The Comprehensive Assessment of Left Ventricular Assist Devices by Echocardiography
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEchocardiography is the imaging modality of choice for patient selection prior to left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, assessment of device placement, optimization of device settings, diagnosis of device-related complications, and assessment of LV recovery. The key echocardiographic features of these devices will be highlighted in the following review.Recent FindingsWith increased utilization of LVADs as well as the development of centrifugal continuous-flow pumps, familiarity with echocardiographic imaging of LVADs is essential to optimal care of these complex patients.SummaryAll ec...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - September 24, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Coronary CTA for Surveillance of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to highlight recent hardware and software advances in coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) that make it a potentially viable alternative to invasive coronary angiography for surveillance of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) in heart transplant recipients.Recent FindingsDual-source CT, multisegment reconstruction, and intracycle motion correction algorithms are all technologies applied during or after image acquisition that can improve image quality and diagnostic accuracy in patients with elevated heart rates, such as heart transplant recipients. CT fracti...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - September 24, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

3D-TEE for Measurement of the Aortic Annulus: a Review of the Literature and Step-By-Step Approach to an Essential Skill
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this paper is to review the measurement of the virtual aortic annulus using 3-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE).Recent FindingsNew software developments have allowed increased utility of 3D-TEE for aortic annulus analysis.Summary3D-TEE remains an alternative to multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) for measurement of the aortic annulus prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), but has been hampered by lack of semi-automated or automated technology. Automated software programs for 3D-TEE analysis of the aortic annulus are increasingly being d...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - August 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiac CT: Global Use and Comparison of International Guidelines
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere has been an exponential growth in cardiovascular imaging resulting in the requirement for guidance and appropriateness criteria. The first appropriateness criteria for cardiac CT were published in 2006 and since numerous national and international societies have published guidance specific to their country, population and health economy. These guidelines have been through multiple iterations in response to large trials in cardiac CT. This paper aims to review and compare these guidelines specifically with respect to the performing and reporting of cardiovascular CT and on the use of cardiac C...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - August 16, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Integrated Cardiac and Lung Ultrasound (ICLUS) in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights the use of basic lung ultrasound and introduces the concept of integrated cardiac and lung ultrasound (ICLUS) in the care of patients in the cardiac intensive care unit (ICU).Recent FindingsCardiac ultrasound is a fundamental imaging modality that is the gold standard for the diagnosis of cardiac pathology at the bedside. However, the demographics of the modern cardiac ICU are evolving to encompass patients with complex multi-organ system dysfunction in addition to acute cardiovascular disease. Therefore, a more comprehensive diagnostic approach is needed to allow the cardiol...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - July 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Strain Evaluation in TAVR —Current Evidence, Knowledge Gaps, and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTranscatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been a paradigm shift for the treatment of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Subclinical cardiac changes in myocardial deformation, not reflected by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), are often present and can be measured by strain imaging. This manuscript will review the current literature and discuss the importance of strain evaluation in TAVR patients.Recent FindingsStrain measurement, especially global longitudinal strain (GLS), has been shown to be associated with outcomes in patients with AS. In addition, GLS assessment prior ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - July 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Coronary CTA for Preoperative Risk Assessment in Noncardiac Surgery
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewRisk assessment for ischemic cardiac complications post noncardiac surgery is not an exact science. This often prompts physicians to order investigations for further risk stratification. As a diagnostic text coronary CT angiography (CCTA)* could prove to be a useful adjunct in preoperative risk assessment and its utility in this setting will be considered.Recent FindingsCCTA has been used to assess preoperative risk in several clinical studies, including the recent CTA VISION trial. CTA VISION suggested, in the cohort examined, that CCTA could lead to an exaggeration of preoperative risk. Wheth...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - July 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiac CT: Technological Advances in Hardware, Software, and Machine Learning Applications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMultidetector row computed tomography (CT) allows noninvasive imaging of the heart and coronary arteries. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize recent advances in CT hardware and software technology, and machine learning applications for cardiovascular imaging.Recent FindingsIn the last decades, there have been significant improvements in CT hardware focusing on faster gantry rotation resulting in improved temporal resolution. Concurrent hardware improvements include improved spatial resolution and higher coverage of the patient, enabling faster acquisition. Advances in cardiac CT soft...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radionuclide Imaging in Decision-Making for Coronary Revascularization in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review will discuss the current nuclear imaging techniques for defining ischemia and hibernation/viability, their advantages and disadvantages, and the data related to their use to direct revascularization decisions.Recent FindingsRecent interventional trials highlight the importance of functional imaging in trying to determine who may benefit from revascularization. Outcome benefit from revascularization has previously been shown in patients with significant ischemia, and flow quantification from positron emission tomography (PET) may allow for further risk stratification; similar data ma...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Three-Dimensional Echocardiography for Evaluation of the Right Ventricle —Updates on Image Acquisition and Analysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewReview three-dimensional echocardiographic (3DE) acquisition and analysis of the right ventricular (RV) chamber, the recommended technique by the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines.Recent Findings3DE acquisition and analysis of RV size and function is available in the majority of clinical echocardiographic laboratories. Recent publications showed this approach provides accurate information despite the challenging chamber anatomy and physiology, when compared to magnetic resonance imaging as reference. 3DE assessment directly measures RV volumes without geometric assumptions. Accordingl...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiac CT: Technological Advances in Hardware, Software, and Machine Learning Applications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMultidetector row computed tomography (CT) allows noninvasive imaging of the heart and coronary arteries. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize recent advances in CT hardware and software technology, and machine learning applications for cardiovascular imaging.Recent FindingsIn the last decades, there have been significant improvements in CT hardware focusing on faster gantry rotation resulting in improved temporal resolution. Concurrent hardware improvements include improved spatial resolution and higher coverage of the patient, enabling faster acquisition. Advances in cardiac CT soft...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radionuclide Imaging in Decision-Making for Coronary Revascularization in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review will discuss the current nuclear imaging techniques for defining ischemia and hibernation/viability, their advantages and disadvantages, and the data related to their use to direct revascularization decisions.Recent FindingsRecent interventional trials highlight the importance of functional imaging in trying to determine who may benefit from revascularization. Outcome benefit from revascularization has previously been shown in patients with significant ischemia, and flow quantification from positron emission tomography (PET) may allow for further risk stratification; similar data ma...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Three-Dimensional Echocardiography for Evaluation of the Right Ventricle —Updates on Image Acquisition and Analysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewReview three-dimensional echocardiographic (3DE) acquisition and analysis of the right ventricular (RV) chamber, the recommended technique by the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines.Recent Findings3DE acquisition and analysis of RV size and function is available in the majority of clinical echocardiographic laboratories. Recent publications showed this approach provides accurate information despite the challenging chamber anatomy and physiology, when compared to magnetic resonance imaging as reference. 3DE assessment directly measures RV volumes without geometric assumptions. Accordingl...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of Cardiac Amyloidosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiac amyloidosis is an infiltrative cardiomyopathy, most commonly due to light chain amyloidosis [AL] or transthyretin amyloidosis [ATTR]; both cause significant heart failure and mortality. This review is a comprehensive overview of radionuclide molecular imaging in cardiac amyloidosis, highlighting the latest advancements in aiding diagnosis and prognosis.Recent FindingsSpecific bone scintigraphy agents have a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis. Amyloid-binding radiotracers, originally developed for imaging Alzheimer ’s disease, are be...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 9, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Myocardial Assessment with Cardiac CT: Ischemic Heart Disease and Beyond
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review is to highlight recent advancements, current trends, and the expanding role for cardiac CT (CCT) in the evaluation of ischemic heart disease, nonischemic cardiomyopathies, and some specific congenital myocardial disease states.Recent FindingsCCT is a highly versatile imaging modality for the assessment of numerous cardiovascular disease states. Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is now a well-established first-line imaging modality for the exclusion of significant coronary artery disease (CAD); however, CCTA has modest positive predictive value and specificity for diagnosing obst...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - June 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

State of the Art in Cardiovascular T2 Mapping: on the Way to a Cardiac Biomarker?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewParametric mapping fosters the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in its unique capability to evaluate myocardial tissue without the use of contrast agents. While there is a large body of literature highlighting the role of T1 mapping, the role of T2 mapping is less clear. This review aims to address the latest evidences for added clinical value of T2 mapping.Recent FindingsT2 mapping shows superior diagnostic accuracy in myocarditis, transplant rejection, and cardiac involvement in lupus erythematosus. Moreover, T2 values predict major adverse cardiovascular events in myocarditis and enable...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Molecular Imaging of Inflammation in Ischemic Heart Disease
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes in the abbreviations and body of the text. The Authors had correctly pointed out these errors at the proof stage but were regretfully not implemented at the production level. (Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports)
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - May 16, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of Inflammation in Ischemic Heart Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIschemic heart disease is caused by atherosclerosis, the build-up of plaque in the coronary arteries, which can lead to the development of heart attacks and heart muscle damage. Despite the advent of medical and surgical therapy to prevent and treat atherosclerosis and its adverse clinical effects, ischemic heart disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have suggested that the immune system may play a greater role in the development of plaque rupture and adverse left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. Understanding the molecular processes by which ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - April 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Application of Artificial Intelligence in Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography
This article summarizes the currently available published literature with regard to the applications of artificial intelligence in cardiac computed tomography angiography.Recent FindingsRecent studies and emerging data demonstrate feasibility of artificial intelligence-based high-level image analysis and interpretation tools that will likely enable medical practitioners to achieve more accurate diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Emerging artificial intelligence-based computational modeling methods will assist with pre-operative planning for valve disease. Finally, early but significant work is also being performed in re...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - April 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Towards the Clinical Management of Cardiac Involvement in Systemic Inflammatory Conditions —a Central Role for CMR
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAnti-inflammatory therapies in systemic inflammatory diseases (SID) improve disease-associated disability and may also reduce cardiovascular events. Further optimization of treatment to directly target the inflammation affecting the cardiovascular system represents a potential goal of contemporary treatment. Yet, lack of non-invasive means to detect cardiovascular involvement and to monitor the response to treatment limit such advancements. This is also reflected in the recent 2017 ESC position paper on clinical management of cardiac involvement in SIDs, whose recommendations continue to rely on in...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - April 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction
AbstractPurpose of ReviewApproximately half of the patients presenting with heart failure have preserved ejection fraction. These patients usually have a combination of underlying etiologies and may profit from individualized treatment. Failure of clinical trials without adequate understanding of the underlying problem highlights the need for an in-depth assessment of this complex clinical syndrome. This review seeks to discuss the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in improving diagnosis and targeted management of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).Recent FindingsTechnical advances...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - March 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Advanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Techniques in Grown-Up Congenital Heart Disease
AbstractPurposeCongenital heart diseases comprise a complex population in which functional and anatomic evaluation with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) acquires utmost importance in the decision-making process. The use of new CMR technologies can help us understand the physiopathology and improve risk stratification.Recent FindingsEfforts towards a better understanding of the processes that underlie the occurrence of adverse events in these patients, mainly heart failure and arrhythmia, have been made in the last years. Early identification of subclinical myocardial involvement by means of detection of changes at the cell...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 24, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Myocardial Salvage Imaging: Where Are We and Where Are We Heading? A Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Perspective
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged in recent years as a reliable tool to assess, in a single examination after a reperfused myocardial infarction, the initially area at risk (AAR), the final infarct size (IS), and from their difference the salvaged myocardium (SM). The aim of the present review is to summarize recent advances in the CMR imaging of SM.Recent FindingsWhile there is consensus on the use of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) to calculate IS, how to assess the AAR is a debated topic. The use of T2-weighted short-TI inversion recovery (T2W-STIR) is to date supported by a large a...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 24, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PET Imaging of Cardiac Hypoxia: Hitting Hypoxia Where It Hurts
We describe the lead hypoxia PET radiotracers currently in development and propose a rationale for how they should most appropriately be screened and validated.Recent FindingsWhile the majority of hypoxia imaging agents has been developed for oncology, the requirements for hypoxia imaging in cardiology are different. Recent work suggests that the bis(thiosemicarbazone) family of compounds may be capable of detecting the subtle degrees of hypoxia associated with cardiovascular syndromes, and that they have the potential to be “tuned” to provide different tracers for different applications.SummaryNew tracers curr...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of Cardiac Sarcoidosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiac involvement is increasingly being recognized as a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in patients with sarcoidosis. Unfortunately, imaging cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) remains a challenge and often relies on advanced imaging modalities. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the role of molecular imaging for the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis, with particular emphasis on the use of FDG and non-FDG PET.Recent FindingsIn the last few years, FDG-PET has established itself as an accurate imaging study for the assessment of CS. New diagnostic criteria have recently...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contemporary Advances in Myocardial Metabolic Imaging and Their Impact on Clinical Care: a Focus on Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to give a brief historical context and overview of cardiac substrate metabolism, including recent discoveries, and then delve into newer advances in positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial metabolic imaging.Recent FindingsSome of the recent discoveries of cardiac metabolism involve the pleiotropic effects of metabolism of minor substrates, such as ketones and branch chain amino acids. Contemporary advancements in cardiac imaging include the following: novel radiotracers, new technologies, and evidence showing how patient-specific attributes, such as sex and age, ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Appropriateness and Budget Limitations: Effects on the Use of Cardiac Imaging Techniques
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewIn recent years, increasing economical limitations resulted in a general reduction in health care spending possibilities and, finally, in budget limitations. The potential impact of these economical restrictions on cardiac imaging is discussed.Recent FindingsImaging techniques are responsible of a consistent amount of the health care spending, in particular cardiovascular imaging techniques and, among them, radionuclide imaging modalities. To contain costs, the focus of payers, scientific societies, and political organizations is mainly set to reduce the number of exam, mainly by acting on inap...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Serial Cardiac Nuclear Imaging: Opportunities and Challenges
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiac nuclear imaging is widely used to guide clinical management. While a large body of evidence supports the use of a single set of images, a significant proportion of patients undergo serial studies. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent clinical developments in the serial use of cardiac nuclear imaging and discuss the challenges of interpreting and applying the results.Recent FindingsSerial myocardial perfusion imaging studies have demonstrated the impact of coronary revascularization on myocardial blood flow and established the prognostic value of changes in myocardial perfusion ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - February 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Characterizing Cardiac Involvement in Chronic Kidney Disease Using CMR —a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of the review was to identify and describe recent advances (over the last 3  years) in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a literature review in line with current guidelines.Recent FindingsThe authors identified 22 studies. Patients with CKD had left ventricular global and regional dysfunction and adverse remodeling. Stress testing with CMR revealed a reduced stress-response in CKD patients. Native T1 relaxation times (as a surrogate markers of fibrosis) are elevated in CKD patients, proportional to disease duration. Pat...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - January 31, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

New Trends in Quantitative Nuclear Cardiology Methods
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe use of quantitative analysis in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) has become an integral part of current clinical practice and plays a crucial role in the detection and risk stratification of coronary artery disease. Emerging technologies, new protocols, and new quantification methods have had a significant impact on the diagnostic performance and prognostic value of nuclear cardiology imaging while reducing the need for clinician oversight. In this review, we aim to describe recent advances in automation and quantitative analysis in nucle...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - January 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

3D and 4D Ultrasound: Current Progress and Future Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThree-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (3DE) and 4-dimensional echocardiography (4DE), also known as real-time (RT) 3DE (RT3DE), are rapidly emerging technologies which have made significant impact in the clinical arena over the years. This review will discuss the recent applications of 3DE in diagnosing and treating different types of cardiovascular disease.Recent FindingsRecent studies using 3DE expanded on prior findings and introduced additional applications to different cardiac conditions. Some studies have used 3D parameters to prognosticate long-term outcomes. Numerous innovative software d...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - November 10, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of Echocardiography in Diagnosis of Constrictive Pericarditis: a Practical Summary
AbstractPurpose of ReviewConstrictive pericarditis (CP) is an uncommon diagnosis in the modern day. Clinically, CP and restrictive cardiomyopathy can present in a similar fashion; however, differentiating the two entities is imperative since CP is potentially curable by pericardiectomy. In this manuscript, we aim to summarize echocardiographic characteristics of CP with a focus on parameters discriminating CP from restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM).Recent FindingsClassically, respiration-related interventricular septal shift and variations in mitral inflow and mitral annular velocities have been used to distinguish CP from R...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - November 2, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fusion Imaging for Structural Heart Disease Interventions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAccurate procedural guidance is necessary for structural heart disease (SHD) interventions to reduce procedural times and improve results. Fluoroscopy remains the foundation imaging modality for guidance of transcatheter therapy. However, fluoroscopy has limitations in that it only provides 2D projections of complex 3D anatomy. Fusion technology has the capability to project cardiac imaging, including echocardiography and computed tomography (CT), onto fluoroscopy for a more complete representation of the anatomy to help guide SHD interventions. This in turn allows for a more effective workflow tha...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - October 24, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Closure Devices
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in humans. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality as it impairs cardiac function and is a major risk of embolic stroke. Traditionally, thromboembolic risk of AF has been treated with system anticoagulation with intravenous, intramuscular, or oral anticoagulants. Although the novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have revolutionized stroke risk reduction in AF patients, they are associated with a significant risk of bleeding and may be contraindicated in certain patients. Embolic events in AF typically originate from thrombi that form within...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - October 18, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Echocardiography in the Intensive Care Unit
We describe training and certification for critical care echocardiography and the use of echocardiography for the assessment of hemodynamics, fluid responsiveness, diagnosis of shock, procedural guidance, and cardiac arrest.Recent FindingsRecent advances have been made in multiple aspects of critical care echocardiography, including training and certification, assessment of fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing patients, and evaluation of undifferentiated shock.SummaryEchocardiography is increasingly used in the intensive care setting. Its applications and evidence base continue to expand. Randomized controlled t...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - October 18, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Role of Radionuclide Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCongenital heart disease is a growing healthcare issue since the majority of children who underwent surgical repair are now surviving into adult life. However, these patients are generally fixed but not cured and many will go on to develop significant morbidity as adults. The purpose of this review is to discuss the utility of radionuclide imaging in the management of these patients with a focus on the longer-term follow-up into adult life.Recent FindingsRadionuclide imaging is a relatively niche tool in the management of congenital heart disease patients and many of the techniques have been around...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - October 17, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of Stem Cells and Exosomes for Myocardial Regeneration
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStem cell therapy is studied for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. Despite high expectations, investigation has yielded mixed results. For further advancement of this field, it is essential to understand the fate of the transplanted stem cells in living subjects. A myriad of tools has been developed to allow for the immediate and longitudinal monitoring of stem cells in vivo. In this review, we outline the most reliable techniques and their implications for cardiac regenerative medicine.Recent FindingsDirect (e.g., PET/SPECT, MRI) and indirect labeling (e.g., reporter gene) techniques have e...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - September 23, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research