Facial Anatomy for Filler Injection
This article journeys through the facial anatomy for the injector emphasizing the superficial musculoaponeurotic system as a centralized depth gauge facilitating navigation into deep and superficial injection targets. Based on this principle, the fat compartments, ligaments, potential spaces, and neurovascular structures are categorized into planes to assist the injector in performing safe and accurate volume correction. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - September 10, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Christopher C. Surek Source Type: research

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The facelift procedure remains the cornerstone for surgical correction of the aging face. Without it, correction of facial aging cannot be complete. Mastery of the facelift operation, or more precisely delivering a consistent result, is clearly the surgeon ’s goal. However, the wide variety of techniques employed and the subjective and short-term nature of many of the results often depicted can leave the surgeon questioning which procedure is best for which patient. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - September 10, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: James E. Zins, Ali H. Charafeddine Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Facelift
CLINICS IN PLASTIC SURGERY (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - September 10, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: James E. Zins, Ali H. Charafeddine Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - September 10, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contributors
JAMES E. ZINS, MD, FACS (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - September 10, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contents
James E. Zins and Ali H. Charafeddine (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - September 10, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Fat Grafting to the Face for Rejuvenation, Contouring, or Regenerative Surgery (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - September 10, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Lateral Skin –Platysma Displacement
Lateral skin –platysma displacement is a new technique for neck rejuvenation based on composite platysma-cutaneous flaps repositioned laterally through cable sutures. This technique skews the anatomy of the muscle, displacing it in a more lateral position and decreases the risk of paramedian bands recurrence. Traction applied to the midbody of the myocutaneous flaps is more effective in treating anterior excess skin than traction applied to the lateral platysma borders. The advantages of Lateral skin–platysma displacement are limited neck undermining, absence of submental scar, shorter operating time, faster pa...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - August 6, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Mario Pelle-Ceravolo, Matteo Angelini Source Type: research

Perioperative Management of the Facelift Patient
In this article, the authors set out to lay a foundation for successful perioperative management of the facelift patient. They describe the changes of normal facial aging in an attempt to help one recognize the universal way the face is affected by aging. Having a clear understanding of these factors may help to guide the physician with procedures necessary to offer the patient for a desired outcome. Also, the authors emphasize the preoperative assessment and postoperative care necessary to ensure a successful, low-risk operation with minimal downtime and beautiful results, meeting the patient ’s expectations. (Sourc...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - August 2, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Katherine B. Santosa, Jeremie D. Oliver, Gina Thompson, Richard J. Beil Source Type: research

Neck Rejuvenation
An aesthetically pleasing neck contour remains the cornerstone for facial rejuvenation. In this article a detailed description of the anatomy pertaining to the necklift surgery is provided, with supplemental cadaver video dissections going over the most common and novel necklift techniques. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - August 2, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Ali H. Charafeddine, Rafael A. Couto, James E. Zins Source Type: research

The Minimal Access Cranial Suspension Lift
The minimal access cranial suspension (MACS) face-lift is a minimally invasive face and neck lift that uses the understanding of the changes in facial anatomy as it relates to facial aging. The MACS face-lift uses a shorter incision with limited subcutaneous undermining. It achieves a resuspension of the underlying neck and midface soft tissues with the use of looped, purse-string sutures in the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and platysma. These attenuated structures are anchored to the deep temporal fascia. In the properly selected patient, the MACS facelift is an effective technique with high levels of physician a...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - August 2, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Mustafa Chopan, Patrick J. Buchanan, Bruce A. Mast Source Type: research

Perioperative Management of the Face-Lift Patient
In this article, the authors set out to lay a foundation for successful perioperative management of the face-lift patient. They describe the changes of normal facial aging in an attempt to help one recognize the universal way the face is affected by aging. Having a clear understanding of these factors may help to guide the physician with procedures necessary to offer the patient for a desired outcome. Also, the authors emphasize the preoperative assessment and postoperative care necessary to ensure a successful, low-risk operation with minimal downtime and beautiful results, meeting the patient ’s expectations. (Sour...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - August 2, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Katherine B. Santosa, Jeremie D. Oliver, Gina Thompson, Richard J. Beil Source Type: research

Nonsurgical Adjuncts Following Facelift to Achieve Optimal Aesthetic Outcomes
This article discusses the various nonsurgical treatments that can be performed in combination with facelift surgery to provide patients with a more complete facial rejuvenation. Nonsurgical adjuncts focus on facial volume enhancement, skin resurfacing, intense pulsed light for pigmentary changes, neuromodulators, and skin care in addition to the surgical techniques used to combat facial aging. Several options exist for skin resurfacing, including dermabrasion, chemical peels, and lasers; the advantages and limitations of each are discussed. Photographs demonstrating the effectiveness of nonsurgical treatments to facelift ...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - July 30, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Ziyad S. Hammoudeh, W. Grant Stevens Source Type: research

Nonsurgical Adjuncts Following Face-Lift to Achieve Optimal Aesthetic Outcomes
This article discusses the various nonsurgical treatments that can be performed in combination with face-lift surgery to provide patients with a more complete facial rejuvenation. Nonsurgical adjuncts focus on facial volume enhancement, skin resurfacing, intense pulsed light for pigmentary changes, neuromodulators, and skin care in addition to the surgical techniques used to combat facial aging. Several options exist for skin resurfacing, including dermabrasion, chemical peels, and lasers; the advantages and limitations of each are discussed. Photographs demonstrating the effectiveness of nonsurgical treatments to face-lif...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - July 30, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Ziyad S. Hammoudeh, W. Grant Stevens Source Type: research

Lateral SMASectomy
The lateral superficial musculoaponeurotic system –ectomy (SMASectomy) is a safe, versatile, and easily reproducible technique in facelift surgery. The ability to resect a portion of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) over the junction of the mobile and fixed SMAS produces a powerful lift with similar aesthetic results to a traditio nal SMAS flap, but without the additional risks of nerve injury. The ability to alter the vector of motion of the underlying SMAS makes the technique adaptable to a variety of facial characteristics. The lateral SMASectomy is a viable and powerful method that has stood the t...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - July 30, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Obaid Chaudhry, Steven Levine Source Type: research

The Extended Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System
The extended superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) facelift targets the 2 cardinal signs of facial aging: (1) descent of the malar fat resulting in deepening of the nasolabial folds as well as accentuation of the palpebral malar groove and tear trough deformity; (2) formation of jowls, which also obscure the definition of the lower mandibular border. In this article the authors describe the concepts behind the extended SMAS operation, importantly the extent of skin dissection and SMAS elevation. They present a brief history of the operation and landmark papers and supplement with fresh cadaver dissections. (Source: ...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - July 18, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Ali H. Charafeddine, James E. Zins Source Type: research

Facelift in Patients with Massive Weight Loss
This article describes the surgical and medical modifications that need to be considered in the MWL facelift to ensure a successful outcome. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - July 18, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Rafael A. Couto, Ali H. Charafeddine, James E. Zins Source Type: research

Facelift
This article is supplemented by fresh cadaver anatomic dissections. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - July 17, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Ali Charafeddine, Richard Drake, Jennifer McBride, James E. Zins Source Type: research

The Lift-and-Fill Facelift
This article presents a detailed overview of facial fat compartment anatomy and examines its role in facial rejuvenation. A good understanding of facial fat compartment anatomy cannot be overemphasized. In combination with methodical preoperative visual analysis, this allows surgeons to target the specific areas that have undergone deflation with fat grafting before selective SMAS manipulation. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - July 15, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Rod J. Rohrich, Paul D. Durand, Erez Dayan Source Type: research

The Lift-and-Fill Face-Lift
This article presents a detailed overview of facial fat compartment anatomy and examines its role in facial rejuvenation. A good understanding of facial fat compartment anatomy cannot be overemphasized. In combination with methodical preoperative visual analysis, this allows surgeons to target the specific areas that have undergone deflation with fat grafting before selective SMAS manipulation. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - July 15, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Rod J. Rohrich, Paul D. Durand, Erez Dayan Source Type: research

Flexor Tendon Injuries
The developments in flexor tendon repairs have remarkably changed the methods of surgical repair of the flexor tendons and treatment of the critical annular pulleys, as well as the postoperative active motion protocols. The article summarizes the current knowledge and clinical methods in treating flexor tendon injuries, the keys to achieving reliable clinical repairs, and recent evolution in repair techniques and rehabilitation. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jin Bo Tang Source Type: research

Nerve Tumors of the Upper Extremity
Nerve sheath tumors of the upper extremity are among the common neoplastic pathologies encountered by hand surgeons. A majority of these tumors are benign schwannomas or neurofibromas and may be associated with neurofibromatosis. Clinical signs of malignant transformation include new onset of pain and rapid growth. Imaging characteristics, such as standardized uptake value greater than 4.0 on PET scan, may aid in the diagnosis of a malignant tumor. Surgical excision, often with intrafascicular dissection with nerve preservation, is recommended treatment of benign lesions. Wide surgical excision is recommended for malignant...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Sophia A. Strike, Mark E. Puhaindran Source Type: research

Thumb Basal Joint Arthritis
Thumb carpometacarpal arthritis is a common condition treated by hand surgeons. This condition most frequently affects the elderly and postmenopausal women. Nonoperative treatment options include activity modification, orthoses, and injections. Although many patients can be treated conservatively, those with persistent and recalcitrant symptoms may benefit from surgical intervention. There are myriad surgical options, and the best option often depends on the patient ’s goals and functional demands, surgeon experience, and patient preference. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Brent B. Pickrell, Kyle R. Eberlin Source Type: research

Pediatric Hand and Wrist Fractures
Hand and wrist fractures are common in the pediatric population. Accurate diagnosis relies on the understanding of the physeal anatomy and carpal ossification. Treatment of these fractures is largely influenced by physeal biology and compliance with treatment. A majority have a favorable outcome with nonoperative treatment. Operative treatment should be considered in patients with clinical deformity, open fractures, and significant fracture displacement. Physeal-friendly surgical approaches and implants should be used to minimize the sequelae of physeal injury. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Janice C.Y. Liao, Alphonsus K.S. Chong Source Type: research

Hand Infections
Hand infections can lead to debilitating and permanent disability, particularly if they are not treated promptly or properly. The unique anatomy of the hand, with its numerous enclosed and confined spaces, warrants special considerations. For instance, infections in deep spaces of the hand may require surgical drainage despite an appropriate course of antimicrobial treatment. Thorough history and examination are crucial in guiding further investigations and management, particularly because there are numerous mimickers of hand infections, such as gout and pseudogout. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Wendy Z.W. Teo, Kevin C. Chung Source Type: research

Treatment of Carpal Instability and Distal Radioulnar Joint Instability
This article summarizes the conditions most relevant to the practice of a hand surgeon, with emphasis divided equally between assessment and diagnosis, staging, and treatment. The 3 most common carpal instability conditions are outlined in this article together with a review on acute and chronic distal radioulnar joint instability. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: David Meng Kiat Tan, Jin Xi Lim Source Type: research

Considerations in Flap Selection for Soft Tissue Defects of the Hand
This article discusses the principles of soft tissue reconstruction in the hand and presents a rational approach to clinical decision making to ensure optimal outcomes. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Soumen Das De, Sandeep Jacob Sebastin Source Type: research

Preface
I am pleased to present this issue to you to share insights in treating common procedures for the hand and wrist. This issue is divided into soft tissue and bony reconstruction. The authors were selected for their expertise in providing proven treatment approaches for usual conditions faced by practitioners. My colleagues from the University of Singapore report their vast experience with soft tissue reconstruction and treating nerve compression syndrome. I am excited that Dr Jin Bo Tang, who is the world expert on flexor tendon repair, contributed his philosophy in repairing zone 2 flexor tendon injuries. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Kevin C. Chung Source Type: research

Repairing and Reconstructing the Hand and Wrist
CLINICS IN PLASTIC SURGERY (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Kevin C. Chung Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contributors
KEVIN C. CHUNG, MD, MS (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contents
Kevin C. Chung (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Facelift (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Injuries Around the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint
This article focuses on the current practices of treatment of injuries around the PIPJ. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - April 20, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Ruth En Si Tan, Andre Eu Jin Cheah Source Type: research

Treatment of Common Congenital Hand Conditions
Congenital hand difference is caused by abnormal embryonic development of the limb and represents one of the most prevalent congenital birth defects worldwide. Using the new classification system proposed by Oberg, Manske and Tonkin (OMT) and endorsed by the International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand, congenital hand differences are classified into malformations, deformations, and dysplasias and syndromes. Malformations are subdivided into abnormal development of proximal-distal, radial-ulnar (anterior-posterior), dorsal-ventral, and unspecified axis. We introduce here the state-of-the-art surgical treat...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - April 20, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Bin Wang, Xiaofei Tian, Yong Hu Source Type: research

The Pathogenesis and Treatment of the Stiff Finger
“Stiff finger,” defined as a finger with decreased range of motion in one or more joints, is commonly found after hand injury and is classified into flexion or extension deformities. Pathogenesis is due to dysfunction in one or more of the following anatomic components: (1) osseous and articular ; (2) capsuloligamentous; (3) musculotendinous units; (4) soft tissue and fascia. Evaluation and treatment are based on accurate identification and correction of pathologic structures. The mainstay of treatment is directed hand therapy with exercises and splinting to mobilize stiff joints. Operative interventions are of...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - April 19, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Eric D. Wang, Paymon Rahgozar Source Type: research

Approach to Fingertip Injuries
The fingertip is mankind ’s tactile interface with the physical world, from reading braille, to using touchscreens, to wielding power tools. Its special tissue architecture demands astute evaluation and meticulous surgical or nonsurgical care after injury to return patients to their preinjury level of function. Attentive deliberation of physiologic, vocational, and psychosocial factors could improve the odds of achieving satisfactory results. In this article, we explore these aspects of fingertip injury to provoke readers to examine their practices and philosophies. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - April 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Patricia Martin-Playa, Anthony Foo Source Type: research

Managing Swan Neck and Boutonniere Deformities
Acute and chronic injuries to the finger extensor mechanism can result in swan neck and boutonniere deformities. Loss of coordination between the multiple, specialized components of the extensor mechanism results in tendon imbalances leading to altered interphalangeal joint flexion and extension forces. Treatments include corrective splinting and operative interventions. Swan neck deformities are functionally limiting. Surgical correction generally results in functional benefit. Boutonniere deformities are functional but aesthetically displeasing; proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint flexion and the ability to make a fist ...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - April 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Kate Elzinga, Kevin C. Chung Source Type: research

Nerve Compression in the Upper Limb
Nerve compression occurs in fibro-osseous tunnels as the nerves cross joints. The pathology involves traction and adhesion, aside from compression. This can occur at multiple sites along the course of the nerve. Regardless of level, clinical assessment is standard and a systematic approach to uncover all sites of compression is advised. Evolution of management for carpal tunnel and cubital tunnel syndrome is reviewed with an emphasis on natural history and nonsurgical treatment, which are not commonly discussed. Treatment is multimodal and the systemic factors that contribute to nerve dysfunction should also be addressed. ...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - April 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Ellen Y. Lee, Aymeric Y.T. Lim Source Type: research

Efficiency in Digital and Hand Replantation
The literature on surgical techniques and recent evidence in microsurgical digital and hand replantation is reviewed. Replantation should not be done routinely without considering postoperative functional outcomes. Achieving best outcomes is related to the success of microvascular anastomosis and to adequacy of bone fixation, tendon and nerve repair, and soft-tissue coverage. Replantation surgery has become a routine procedure. However, little is known about the decision-making process for digital and hand amputation. A study comparing the outcomes of digital and hand amputations treated with replantation or revision amput...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - April 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Shimpei Ono, Kevin C. Chung Source Type: research

Management of Acute Extensor Tendon Injuries
This article presents a series of cases illustrating the appropriate management of traumatic extensor tendon injuries. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - April 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Alfred P. Yoon, Kevin C. Chung Source Type: research

Phalangeal and Metacarpal Fractures
The management of phalangeal and metacarpal fractures continues to evolve. Nonoperative or less invasive techniques, limiting the need for soft tissue dissection and resultant stiffness, are being developed and becoming more popular. The competing forces of fracture stability to optimize healing and early mobilization to optimize function need careful balancing. As imaging, equipment, and techniques improve, hand surgeons can tailor individualized care to the unique needs of each patient. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - April 13, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Amir H. Taghinia, Simon G. Talbot Source Type: research

Tendon Transfers for Peripheral Nerve Palsies
Recovery after an upper extremity peripheral nerve injury varies depending on multiple factors. In patients with poor functional recovery, tendon transfers may be indicated. The decision to perform an early tendon transfer at the time of nerve repair or before expected reinnervation is considered on a case-by-case basis. There are a multitude of potential tendon transfer options, the choices of which depend on remaining function, specific deficits, and surgeon experience and preferences. A thoughtful approach to reconstruction can lead to a substantial functional improvement with minimal donor site morbidity. (Source: Clin...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - April 12, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Scott N. Loewenstein, Joshua M. Adkinson Source Type: research

Tendinopathies of the Forearm, Wrist, and Hand
Tendinopathy and tendinitis are some of the most frequently encountered disorders in hand and upper extremity surgery. Patients often present with progressively increasing pain over a subacute or chronic period. In most cases it is a clinical diagnosis, with confirmation via advanced imaging. First-line treatment consists of conservative measures such as activity modification, splints, and injections. After a 3- to 6-month trial of nonoperative treatment, surgery usually involves decompression of the involved tendons and debridement of any inflammatory tissue. Patient and anatomic factors can affect the outcomes of both no...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - April 12, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Eric R. Wagner, Michael B. Gottschalk Source Type: research

Managing Mutilating Hand Injuries
This article aims to equip the surgeon with the key principles and the bits of knowledge that are essential for effective planning and execution when dealing with such injuries. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - April 12, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Amitabha Lahiri Source Type: research

Fractures of the Carpal Bones
Diagnosis and proper initial management of acute fractures of the carpal bones is critical because of the limited blood supply of many bones of the wrist and the role of the carpus in optimizing hand function. Pathology is correctly diagnosed by a focused history and examination. Injuries may be missed with a cursory examination and routine wrist radiographs. Together, fractures of the scaphoid and triquetrum make up nearly 90% of carpal bone fractures. Relative frequency, mechanism of injury, diagnosis, and management principles are covered for each of the bones of the wrist. (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - April 12, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Brian M. Christie, Brett F. Michelotti Source Type: research

Joint Fusion and Arthroplasty in the Hand
Numerous techniques are available for treating finger joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis. Joint fusion and arthroplasty have different concepts but can improve hand function. Joint fusion is indicated in patients with painful finger joints with or without poor soft tissue condition. Implant arthroplasty is indicated for degenerative or inflammatory arthritis in elderly patients because implants may require future revision. Arthroplasty with an autologous osteochondral cartilage graft is an option for young patients with posttraumatic metacarpophalangeal or proximal interphalangeal joint osteo...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - April 12, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Michiro Yamamoto, Kevin C. Chung Source Type: research

Syndromic Craniosynostosis
Management strategies for syndromic craniosynostosis patients require multidisciplinary subspecialty teams to provide optimal care for complex reconstructive approaches. The most common craniosynostosis syndromes include Apert (FGFR2), Crouzon (FGFR2), Muenke (FGFR3), Pfeiffer (FGFR1 and FGFR2), and Saethre-Chotzen (TWIST). Bicoronal craniosynostosis (turribrachycephaly) is most commonly associated with syndromic craniosynostosis. Disease presentation varies from mild sutural involvement to severe pansynostoses, with a spectrum of extracraniofacial dysmorphic manifestations. Understanding the multifaceted syndromic present...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - March 7, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Rajendra Sawh-Martinez, Derek M. Steinbacher Source Type: research

Craniofacial Microsomia
Clinicians use different diagnostic terms for patients with underdevelopment of facial features arising from the embryonic first and second pharyngeal arches, including first and second branchial arch syndrome, otomandibular dysostosis, oculoauriculovertebral syndrome, and hemifacial microsomia. Craniofacial microsomia has become the preferred term. Although no diagnostic criteria for craniofacial microsomia exist, most patients have a degree of underdevelopment of the mandible, maxilla, ear, orbit, facial soft tissue, and/or facial nerve. These anomalies can affect feeding, compromise the airway, alter facial movement, di...
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - March 7, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Craig Birgfeld, Carrie Heike Source Type: research

Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery: State of the Craft
CLINICS IN PLASTIC SURGERY (Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - March 7, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Edward P. Buchanan Source Type: research