D models have recently been shown to aid in a variety of procedures. Some of these include valvular replacement or repair, management of paravalvular leaks, left atrial appendage closure, myectomy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac aneurysm repair, tumor resection, and surgical planning in congenital heart lesions.SummaryWe anticipate that 3D models will become more accessible, and their utilization will increase in the ne...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - May 18, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Improving Quality and Communication in Cardiac Imaging: The Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS ™)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo critically examine the Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS ™) lexicon and its nuances, with representative case examples provided for each of the major CAD-RADS classification categories and modifiers.Recent FindingsCAD-RADS is a recently developed multi-disciplinary, multi-society standardized reporting system for coronary CTA based on scientific data and expert consensus from leaders in cardiac imaging.SummaryCAD-RADS was developed to improve quality and communication in cardiac imaging, and to provide management recommendations based on actionable information fro...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - May 2, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CMR in Phenotyping the Arrhythmic Substrate
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to explore the role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in the evaluation of myocardial disorders that can present with significant cardiac arrhythmias. In addition, we explore recent developments in the field of CMR in the evaluation of such conditions, such as T1 and T2 mapping techniques. The importance of CMR as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of such conditions lies in the fact that in routine clinical practice these conditions are encountered relatively frequently, and often important clinical decisions are made based on the findings of cardiac invest...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - April 26, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

New Imaging Methods for Detection of Drug-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Cancer Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn the last decades, there have been great advances made in cancer diagnosis and treatment, giving a reduction in mortality, an increase in survival, and a better quality of life in cancer patients. In addition, the progress made in cancer treatments has resulted in increased exposure to the cardiotoxic effects of chemotherapies. Screening for the occurrence of cardiotoxicity (CTX) is highly recommended before, during, and after the end of chemotherapy.Recent FindingsA number of methods and diagnostic indexes have been recommended for detecting CTX and planning therapeutic strategies. Measuring lef...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - April 19, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Systems, Physics, and Instrumentation of PET/MRI for Cardiovascular Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn the years 2011 –2014, three different whole-body PET/MRI hybrid systems from different vendors have been introduced to the market. While this rather new hybrid imaging modality is primarily used in clinical oncologic and neurologic hybrid imaging, cardiovascular applications are now gaining broader utilization. Cardiovascular hybrid imaging with PET/MRI is especially challenging because the independent data acquisition with PET and MRI is to be synchronized to breathing and cardiac motion to fully make use of the diagnostic potential inherent to this new hybrid method.Recent FindingsNew me...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - April 17, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Novel Noninvasive Nuclear Medicine Imaging Techniques for Cardiac Inflammation
(Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports)
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - March 28, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Updated NICE Guidelines: Cardiac CT as the First-Line Test for Coronary Artery Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCost-effective care pathways are integral to delivering sustainable healthcare programmes. Due to the overestimation of coronary artery disease using traditional risk tables, non-invasive testing has been utilised to improve risk stratification and initiate appropriate management to reduce the dependence on invasive investigations. In line with recent technological improvements, cardiac CT is a modality that offers a detailed anatomical assessment of coronary artery disease comparable to invasive coronary angiography.Recent FindingsThe recent publication of the National Institute for Health and Car...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - March 27, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiac CT Improves Outcomes in Stable Coronary Heart Disease: Results of Recent Clinical Trials
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this study was to review the recent randomised controlled trials of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for patients with stable coronary artery disease.Recent FindingsThe initial results and subsequent papers from the SCOT-HEART (Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART) and PROMISE (PROspective Multicentre Imaging Study for Evaluation of chest pain) trials have shown that CCTA is a safe and appropriate addition to standard care or alternative to functional testing. The SCOT-HEART study showed that CCTA changes diagnoses, improves diagnostic certainty, changes managemen...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - March 25, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Stress SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in End-Stage Renal Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cardiac risk assessment, though challenging, is critical in these high-risk patients, particularly in the pre-transplant population. In this review, we discuss the burden of coronary artery disease in the ESRD population and review the literature on the diagnostic and prognostic performance, clinical value, and future directions of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in ESRD patients.Recent FindingsStress myocardial perfusion imaging provid...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - March 18, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of CT Imaging for Coronary and Non-coronary Interventions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPre-procedural imaging is essential for successful planning and performance of several cardiac interventions. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is a non-invasive imaging modality capable of providing precise information required for different coronary and non-coronary interventions. The role of cardiac CT for the guidance of different cardiac interventions will be described in this review.Recent FindingsContrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging is increasingly being used for guiding transcatheter cardiac interventions. Anatomical and functional information provided by CT helps in successful plan...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - March 18, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantitative Tissue Characterization in Pediatric Cardiology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses the cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) myocardial tissue characterization techniques and its applications with a focus on pediatric patients. Delayed enhancement CMR (DE-CMR) is well established to detect focal myocardial fibrosis in the clinical setting but has its limitation in detecting diffuse myocardial disease. Newer mapping techniques allow exact assessment of myocardial relaxation times and their changes in various cardiac pathologies.Recent FindingsT1 mapping gives new insights in diffuse myocardial disease in pediatric patients with tetralogy of Fallot. T2 mappi...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - March 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Future of Intravascular Imaging: Are We Primed to Detect Vulnerable Plaques?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtherosclerotic plaque rupture remains the primary mechanism resulting in myocardial infarction and death. Better detection of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, one which is at “high risk” of rupturing, will allow earlier and more effective intervention to preventing myocardial infarction in susceptible patients. In the following manuscript, we review recent developments in the assessment of vulnerable plaque via invasive imaging. The evidence, limitations, and future prospects of various intravascular imaging modalities (optical coherence tomography (OCT), intravascular ultrasound...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 27, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radionuclide Imaging of Cardiac Device Infection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAccurate diagnosis of cardiac device infection is critical for clinical decision-making and represents a challenge for current diagnostic methods. A non-invasive test with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to confirm or exclude infection would be desirable.18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has been emerging as a promising diagnostic tool for cardiac implantable electrophysiological devices (CIED) infection and its complications. The aim of this review is to describe the role of radionuclide imaging in cardiac device infection according to ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 27, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fundamentals of Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging: a Review of Concepts and Strategies
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewIn this review, we will discuss the basic fundamentals of how to perform molecular imaging to better understand the underlying mechanisms contributing to cardiovascular disease.Report FindingsMolecular imaging combines molecular biology with in vivo imaging. Molecular probes are used to target discrete biological processes such as cell death, inflammation, and angiogenesis. These probes emit signals that are detected by traditional imaging systems. Because the same disease processes can manifest in individuals in different ways, molecular imaging may emerge as an important strategy for deliveri...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 23, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus in Mexico: the Role of PET/CT in Endothelial Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Disease Detection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMetabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) have become over the past years a global burden of disease. They are one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease among others. CVDs represent the number one cause of death globally. Diabetes Mellitus ’ prevalence, especially type 2, has increased dramatically in a short period increasing health care costs and mortality worldwide. Detecting coronary artery disease in diabetic patients with a myocardial perfusion imaging method such as PET/CT is the primary concern for this review.Recent FindingsThe most recent survey in Mexico do...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 18, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Novel Noninvasive Nuclear Medicine Imaging Techniques for Cardiac Inflammation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInflammation is a key player in a wide range of cardiovascular and myocardial diseases. Given the numerous implications of inflammatory processes in disease initiation and progression, functional imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) represent valuable diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring tools in patient management. Since increased glucose metabolism is a hallmark of inflammation, PET using the radiolabeled glucose analog [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) is the mainstay diagnostic test for nuclear imaging of (cardiac) inflammation. Recently, new approaches using m...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 10, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Vascular Inflammation Imaging in Psoriasis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPsoriasis is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disease driven by immune dysregulation involving helper T cell 17 pathways. Psoriasis is associated with systemic inflammation, which increases the risk of joint disease (psoriatic arthritis), subclinical cardiovascular disease, and major adverse cardiovascular events, especially in young patients with severe skin disease. Furthermore, vascular inflammation by 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) provides a valuable tool with utility in predicting future cardiovascular events. As such, psoriasis provides...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 8, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Nuclear Cardiology for the Prediction of Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAbout one-third patients selected for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) based on conventional criteria do not show favourable response. Assessment of cardiac mechanical dyssynchrony by nuclear medicine techniques has generated considerable interest in recent years as an additional tool to improve the outcome of patients submitted to CRT.Recent FindingsSeveral studies in recent years have shown the utility of equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA) and gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (GMPS) in predicting response to CRT. Both ERNA and GMPS can assess cardiac mechanical dyssynchrony quanti...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 8, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Advances in Quantitative Tissue Characterization in Myocarditis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMyocarditis is a heterogeneous disease with variable histologic and clinical presentation. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging recently emerged as the imaging modality of choice in myocarditis. This review summarizes recent findings and future directions in this field.Recent FindingsAdvanced quantitative T1 mapping and T2 mapping methods have the technical advantage to detect diffuse myocardial injury in myocarditis, which was not adequately addressed by standard, semiquantitative CMR techniques so far. Recent studies demonstrated that the technical advantages of T1 and T2 mapping techn...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of Atherosclerosis: a Clinical Focus
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMolecular imaging of cardiovascular disease is a powerful clinical and experimental approach that can inform our understanding of atherosclerosis biology. Complementing cross-sectional imaging techniques that provide detailed anatomical information, molecular imaging can further detect important biological changes occurring within atheroma and refine the prediction of vascular complications.Recent FindingsMolecular imaging of atherosclerosis can illuminate underlying pathophysiology and serve as a surrogate endpoint in clinical trials of new drugs.SummaryThis review showcases promising molecular ap...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 4, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging Options in Cardiac Amyloidosis: Differentiating AL from ATTR
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiac amyloidosis (CA) results from the myocardial deposition of abnormally folded endogenous proteins leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Accurate and timely non-invasive diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis and the correct identification of amyloid type are critical for choosing appropriate therapy. Disease type is defined by the precursor protein and most typically involves light chain (AL) or transthyretin (ATTR). Traditionally, cardiac amyloidosis has been suspected on the basis of characteristic echocardiographic features and confirmed with endomyocardial biopsy. Recent advances in ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Chagas ’ Disease: Update on Current Diagnosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChagas ’ disease has become an emerging health problem due to increased migration. In the present review, we have summarized the usefulness of non-invasive imaging tools for the diagnosis of cardiac involvement in Chagas’ disease, with emphasis on modern technologies. M-mode, bidimensional (2-D), and t hree-dimensional (3-D) echocardiographies may allow the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) regional and global contractile function, right ventricle (RV) impairment, evidence of aneurysms and thrombi, and assessment of diastolic function in any stage of the disease.Recent FindingsNew mod...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - November 4, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Controversies in the Use of Fractional Flow Reserve Form Computed Tomography (FFR CT ) vs. Coronary Angiography
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInvasive coronary angiography (ICA) is the gold standard for the anatomical assessment of coronary artery disease. In addition, it provides assessment to coronary physiology and myocardial blood flow through fractional flow reserve (FFR). Furthermore, invasive FFR provides a clear road map that helps in the management of suspected coronary artery disease patients especially if an  intermediate coronary lesion is considered. Despite all these developments, this invasive technique carries its own risk. Non-invasive coronary assessment using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - November 4, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of Intravascular Ultrasound in the Detection of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome in Latin America
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIntravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is an essential tool in the cardiac cath lab, providing tomographic slices series of intra-luminal and vascular wall images with high quality and spatial resolution, that complement angiographic luminal information. It has been successfully used in research for the understanding of atherosclerotic process, and it was the first clinical method that delineated diverse patterns of atherosclerosis. IVUS also contributed to the advancement in the knowledge of restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI).Recent FindingsRoutine clinical of IVUS is hindered in ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - November 2, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Potential Role of Combined Highly Sensitive Troponin and Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in the Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome in the Emergency Department
AbstractThe evaluation and triage of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains to be challenging despite available guidelines and clinical evidence. The current guidelines in the USA recommend clinical risk assessment based on cardiovascular risk factors followed by serial electrocardiograms and conventional cardiac troponin measurements, which are supplemented by advanced non-invasive cardiac testing in the majority of patients. This approach is safe, but leads to a lengthy work-up and high cost of care. There is clinical need for diagnostic strategies that w...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - October 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular PET/MRI: Initial Clinical Experience
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe study aims to give a review of the current state of cardiovascular hybrid PET/MRI and to outline its evolution in near future.Recent FindingsProof of feasibility of cardiovascular hybrid PET/MRI has been provided for different cardiovascular pathologies using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as tracer; hybrid FDG PET/MRI allows in acute myocardial infarction the visualization of the area-at-risk of infarction, and initial studies show the prognostic value of PET/MRI concerning functional recovery in acute myocardial infarction. FDG PET/MRI enables the detection of inflammation in viral myocarditi...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - October 14, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Modern Assessment of Diastolic Function
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to outline the new guidelines released by the ASE/EACVI that seek to simplify the assessment of diastolic function and evaluate the use and potential application of new and emerging technologies.Recent FindingsThe latest guidelines have decreased the number of parameters needed to evaluate diastolic function to 3. The parameters necessary include peak tricuspid regurgitation (TR) velocity, average E/e ′, and indexed left atrial volume (LAVi). At least 2 out of 3 must be positive to determine diastolic dysfunction. There are certain disease states that limit the appl...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - October 14, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Current and Future Applications of Coronary CT Angiography with and Without FFR in the Emergency Room
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMultiple clinical trials have established the value of Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for the evaluation of patients presenting to the ED with chest pain and a low to intermediate risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). CCTA can be used to evaluate these patients rapidly, effectively, and with relatively low cost and radiation dose.Recent FindingsNew research continues to accumulate, and despite much evidence to support its use in the ED setting, at least one recently published study has presented potentially contradictory results. Additionally, newer techniques that enhance the utility of CCTA, su...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - October 14, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of Angiogenesis in Cardiac Regeneration
This article reviews recent literature on noninvasive in vivo molecular imaging of angiogenesis after MI as an integral part of cardiac regeneration. (Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports)
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - September 10, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Speckle Tracking Echocardiographic Imaging in Metabolic Cardiomyopathies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aging population in western nations has experienced an increase in the prevalence of heart failure alongside the increasing rates of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical studies have established a strong link between these metabolic derangements and the risk of heart failure.Recent FindingsEchocardiography is an essential tool in supporting the diagnosis of heart failure and establishing its phenotype. Advanced echocardiographic methods based on speckle tracking echocardiography provide unique insights into myocardial mechanics and underlie the novel approach to p...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - September 5, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Noninvasive Cardiac Imaging in Obesity: Challenges and Opportunities
(Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports)
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - July 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Therapeutic Uses of Contrast Microbubbles
Abstract Purpose of Review The potential for non-invasive targeted delivery of therapeutic agents and targeted thrombus dissolution using diagnostic ultrasound (DUS) and intravenous microbubbles or droplets is an emerging technology that will change diagnostic ultrasound systems into therapeutic devices. Recent Findings Targeted ultrasound destruction of microbubbles which carry either DNA or inhibitor RNA sequences have been utilized to both promote microvascular regeneration in ischemic myocardium and skeletal muscle and inhibit vascular growth ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - July 5, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Enhanced IVUS: Advances Allowing Higher Resolution and Integrated Devices
Abstract Purpose of Review Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has been in use for nearly 30 years and has greatly assisted in the evaluation and advancement of coronary interventional devices and strategy. With increasing interest in vulnerable plaque, new imaging tools and/or improved IVUS resolution is required. This chapter will describe these enhancements. Recent Findings Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become catheter based and allows improved definition of vulnerable plaque and fine coronary surface details. Several manufacturers ha...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - July 5, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Normal Databases for the Relative Quantification of Myocardial Perfusion
Abstract Purpose of Review Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with SPECT is performed clinically worldwide to detect and monitor coronary artery disease (CAD). MPI allows an objective quantification of myocardial perfusion at stress and rest. This established technique relies on normal databases to compare patient scans against reference normal limits. In this review, we aim to introduce the process of MPI quantification with normal databases and describe the associated perfusion quantitative measures that are used. Recent Findings New equipment a...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 30, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Role of Imaging in Aortic Valve Disease
Abstract Purpose of Review Aortic valve disease is the most common form of heart valve disease in developed countries. Imaging remains central to the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with both aortic stenosis and regurgitation and has traditionally been performed with echocardiography. Indeed, echocardiography remains the cornerstone of aortic valve imaging as it is cheap, widely available and provides critical information concerning valve hemodynamics and ventricular function. Recent Findings Whilst diagnostic in the vast majority of...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research