Community Approaches for Reducing Alcohol-Related Harms: an Overview of Intervention Strategies, Efficacy, and Considerations for Future Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe study aims to provide an overview of the supply- and demand-side strategies used in community approaches for reducing alcohol-related harms, summarise key findings, and identify areas for consideration in future research.Recent FindingsWhole-of-community interventions to reduce alcohol-related harms have largely used active population-level demand-reduction strategies, such as public-health messages, community outreach, and school-based education. Supply-side strategies (such as reducing physical availability of alcohol) and strategies targeted at high-risk populations (such as screening and br...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Medication Treatments for Opioid Use Disorder: What Is the Impact on Mood and Mood Disorders?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere has been an interest in evaluating the effect of opioid medications on mood in patients with or without opioid use disorder (OUD) because of potential mechanistic relationships between the opioid system and mood. In this review, we will summarize the prospective clinical trials that used opioid medications (naltrexone, methadone, and buprenorphine) to evaluate the effect on mood and anxiety in patients with and without OUD.FindingsBuprenorphine and buprenorphine/samidorphan combination have shown promising short-term effect for depressed patients without OUD but the effects are modest. Naltre...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Risk and Protective Factors for Substance Use Among Sexual and Gender Minority Youth: a Scoping Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlcohol and drug use are common among youth. Rates are especially high among sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender). We conducted a scoping review of research on risk and protective factors for substance use among SGMY published between 2013 and 2017.Recent FindingsNinety-seven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most focused on individual-level minority stress risk factors, particularly stigma. Fewer studies addressed protective factors such as social support or affirming policies, and few focused on gender minority youth (GMY). We identified important, yet un...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 26, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Stimulants and Mood Disorders
AbstractPurposeTo review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of co-occurring mood disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) and stimulant use disorders (SUD), which includes cocaine and methamphetamine use disorders.Recent FindingsEpidemiological studies support frequent co-occurrence between mood and SUD. Multiple studies support a bidirectional negative impact between mood and SUD for clinical outcomes and treatment response. Only a few clinical trials were conducted in individuals with mood and SUD comorbidity. The majority of trials for mood disorders have excluded patients with comorbid substance use di...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 11, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cannabis and Mood Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe present review will provide an overview of the neurobiology, epidemiology, clinical impact, and treatment of cannabis use disorder (CUD) in mood disorders.Recent FindingsPatients with mood disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have higher rates of cannabis use, and CUD compared to the general population. Reasons for this association are not clear, nor are the putative therapeutic effects of cannabis use, or its components delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in these illnesses. The evidence surrounding treatments for patients with thi...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 10, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy for Alcohol Use Disorder in the Context of Liver Disease
AbstractPurposeAlcohol consumption is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in our society and alcohol-related liver disease is a major contributor to this. Abstinence is the most important treatment goal for patients with alcohol-related liver disease and appropriate pharmacotherapy can help to achieve this.Recent findingsThere are a number of established and emerging pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alcohol use disorder that can be used in patients with liver disease although few have been studied extensively in this population. There are conflicting data on the effectiveness of these therapies and alcohol pha...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 10, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Pharmacological and Psychological Treatments for Comorbid Alcohol Use Disorder and Depressive Disorder: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review was to provide a summary of pharmacological and psychological interventions for patients with comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD) and depressive disorder.Recent FindingsWe identified 18 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating pharmacological interventions and 10 RCTs evaluating psychological interventions in patients with comorbid AUD and depression. Antidepressants were efficacious only in some trials. The combination of anti-alcohol medication and antidepressant may be more effective. Similarly, motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral treatment have some ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 9, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Pharmacological Interventions for Obesity: Current and Future Targets
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity in the USA has been on a constant rise since the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began tracking it over 50  years ago. Despite focused attention on this epidemic, pharmacological treatments aimed at obesity are lacking. Here, we briefly give perspective on the central and peripheral mechanisms underlying feeding behaviors and describe the existing pharmacological treatments for obesity. With this lens, I suggest future targets for the treatment of obesity.Recent FindingsGiven the development of genetic and molecular tools, understanding of how energy expenditure is modu...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 7, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Neurobiology of Craving: Current Findings and New Directions
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review seeks to provide an update on the current literature on craving and its underlying neurobiology, as it pertains to alcohol and drug addiction.Recent FindingsStudies on craving neurobiology suggest that the brain networks activated by conditioned cues in alcohol- and drug-dependent populations extend far beyond the traditional mesolimbic dopamine system and suggest that the early neurobiological theories of addiction, which heavily relied on dopamine release into the nucleus accumbens as the primary mechanism driving cue-induced craving and drug-seeking behavior, are incomplete. Ongo...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 4, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Community Approaches for Reducing Alcohol-Related Harms: an Overview of Intervention Strategies, Efficacy, and Considerations for Future Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe study aims to provide an overview of the supply- and demand-side strategies used in community approaches for reducing alcohol-related harms, summarise key findings, and identify areas for consideration in future research.Recent FindingsWhole-of-community interventions to reduce alcohol-related harms have largely used active population-level demand-reduction strategies, such as public-health messages, community outreach, and school-based education. Supply-side strategies (such as reducing physical availability of alcohol) and strategies targeted at high-risk populations (such as screening and br...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 4, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Brief Interventions in Primary Care: an Evidence Overview of Practitioner and Digital Intervention Programmes
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewExcessive drinking is a major public health problem that adversely affects all parts of the population. Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have reported that brief interventions delivered in primary care are effective at reducing alcohol consumption, albeit with small effect sizes that have decreased over time. This review summarises the updated evidence base on practitioner and digitally delivered brief interventions.Recent FindingsUsing Cochrane methodology, 69 primary care brief intervention trials (33,642 participants) and 57 digital intervention trials (34,390 participants) were...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 3, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Perspective on the Potential Associations among Impulsivity, Palatable Food Intake, and Weight Gain in Pregnancy: Arguing a Need for Future Research
This article aims to provide an initiative for future research to explore the relationships among impulsivity, palatable food intake, and gestational weight gain in pregnancy.Recent FindingsDrawing from the extensive evidence linking impulsivity to a tendency towards palatable food intake and subsequent risk for weight gain and obesity in non-pregnant populations, it is argued that impulsivity may serve as an important maternal characteristic that augments risk for excessive gestational weight gain by promoting increased palatable food intake in and difficulty adhering to dietary guidelines for pregnancy.SummaryGiven the m...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 2, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Alcohol Use Disorders in the Draft ICD-11, and How They Compare with DSM-5
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines how disorders due to alcohol are conceptualised, defined and classified in the latest draft of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) published in November 2017. Some key diagnoses are compared with their nearest counterparts in the Fifth Edition of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Recently published papers relevant to these comparisons are highlighted.Recent FindingsThere are distinct differences between ICD-11 and DSM-5 in how they treat disorders due to alcohol, in both the diagnoses presented and their...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 30, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Clinical Course and Relapse among Adolescents Presenting for Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Recent Findings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis narrative review provides a 10-year update of an earlier review of empirical literature examining the clinical course of substance use disorders (SUDs) for adolescents seeking treatment. It begins with a conceptualization of SUD clinical course after treatment initiation as multi-dimensional, including processes of remission, relapse, and recovery. Next, theory development and research on predictors of clinical course are summarized.Recent FindingsDespite movement in theoretical models from a focus on either discrete outcomes (e.g., return to any use) or processes (e.g., return to problematic ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 28, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Behavior Change in 12-Step Approaches to Recovery in Young Adults
This article provides a narrative review of the clinical and public health utility of TSMHOs for young adults and summarizes theory and empirical research regarding how young adults benefit from TSMHOs.Recent FindingsResults indicate that, compared to older adults, young adults are less likely to attend TSMHOs and attend less frequently but derive similar benefit. The mechanisms, however, by which TSMHOs help, differ in nature and magnitude. Also, young adults appear to derive greater benefit initially from meetings attended by similar aged peers, but this benefit diminishes over time.SummaryFindings offer developmentally ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 26, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Media/Marketing Influences on Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Abuse
We describe the state of research on substance use portrayals in marketing and media, considering exposure to tobacco, alcohol, e-cigarette, and marijuana content. Putative mechanisms are offered, and recommendations are made for effective prevention strategies for mitigating the influence of these portrayals.Recent FindingsThere is consistent evidence that adolescents and young adults are highly exposed to substance use portrayals and that these portrayals are associated with subsequent substance use. Exposure via new media (social networking sites, brand Websites) has risen rapidly. Social norms and cognitions appear to ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 25, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Food Addiction and Its Potential Links with Weight Stigma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWeight stigma and discrimination are significant issues facing people who are overweight. There is growing acceptance that obesity is caused by a neurobiologically driven addiction to some foods. This review examines the evidence that obesity is due to a food addiction and the impact that this may have on attitudes towards excess weight.Recent FindingsThere is limited evidence that food addiction explanations may reduce external stigma and self-blame. However, these positives may come at the expense of adverse impacts on overweight person ’s self-efficacy and eating. The “addict” ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 23, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Learned Overeating: Applying Principles of Pavlovian Conditioning to Explain and Treat Overeating
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an overview of recent findings relating to the role of Pavlovian conditioning in food cue reactivity, including its application to overeating and weight loss interventions.Recent FindingsBoth in the laboratory and in real life, cue-elicited appetitive reactivity (e.g., eating desires) can be easily learned, but (long-term) extinction is more difficult. New findings suggest impaired appetitive learning in obesity, which might be causally related to overeating. The clinical analogue of extinction —cue exposure therapy—effectively reduces cue-elicited cravings and over...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 21, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Overeating, Overweight, and Substance Use: What Is the Connection?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper integrates recent developments in the areas of excessive eating and addictive behavior, reviewing shared and unique features with respect to topography, etiological mechanisms/risk factors, comorbidity, and related adverse consequences/correlates.Recent FindingsEmerging literature is converging to suggest a high degree of overlap in terms of eating and addictive behavior, including common risk factors and involvement of brain reward pathways. Behavioral phenotypes involving putative addictive elements include binge eating, food addiction, nocturnal eating, grazing, and emotional eating. ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 21, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Taxonomy of Alcohol Harm Countermeasures
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe addictions field lacks a coherent framework for strategies to reduce harm arising from the consumption of alcohol. We need to be able to clarify the mechanisms by which key strategies operate, and encompass aetiological factors that do not involve drinking.Recent FindingsWe outline population and high-risk individual strategies focused on supply- and demand-side factors and propose a system laid out in two tables, for classifying consumption-focused and non-consumption-focused countermeasures.SummarySome countermeasures belong in more than one cell, reflecting more than one underlying mechanism...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 21, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Role of Reward Sensitivity and Impulsivity in Overeating and Food Addiction
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews the contribution of individual differences in two personality traits linked to addiction and over-consumption —impulsivity and reward sensitivity—in the context of overeating and food addiction.Recent FindingsThere has been a rapid increase in the number of studies into overeating with a specific focus of late on food addiction. This review found trait impulsivity to be consistently associated with overeating and food addiction, while reward sensitivity has met with mixed results. While associated with overeating and food-cued cravings, reward sensitivity is less freq...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 20, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Correction to: Alcohol and Noncommunicable Disease Risk
AbstractThe original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. There are two instances where the content in Fig. 2 was changed to “[CATEGORY NAME][PERCENTAGE],” instead of what actually should be shown. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 15, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey Data to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: the Case for Egypt
AbstractPurposeLimited publications from Egypt have focused on prevalence of tobacco use and tobacco control policy. We used four waves of the Egypt Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) between 2001 and 2014 and a cigarette affordability measure, to evaluate the implementation of the World Health Organization ’s MPOWER recommendations.FindingsDespite Egypt ’s implementation of several MPOWER recommendations, the enforcement of laws and regulations may be limited, and therefore had little to no impact on youth current smoking prevalence through 2014. Notably, experimentation with cigarette smoking has significantl...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 3, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Neurobiological Models of Risky Decision-Making and Adolescent Substance Use
This article provides an overview of evidence-based neurobiological models of risky decision-making, noting their implications for adolescent substance use. Drawing on brain and behavioral research, neural imbalance and fuzzy-trace theory are reviewed to explain developmental differences in preferences for risk (tolerating the possibility of bad outcomes to achieve larger rewards), time (waiting for larger but delayed rewards), and ambiguity (willingness to explore the unknown to achieve rewards).Recent FindingsConsistent with these theories and evidence, and also with major theories of addiction, developmental differences...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 3, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Alcohol and Noncommunicable Disease Risk
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlcohol use is a major risk factor for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), annually causing more than 1.8 million deaths, and approximately 52 million disability-adjusted life years lost globally. This review examines the relationship between alcohol use and NCDs in the context of current United Nations (UN) and World Health Organization (WHO) initiatives to reduce the burden of NCDs as well as the resulting policy implications.Recent FindingsThe importance of alcohol as a major risk factor for NCDs is evidenced by its inclusion as one of only four behavioral risk factors (tobacco use, unhealthy diet,...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 26, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use Among Adolescents: Global Epidemiological Evidence for Prevention, Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews the most recent epidemiological evidence on adolescent NMPD use. Particular attention is given to prevention, assessment and diagnosis of disorder, and treatment.Recent FindingsWhile international in scope, global evidence is only available for NMPD use, morbidity, and mortality estimates. Prevention strategies, assessment, and treatment are US-centric. The literature on prevention strategies lacks high-quality evidence. Assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of NMPD use disorder have more robust evidence bases. Despite this, screening for NMPD (and other drug) use disorders is inf...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 22, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Understanding the Impact of National and State Medical Marijuana Policies on Adolescents
This article provides an overview of current federal, state, and relevant international “medical marijuana” policies. We also describe the impacts of “medical marijuana” policy on adolescents’ use of marijuana and other substances.Recent FindingsEvidence on the medical benefits of marijuana in adolescents is limited in the context of risks for marijuana-related harm. The legalization of marijuana for medical purposes is associated with a decrease in marijuana risk perception in older adolescents. Marijuana-related harms have increased in states that have legalized marijuana for medical purpose...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 21, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

mHealth for the Detection and Intervention in Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Use Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to highlight recent research in mHealth-based approaches to the detection and treatment of substance use disorders in adolescents and young adults.Recent FindingsThe main methods for mHealth-based detection include mobile phone-based self-report tools, GPS tracking, and wearable sensors. Wearables can be used to detect physiologic changes (e.g., heart rate, electrodermal activity) or biochemical contents of analytes (i.e., alcohol in sweat) with reasonable accuracy, but larger studies are needed. Detection methods have been combined with interventions based on mindfulness...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 15, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

International Approaches to Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Programming and Policy among Adolescents in India
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewIndia is not only one of the largest producers of tobacco in the world, but is also one of the largest consumers of tobacco products. Adolescents and young adults are the most vulnerable to tobacco addiction as early initiation is predictive of long-term use and health risks. This review seeks to provide an overview of policies and programs for tobacco prevention and cessation among adolescents. The research over the last few years is highlighted and recommendations for future programming and policy are proposed.Recent FindingsTobacco control programs for adolescents in India have mostly been d...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 9, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

International Approaches to Tobacco-Use Cessation Programs and Policy for Adolescents and Young Adults in Saudi Arabia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we are aiming to explore the recent literature regarding the current state of smoking and control plans and the recent changes in regulations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Recent FindingsDespite the strong efforts of tobacco control agencies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to curb smoking rates, prevalence rates among youth are still around 12.1% with no indicators for a decline. The main reasons that could lead to smoking are peer pressure, stress, easy access, media influence, and lack of knowledge of harmful effects of smoking. School programs, religious background, and health co...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 7, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Classification and Organisation of Alcohol Misuse Prevention with a Focus on Environmental Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewClassifying prevention as universal, selective or indicated only considers the form of interventions. This is limited as it fails to explain the function, or purpose, of interventions. This paper discusses a taxonomy for alcohol misuse prevention that considers both the form and function of prevention interventions. It adds to the previous literature by incorporating subcategories of classification for environmental prevention.Recent FindingsWithin each taxonomy category there are interventions which are more, and less effective, but not one single category has comprehensive evidence of efficacy. E...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 5, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

International Approaches to Tobacco Use Cessation Programming and Policy in Adolescents and Young Adults: the Case of Spain
The objective of this paper was to examine the current status of evidence-based smoking prevention and cessation programs for Spanish adolescents and young adults.Recent FindingsThe current prevalence of tobacco use among Spanish adolescents is described at the state level. We reviewed the results of drug-prevention programs (including tobacco) and provide an in-depth analysis of evidence-based school programs, focused on prevention and cessation of tobacco use in SpainSummaryThe strengths and shortcomings of the programs are identified, and recommendations for future studies and applications are proposed. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 3, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

International Approaches to Tobacco Use Cessation Programming and Prevention Interventions among Indigenous Adolescents and Young Adults
ConclusionsAdditional evidence-based programs are essential for Indigenous youth and young adults to reduce smoking initiation and prevalence rates. Further evaluations of commercial tobacco use prevention and cessation programs are needed to bridge the gap between tobacco-related health disparities in Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Additionally, qualitative research is encouraged to further understand the barriers to recruitment. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 1, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

International Approaches to Tobacco Use Cessation Programs and Policy in Adolescents and Young Adults: Denmark
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSmoking habits early in life are known to have important implications for lifetime smoking behaviors and efforts that discourage smoking among young people are essential for national tobacco control. In Denmark, various approaches have been taken to prevent or stop smoking in youth. This paper provides an overview of approaches to tobacco control policies and smoking cessation programs targeting adolescents and young adults in Denmark and presents current evidence of their effectiveness.Recent FindingsExtensive research documents the effect of tobacco control policies on youth smoking behavior, esp...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 31, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

No-Smoking Policy in Russia: Awareness and Perceptions Among Bashkortostan Adolescents
This study aims to describe adolescents ’ knowledge and endorsement of tobacco policies in the Russian Federation. We first describe the history of tobacco control policies, and then examine Bashkortostan adolescents’ perceptions of current policies, as well as non-compliance.Recent FindingsThe Russian Federation has enacted several smoke-free policies that may reduce exposure to second-hand smoke. Among 716 high school students surveyed, over 90% correctly understood the smoke-free rules in public places, school, apartment hallways and elevators, and public transportation. However, only 24% understood that the...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 29, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Bidirectional Associations Between Eating and Alcohol Use During Restricted Intake
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMany individuals seek to improve their health by restricting intake of alcohol or food. This paper critically examines the existing literature on how restricted alcohol use may increase eating and, reciprocally, how restricted eating may increase alcohol use.Recent FindingsPrior non-human animal research suggests that (a) alcohol deprivation causes increased eating behavior and (b) food deprivation causes increased alcohol use. Preliminary observational findings suggest that these effects translate to humans. Future experimental research is needed to identify for whom, for how long, why, and for wh...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 26, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Tobacco Use and Smoking in Israel: Youth and Young Adults
This article suggests multiple factors be considered, organized, and sustained to promote smoking cessation. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 24, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Author Correction: Mechanisms Underlying Sex Differences in Cannabis Use
AbstractThe authors missed to add the below Acknowledgment to the original version of this article. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 9, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gender Differences in U.S. Adolescent E-Cigarette Use
This study aims to review the recent (2012 –2017) available gender difference data on e-cigarette use among adolescents.Recent FindingsE-cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among adolescents, and recent study findings showed that e-cigarette use can lead to cigarette smoking. However, gender differences in e-cigarette use among adolescents are relatively unknown.SummaryWe used the search terms “adolescents” and “e-cigarettes” on PubMed and identified 652 articles. Of these, 16 articles (2.5%) examined gender differences in adolescent e-cigarette use. Boys appear to have great...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 4, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Exercise as a Prevention for Substance Use Disorder: a Review of Sex Differences and Neurobiological Mechanisms
This report provides an update on clinical and preclinical findings for the efficacy of exercise to prevent substance use disorder with a focus on recent evidence for sex differences and neurobiological mechanisms.Recent FindingsExercise/physical activity is associated with decreased drug use in humans. Preclinical results further indicate that exercise decreases vulnerability to drug use and the development of features of substance use disorder, and suggest that females have an enhanced sensitivity to its reward-substitution effects. However, certain exercise conditions may sensitize the reward pathway and enhance vulnera...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 2, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Exercise as a Sex-Specific Treatment for Substance Use Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewExercise is a promising treatment for substance use disorder that may reduce withdrawal symptoms and prevent relapse. In this review, we discuss recent evidence from clinical and preclinical studies for its efficacy, from a behavioral to a molecular level, in order to understand the exercise conditions that lead to beneficial effects. We also highlight the few recent findings of sex-specific differences.Recent FindingsClinical and preclinical findings show that exercise decreases withdrawal symptoms, including craving, in both males and females. Evidence from clinical studies support the efficacy o...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 23, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gender and Menthol Cigarette Use in the USA: A Systematic Review of the Recent Literature (2011 –May 2017)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purposes of this review are as follows: firstly, to summarize current research on gender differences in mentholated cigarette use and related outcomes and, secondarily, to summarize literature on gender differences in mentholated cigarette use and related outcomes among Black smokers.Recent FindingsWomen smokers are more likely to use menthol cigarettes than men. Other than prevalence, there is a paucity of research on gender differences in menthol-related outcomes (e.g., cessation, disease). Among both women and men, menthol preference is stable during adolescence and young adulthood. A substa...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 23, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Mechanisms Underlying Sex Differences in Cannabis Use
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewCannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance worldwide. In recent decades, highly concentrated products have flooded the market, and prevalence rates have increased. Gender differences exist in cannabis use, as men have higher prevalence of both cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD), while women progress more rapidly from first use to CUD. This paper reviews findings from preclinical and human studies examining the sex-specific neurobiological underpinnings of cannabis use and CUD and associations with psychiatric symptoms.Recent FindingsSex differences exist in the endocannabino...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 19, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Understanding Rates of Marijuana Use and Consequences Among Adolescents in a Changing Legal Landscape
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is not one answer to address whether marijuana use has increased, decreased, or stayed the same given changes in state legalization of medical and non-medical marijuana in the USA.Recent FindingsEvidence suggests some health benefits for medical marijuana; however, initiation of marijuana use is a risk factor for developing problem cannabis use. Though use rates have remained stable over recent years, about one in three 10th graders report marijuana use, most adolescents do not view the drug as harmful, and over 650,000 youth aged 12 to 17 struggle with cannabis use disorder.SummaryAlthough t...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 5, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Treatment Outcomes for Women with Substance Use Disorders: a Critical Review of the Literature (2010 –2016)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review critically examines recent literature (2010 –2016) on substance use outcomes in women-only treatment studies and gender differences in treatment outcomes in mixed-gender studies. We then focus on outcomes in three areas salient to women with substance use disorders (SUDs): treatment of comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnan cy and parenting interventions, and treatment for women in the criminal justice system.Recent FindingsFavorable results were found for behavioral treatments for women including couples therapy and gender-responsive group therapy. When gender di...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 4, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Review of Developmental Considerations in Human Laboratory Alcohol Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHuman laboratory studies involving alcohol administration have generated critical knowledge about individual differences in risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD), but have primarily involved adult populations and cross-sectional research designs. Ethical constraints have largely precluded human laboratory alcohol research in adolescence, and prospective studies have been rare. This paper provides an overview of developmental considerations in human laboratory alcohol research, with a focus on studies conducted with youth.Recent FindingsRecent human laboratory studies from Europe and Canada have exami...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 30, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Computer-Based Prevention and Intervention to Reduce Substance Use in Youth
AbstractPurpose of ReviewComputer-based programs for substance use prevention and intervention among youth are on the ascendancy. Whether delivered by computer per se or by electronic tablet or smartphone, technology-driven programs are harmonious with how young people access information and interact with their worlds. This review examines recent evidence on computer-based programs aimed at substance use among youth, with particular attention to results from randomized trials.Recent FindingsOutcome studies of computer-based, substance use-related programs published over the past 5  years reveal mixed results amidst di...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Review of Digital Surveillance Methods and Approaches to Combat Prescription Drug Abuse
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe use of social media to conduct digital surveillance to address different health challenges is growing. This multidisciplinary review assesses the current state of methods and applied research used to conduct digital surveillance for prescription drug abuse.Recent FindingsFifteen studies met our inclusion criteria from the databases reviewed (PubMed, IEEE Xplore, and ACM Digital Library). The articles were characterized based on their overarching goals and aims, data collection and dataset attributes, and analysis approaches. Overall, reviewed studies grouped into two overarching categories as e...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 18, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Automatic Cognitive Processes and Youth Substance Use: Risks and Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review will explore the accumulating evidence that social learning and substance use lead to automatic cognitive biases associated with increased risk of future substance use. Spontaneous cognitive and behavioral responses to substance use cues index these biases.Recent FindingsRecent findings highlight new measures of cognitive biases, technological advances in the measurement of automatic responses, and the development of effective intervention procedures that target changing automatic responses.SummaryIn the youth, changes in the associative network based on social learning are important in...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - August 31, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Policy Perspective on the Global Use of Smokeless Tobacco
AbstractBackgroundGlobally, over 300 million people consume diverse smokeless tobacco (ST) products. They are addictive, cause cancer, increased cardiovascular mortality risks and poor pregnancy outcomes.Purpose of ReviewTo identify gaps in implementing key ST demand-reduction measures, focused literature reviews were conducted and findings synthesized according to relevant WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Articles.Recent FindingsThe literature supports implementation of ST demand-reduction measures. For taxation, labelling and packaging, most administrations have weaker policies for ST than cigarettes. C...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - August 31, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research