Ozone/peroxide advanced oxidation in combination with biofiltration for taste and odour control and organics removal.
The objective of this pilot-scale study was to investigate the effectiveness of incorporating ozone (O3) and advanced oxidation (hydrogen peroxide/ozone: H2O2/O3) in combination with biofiltration for taste and odour control, organic carbon removal, and disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursor reduction. Implementation of O3 and H2O2/O3 with and without biofiltration was investigated at pilot-scale in terms of geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), and DBP precursor removal efficiency. Two media types (granular activated carbon and anthracite) were compared in conjunction with investigating the impact of pre-oxidation with O3 (2...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Beniwal D, Taylor-Edmonds L, Armour J, Andrews RC Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Partitioning of volatile organic compounds to aerosols: A review.
Abstract Although volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exist mainly in the gas-phase rather than in aerosols, the concentrations of VOCs measured from aerosols are comparable to those of semi-volatile organic compounds, which preferentially partition into aerosols. VOCs that partition into aerosols may raise health effects that are generally not exerted by aerosols or by VOCs alone. So far, only scant reports on VOC/aerosol partitioning are available in the extant literature. In this review, we discuss findings presented in recent studies on the partition mechanism, factors affecting the partition process, existing k...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Rao G, Vejerano EP Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Effects of perinatal exposure to BPA and its alternatives (BPS, BPF and BPAF) on hepatic lipid and glucose homeostasis in female mice adolescent offspring.
In this study, we examined the effects of perinatal exposure to BPA and its 3 alternatives (BPS, BPF, and BPAF) on lipid and glucose homeostasis in female mice adolescent offspring. Specifically, BPA exposure promoted the expression of hepatic lipid synthesis and fatty acid accumulation genes, resulting in a significant increase in 2 free fatty acids contents. BPS exposure caused an increase in 6 free fatty acids and triglyceride contents through promoting the expression of fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride synthesis and fatty acid accumulation genes and inhibiting the expression of fatty acid β-oxidation genes. Inte...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Meng Z, Wang D, Yan S, Li R, Yan J, Teng M, Zhou Z, Zhu W Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Acute toxicity of selenate and selenite and their impacts on oxidative status, efflux pump activity, cellular and genetic parameters in earthworm Eisenia andrei.
aron;ek T, Lončarić Z Abstract Selenium (Se) is an essential element for humans, animals, and certain lower plants, but can be toxic at high concentration. Even though Se is potentially toxic, little information is available about the effects of Se on soil animals. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of different concentrations of two Se forms, selenate and selenite, on earthworm Eisenia andrei. In order to obtain comprehensive overview on the Se effects, different parameters were measured. Namely, acute toxicity, apoptosis, efflux pump activity, different enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers (acety...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ečimović S, Velki M, Vuković R, Štolfa Čamagajevac I, Petek A, Bošnjaković R, Grgić M, Engelmann P, Bodó K, Filipović-Marijić V, Ivanković D, Erk M, Mijošek T, Lončarić Z Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Quantitative analysis of methane monooxygenase (MMO) explains process robustness in continuous and feast-famine bioreactors treating methane.
In this study, the performance of a continuous and two feast-famine (5:5 days feast-famine cycles) stirred tank reactors treating diluted CH4 emissions (4-5% v/v) was comparatively assessed for 149 days. The robustness of the three bioreactors towards a 5 days CH4 deprivation episode was thoroughly evaluated at a molecular level (pmoA gene expression level) and correlated to macroscopic process performance. The bioreactors recovered their steady-state abatement performance (in terms of CH4 elimination capacity and CO2 production rate) within 1.5-2 h following CH4 supply resumption concomitantly with a maximum in pmoA gen...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Rodríguez E, López JC, Prieto P, Merchán L, García-Encina PA, Lebrero R, Muñoz R Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Cyclic siloxanes in indoor environments from hair salons in Hanoi, Vietnam: Emission sources, spatial distribution, and implications for human exposure.
In this study, three typical cyclic siloxanes (CSis) were found in hair care products, indoor dust and indoor air samples at hair salons in Hanoi, Vietnam. The total concentrations of CSis in three kinds of hair care products ranged from 8.77 to 515 μg g-1. The mean and median concentrations of CSis in dust samples collected at hair salons were 671 and 654 μg g-1, respectively. The total concentrations of CSis in indoor air samples collected at the hair salons ranged from 415 to 2610 ng m-3 (mean: 1030; median: 849 ng m-3, respectively). Among three cyclic siloxanes mentioned in this study, decamethyl...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Tran TM, Tu MB, Vu ND Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Toxicological and morphological effects of tebufenozide on Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae.
Serrão JE Abstract The velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important soybean pest in the Americas. Tebufenozide, a novel nonsteroidal ecdysone agonist is used to control this pest. Bioassays were conducted to assess tebufenozide toxicity and their ultrastructural effects on midgut of A. gemmatalis. The toxicity, survivorship, behavior response, and respiration rate for A. gemmatalis larvae after exposure to tebufenozide were evaluated. Also, A. gemmatalis larvae were treated with LC50 obtained from tebufenozide and changes were observed o...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Fiaz M, Martínez LC, Plata-Rueda A, Gonçalves WG, Shareef M, Zanuncio JC, Serrão JE Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components in fine particle during heavy polluting phase of each season in urban Beijing.
Abstract Beijing experienced a period of severe atmospheric particulate pollution from 2015 to 2016. In order to acquire the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) under heavy polluting status, one year sampling campaign was carried out. We selected PM2.5 samples which had the highest concentrations or suffered serious haze-fog weathers in each month. Through the analysis of data from heavily polluting phase, the mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs in winter (369.63 μg m-3 and 223.60 ng m-3) were obviously higher than that in other seasons. The concentration of Σ16PAHs ranged...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Gao Y, Ji H Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Environmentally relevant concentrations of the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate change morphology of female zebrafish.
In this study, one-month old zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0, 0.05, 0.5 or 5 μg/L TDCIPP for 120 days, and effects on fish morphology and expressions of genes included in the development of muscle and bone were examined. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found that environmentally relevant concentrations of TDCIPP altered morphology of female zebrafish. Furthermore, TDCIPP decreased the ratio of caudal fin area to whole body area and muscle density. These effects were possibly resulted from the alteration in the expression of genes included in the development of muscle (myf5 and myog) and bone...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zhu Y, Lin D, Yang D, Jia Y, Liu C Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Mechanisms and toxicity evaluation of the degradation of sulfamethoxazole by MPUV/PMS process.
Abstract In this work, a sulfate radical (SO4-)-based advanced oxidation process was applied to the degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). In these experiments, a medium pressure UV (MPUV) lamp was employed to active peroxymonosulfate (PMS). It was found that 98% of SMX was removed by MPUV/PMS at a UV dose of 200 mJ cm-2 (3.95 μM SMX, 0.2 mM PMS, pH0 = 3.7). Direct MPUV photolysis played a remarkable role in SMX removal by MPUV/PMS process. As for the indirect photolysis, SO4- was the major reactive species under acidic and neutral conditions in MPUV/PMS system, while the hydroxyl radical (OH) becam...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ao X, Liu W, Sun W, Yang C, Lu Z, Li C Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Long-term monitoring of waste-rock weathering at the Antamina mine, Peru.
This study demonstrates that a reliable prediction of the timing and quality of waste-rock drainage on practice-relevant spatiotemporal scales requires a quantitative understanding of the prevailing in-situ porewater conditions, secondary mineralogy, and spatial distribution of reactive waste-rock fractions in composite piles. PMID: 30408882 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Chemosphere)
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Vriens B, Peterson H, Laurenzi L, Smith L, Aranda C, Mayer KU, Beckie RD Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Endocrine activities and adipogenic effects of bisphenol AF and its main metabolite.
Mašič LP Abstract Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is a fluorinated analog of bisphenol A (BPA), and it is a more potent estrogen receptor (ER) agonist. BPAF is mainly metabolized to BPAF-glucuronide (BPAF-G), which has been reported to lack ER agonist activity and is believed to be biologically inactive. The main goal of the current study was to examine the influence of the metabolism of BPAF via glucuronidation on its ER activity and adipogenesis. Also, as metabolites can have different biological activities, the effects of BPAF-G on other nuclear receptors were evaluated. First, in-vitro BPAF glucuronidation was in...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Skledar DG, Carino A, Trontelj J, Troberg J, Distrutti E, Marchianò S, Tomašič T, Zega A, Finel M, Fiorucci S, Mašič LP Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

First detection of tetrodotoxin and high levels of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish from Sicily (Italy) by three different analytical methods.
In this study, we used three separate analytical methods - pre-column oxidation with liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection, ultrahigh performance hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and HILIC high resolution (HR) MS/MS - to investigate the presence of PST and TTX in seawater and shellfish (mussels, clams) collected in spring summer 2015 to 2017 in the Mediterranean Sea. Samples were collected at 10 sites in the Syracuse Bay (Sicily, Italy) in concomitance with a mixed bloom of Alexandrium minutum and A. pacificum. A very high PST contamination in mussels em...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Dell'Aversano C, Tartaglione L, Polito G, Dean K, Giacobbe M, Casabianca S, Capellacci S, Penna A, Turner AD Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Wastewater treatment and microbial community dynamics in a sequencing batch reactor operating under photosynthetic aeration.
Abstract A sequencing batch bioreactor (SBR) treating municipal wastewater was photosynthetically aerated using microalgae cultivated in a photobioreactor (PBR). Symbiotic interactions and CO2/O2 exchange were established between activated sludge in the SBR and microalgae in the PBR through hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes. Photosynthetic aeration enhanced COD removal in the SBR from 52.2% (without external aeration) to 90.3%, whereas N-NH4+ and P-PO43- removal increased by 63.5% and 90.4%, respectively. The SBR performance under photosynthetic aeration was comparable to that under mechanical aeration. However, ...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Parakh SK, Praveen P, Loh KC, Tong YW Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Toxicological effects of transition metal-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles on goldfish (Carassius auratus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).
Abstract The aim of present study was to assess the toxicological effects of transition metal-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on histopathological changes, behavioral patterns, and antioxidant responses of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible, and Vibration Sample Magnetometer. Fish in four experimental groups exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of pure TiO2 NPs (10 mg L-1), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), and nickel (...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Pirsaheb M, Azadi NA, Miglietta ML, Sayadi MH, Blahova J, Fathi M, Mansouri B Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Uptake, translocation, and accumulation of Cd and its interaction with mineral nutrients (Fe, Zn, Ni, Ca, Mg) in upland rice.
Abstract An analysis of the Cd and mineral nutrients accumulation of upland rice was performed in an experimental field with hard-ridged plots containing three soils with exogenous Cd addition at rates of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg kg-1 five years prior to commence this experiment. Aims of this investigation were to study uptake, translocation, and accumulation of Cd by an upland rice (Huyou2) and effects of Cd addition on the accumulation of Fe, Zn, Ni, Ca, and Mg. The results demonstrate the mean Cd content in the plant parts, from highest to lowest, were as follows: root, stem, leaf, and brown rice. Th...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Khaliq MA, James B, Chen YH, Ahmed Saqib HS, Li HH, Jayasuriya P, Guo W Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Role of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) on arsenic-induced neuronal apoptosis.
In this study of 151 adults with normal, mild, moderate, and high exposure to arsenic, the measured serum PEDF levels were 15.46 ± 5.87 ng/mL, 17.33 ± 8.22 ng/mL, 19.43 ± 9.51 ng/mL and 21.65 ± 14.46 ng/mL, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed an independent positive correlation between serum PEDF levels and arsenic exposure in drinking water. To study the underlying mechanism of arsenic-induced apoptosis, we exposed PEDF-transfected PC12 cells to NaAsO2. We discovered that NaAsO2--induced mitochondrial apoptosis was enhanced in cells that over exp...
Source: Chemosphere - November 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zhang W, Cui X, Gao Y, Sun L, Wang J, Yang Y, Liu X, Li Y, Guo X, Sun D Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Effects of feed water NOM variation on chloramine demand from chloramine-decaying soluble microbial products during rechloramination.
Abstract Earlier, we reported on soluble microbial products-mediated chloramine decay in nitrifying waters. However, we neither separated the agent(s) nor identified the factors that enhanced the production of chloramine-decaying soluble microbial products (cSMPs). Experiments were conducted by feeding reactor sets (each consisting of five reactors connected in series) with treated water (3-8 mg-DOC.L-1) obtained from a water treatment plant. The reactors simulated various nitrifying conditions that are experienced in a chloraminated system. In unfiltered samples obtained from nitrified reactors, about 89-93% of...
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Herath BS, Torres A, Sathasivan A Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Toxicity assessment of fresh and weathered petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil- a review.
Abstract Soil contamination with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is widespread throughout the globe due to the massive production of TPH anthropogenically and its occurrence in the soil. TPH is toxic to beneficial soil organisms and humans and thus has become a serious concern among the public. Traditionally TPH toxicity in the soil is estimated based on chemical fractions and a range of bioassays including plants, invertebrates and microorganisms. There is a large inconsistency among ecotoxicology data using these assays due to the nature of TPH and their weathering. Therefore, in this article, we critically r...
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Khan MAI, Biswas B, Smith E, Naidu R, Megharaj M Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Feasibility of using basalt fiber as biofilm Carrier to construct bio-nest for wastewater treatment.
Abstract Generally, biofilms developed for wastewater treatment readily detach from carrier medium once available thickness exceeds about 2 mm. Carrier media made of basalt fibers (BFs) could form ball-like aggregates (more than 10 cm in size, and called bio-nest). To demonstrate its feasibility for wastewater treatment, both reactors with and without BF carriers (RBF and RCO) were evaluated in terms of nutrient removal, oxygen mass transport and biological viabilities as well as biofilm adsorption characteristics. Therefore, oxygen microprofiles and confocal images for bio-nest as well as functional groups fo...
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ni H, Zhou X, Zhang X, Xiao X, Liu JF, Huan H, Luo Z, Wu Z Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Phototransformation of p-arsanilic acid in aqueous media containing nitrogen species.
Abstract The effects of co-existing nitrogen species in surface water on the phototransformation of organoarsenical p-arsanilic acid (p-ASA) have been investigated using a xenon lamp as a simulated solar light source. Significant enhancements of p-ASA phototransformation efficiency were observed in the presence of nitrate and nitrite, increasing with the concentration of these species and pH, whereas ammonia showed no obvious effect. The products, including inorganic arsenic species and organic derivatives, have been analyzed in order to reveal the phototransformation pathways. In the nitrate and nitrite systems, ...
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Xu J, Zhang H, Luo T, Liu Z, Xia J, Zhang X Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Degradation and mechanism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) by thermally activated persulfate oxidation.
Abstract The chlorinated phenoxy herbicide of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was oxidized by thermally activated persulfate (TAP). This herbicide was studied for different persulfate dosages (0.97-7.29 g L-1), for varying initial pH levels (3-12) and temperatures (25-70 °C). Compared with Fe2+/PS, TAP could achieve a higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal under wider pH ranges of 3-12. Increasing the mole ratio of PS to 2,4-D favored for the decay of 2,4-D and the best performance was achieved at the ratio of 50. The 2,4-D degradation rate constant highly depended on the initial pH and temperatu...
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Cai J, Zhou M, Yang W, Pan Y, Lu X, Serrano KG Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Distinct effect of humic acid on ferrihydrite colloid-facilitated transport of arsenic in saturated media at different pH.
This study suggested that morphology and concentration of HAC, mobility of FHC, and solution pH would control As transport in porous media. The fate of As changed from co-transport with HAC-FHC to co-deposition when environmental pH decreased. PMID: 30189406 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Chemosphere)
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ma J, Guo H, Weng L, Li Y, Lei M, Chen Y Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Phosphate helps to recover from scavenging effect of chloride in self-enhanced ozonation.
Abstract Self-enhanced ozonation is a new approach for generation of hydroxyl radicals at low pH. Unfortunately at acidic environment chloride effectively scavenges the radicals. Therefore, the presence of chloride in ozonated medium would be detrimental for the most of the process practical applications. In self-enhanced ozonation process almost complete degradation of aromatics is observed during first 10min. Addition of 3.22 mM of chloride completely hinders degradation of nitrobenzene (NB) or benzoic acid (BA). This work shows that the scavenging effect of chlorides may be overcome with an excess of phosphat...
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Fijołek L, Nawrocki J Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Fate and dynamics of metal precipitates arising from acid drainage discharges to a river system.
This study assessed the fate of over seven years of acid drainage discharges on the sediments of the lower River Murray (Australia), including the potential for periodic water anoxia to enhance risk via reductive dissolution of amorphous (Fe, Mn and co-precipitated and bound metal) oxide phases. With the exception of one site with restricted water exchange, elevated reducible/reactive metal(oid) (Fe, Ni, As, Co, Zn) concentrations were only observed in the localised wetland-riparian area within approximately 100 m of the discharges. Only a minor exceedance of national sediment quality guideline values occurred for Ni. In...
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Mosley LM, Biswas TK, Dang T, Palmer D, Cummings C, Daly R, Simpson S, Kirby J Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Contribution of dissolved N2O in total N2O emission from sewage treatment plant.
Abstract The characteristics of nitrous oxide, N2O, from a sewage treatment plant, which conducts nitrogen removal, and the river that receives its effluent water, were investigated by intensive daily surveys in summer and winter. N2O production in the sewage treatment plant was promoted in winter when nitrite accumulated in the reaction tank. The dissolved N2O concentration in the effluent water was also high in winter, which caused the dissolved N2O concentration to increase in the river downstream. In contrast, the N2O production inside the plant and the dissolved N2O emission through the effluent water, the di...
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Masuda S, Otomo S, Maruo C, Nishimura O Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR simulations for the reaction rate constants of organic compounds in ozone-hydrogen peroxide oxidation.
In this study, 23 organic compounds were conducted to study the reaction rate constants during O3-H2O2 oxidation. Then, two- and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were established to investigate the factors influencing the reaction rate constants by using multiple linear regression method and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) method, respectively. Both of the two models showed good performance on predicting the reaction rate constants, the associated statistical indices of 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR models were R2 = 0.898 and 0.952, q2 = 0.841 and 0.951, Qe...
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Cheng Z, Yang B, Chen Q, Tan Y, Gao X, Yuan T, Shen Z Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Response of the reactor performance and microbial community to a shift of ISDD process from micro-aerobic to anoxic condition.
In this study we investigated and compared the performance and microbial community of ISDD process operating under initially anoxic, then micro-aerobic and finally switch back to anoxic condition. For all the three tested scenarios, comparable bioreactor performance in terms of sulfate (95.0 ± 4.4%, 90.6 ± 3.8%, 89.8 ± 3.5%) and nitrate (∼100%) removal was achieved. However, a shift of ISDD bioreactor from micro-aerobic to anoxic environment clearly increased the S0 production (30.6%), relative to that at initial anoxic condition (14.2%). Further anoxic bioreactor operation with differe...
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Xu XJ, Shao B, Chen C, Zhang RC, Xie P, Wang XT, Yuan Y, Wang AJ, Lee DJ, Yuan YX, Ren NQ Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Surfactant-facilitated dechlorination of 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorinated biphenyl using zero-valent iron in soil/sediment solution: Integrated effects of plausible factors.
Abstract Surfactants are used to assist the zero-valent iron-mediated reductive dechlorination (ZVI-RD) of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). Although the effect of surfactants has been investigated in single-factor systems, the relationships between the surfactant and the matrix properties during RD are not well understood. Thus, an orthogonal experiment and post-experiment characterization of ZVI were conducted in the present study to estimate the integrated effects of plausible factors. The results showed that the introduction of surfactants significantly influenced the reduction of 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorin...
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Wu Y, Wang Y, Huang X, Simonnot MO, Wu W, Cai X, Chen S, Wang S, Qiu R, Zhang W Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Degradation of diclofenac by H2O2 activated with pre-magnetization Fe0: Influencing factors and degradation pathways.
In this study, the degradation of DCF in two heterogeneous systems, pre-magnetization Fe0/H2O2 (Pre-Fe0/H2O2) and Fe0/H2O2 system, was comparably studied. Our findings proved that Pre-Fe0 could significantly improve the degradation and dechlorination of DCF due to the change of Fe0 characteristics after pre-magnetization. Compared with Fe0/H2O2 process, Pre-Fe0/H2O2 process has 2.1-7.0 times higher rate constant for DCF degradation at different H2O2 dosages (0.25-2.0 mM), initial pH (3.0-6.0) and Fe0 dosages (0.25-1.5 mM). The characterizations by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance con...
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Li X, Zhou M, Pan Y Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Ambient air pollution, H19/DMR methylation in cord blood and newborn size: A pilot study in Zhengzhou City, China.
In conclusion, the gene methylation level in cord blood might be associated with prenatal environmental exposures. Birth weight and length were associated with both prenatal environmental exposures and genetic factors. PMID: 30193235 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Chemosphere)
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: He T, Zhu J, Wang J, Ren X, Cheng G, Liu X, Ma Q, Zhang Y, Li Z, Ba Y Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of N-Nitrosodiphenylamine in water samples.
In this study, the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with high specific surface area and extraction efficiency of N-Nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA) were successfully prepared and a highly sensitive and selective method was developed for determination of NDPhA in water samples using MIPs solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. The MIPs were successfully prepared using the method of precipitation polymerization and using methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, and N, N-Diphenylformamide as the template molecule....
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Li Z, Qian Z, Hu S, Gong T, Xian Q Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Color and nitrogen removal from synthetic dye wastewater in an integrated mesophilic hydrolysis/acidification and multiple anoxic/aerobic process.
Abstract Dye wastewater is one kind of refractory pollutant and it is commonly treated by the integrated anaerobic and aerobic process. A new integrated hydrolysis/acidification and multiple anoxic/aerobic (AO) process was proposed for the removal of color and nitrogen from azo dye wastewater. System performance, the degradation pathway of azo dye and nitrogen metabolic pathway were investigated with quadrupole-time-of-flight and metagenomic analyses. The proposed process removed color and nitrogen efficiently, with the removal percentages of 89.4% and 54.0%, respectively. A colorful intermediate C16H11N3O7S2 duri...
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Gu M, Yin Q, Wang Z, He K, Wu G Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Unraveling the ecotoxicity of deep eutectic solvents using the mixture toxicity theory.
This study evaluates the ecotoxicological profile of DES based on [N1111]Cl, [N2222]Cl and [N3333]Cl as hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA) combined with hydrogen-bond donors (HBD) vis. ethylene glycol and 1-propanol, through the Microtox® Acute Toxicity Test. CA and IA with deviations describing synergism/antagonism, dose-ratio and dose-level effects were fitted to the toxicity data. Neither the starting materials nor DES were found hazardous to Aliivibrio fischeri, in this specific case agreeing with the claimed "green character" of DES. Among the starting materials, ethylene glycol was the least toxic, whereas [...
Source: Chemosphere - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Macário IPE, Jesus F, Pereira JL, Ventura SPM, Gonçalves AMM, Coutinho JAP, Gonçalves FJM Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Effects of food availability on the trade-off between growth and antioxidant responses in Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to sulfonamide antibiotics.
Abstract Adverse effects of sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs) include growth inhibition and antioxidant activation which showed trade-off effects. Yet, the influence of food availability on such effects have not been thoroughly investigated. Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to four SAs at high and low food availabilities which were represented by the optical densities of bacteria at 600 nm. The nematode feeding, growth and antioxidants including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) were determined. Results showed that the control nematodes at low food availability had less growth and g...
Source: Chemosphere - October 28, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yu Z, Yin D, Hou M, Zhang J Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Evaluating organics removal performance from lagoon-pretreated swine wastewater in pilot-scale three-stage surface flow constructed wetlands.
Abstract Pilot-scale three-stage surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) planted with Myriophyllum aquaticum were constructed to study the organics removal performance from lagoon-pretreated swine wastewater. The removal performance of organics in the SFCWs was evaluated using deterministic and probabilistic methods and the results were consistent. The SFCWs achieved a relatively high removal efficiency (79.0-82.7%) for a wide influent COD concentration range (456-1010 mg L-1). No significant difference (p > 0.05) of COD removal efficiency and first-order removal rate constant among the various streng...
Source: Chemosphere - October 28, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Luo P, Liu F, Zhang S, Li H, Chen X, Wu L, Jiang Q, Xiao R, Wu J Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Inhibiting fly ash reactivity by adding N- and S- containing compounds.
e;o N Abstract The inhibitory effect of thiourea (TUA), ammonium thiosulfate (TSA) and amidosulfonic acid (ASA) on the reactivity of fly ash air was investigated using a thermobalance at different heating rates (5, 10 and 20 K min-1). A model fly ash (activated carbon + 50 wt% CuCl2·2H2O, pyrolyzed at 700 °C and washed) was used as carbonaceous material. Adding CuCl2·2H2O to the activated carbon led to an increased rate of decomposition with the air's oxygen. TUA and TSA behaved in a similar way, accelerating the decomposition of the model fly ash. ASA also accelerated the de...
Source: Chemosphere - October 28, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Soler A, Conesa JA, Ortuño N Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Immunochemical rapid determination of quinoxyfen, a priority hazardous pollutant.
er JV Abstract In 2013, quinoxyfen was included in the list of priority hazard pollutants of the European Water Framework Directive due to its toxicity to aquatic organisms. However, few analytical methods for the analysis of this fungicide have been reported and no rapid immunochemical methods have been published so far. In the present study, immunoreagents for quinoxyfen analysis were generated for the first time and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed. Two carboxylated derivatives of quinoxyfen were designed on the basis of the minimum energy conformation of the target compound. Active esters of ...
Source: Chemosphere - October 28, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Duncan H, Abad-Somovilla A, Abad-Fuentes A, Agulló C, Mercader JV Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Acute exposure to water-soluble fractions of marine diesel oil: Evaluation of apoptosis and oxidative stress in an ascidian.
Abstract To understand the mechanisms involved in organisms' responses to toxicity from oil pollution, we studied the effect of acute exposure (24 h) to the marine water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WFDO) on the ascidian Styela plicata. We evaluated the mortality and behavior by means of the siphon reflex, and the response of blood cells (hemocytes) contained in the pharynx, by means of the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), in addition to the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). We also correlated oxidative stress with the activation of apoptotic pathways. No mor...
Source: Chemosphere - October 28, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Barbosa DB, Mello AA, Allodi S, de Barros CM Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Genotoxicity assessment of pesticide profenofos in freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) using comet assay and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).
Abstract The present study explored the induced genotoxicity (DNA damage) due to organophosphate pesticide profenofos (PFF) after in vivo exposure in freshwater fish Channa punctatus by the use of Comet assay and Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The fish specimens were exposed to sub-lethal concentration of 1.16 ppb (50% of LC50) in a semi-static system and the DNA damage was assessed in exposed and control fish. The DNA damage was measured in erythrocytes as the percentage of DNA damage in Comet tails and RAPD technique using oligonucleotide primers of fish specimens exposed to the sublethal concen...
Source: Chemosphere - October 28, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Pandey AK, Nagpure NS, Trivedi SP Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Honeycomb-like carbon nitride through supramolecular preorganization of monomers for high photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation.
Abstract A metal-free modified carbon nitride MCU(DMSO)-C3N4 (3:3:1) with a honeycomb-like morphology was prepared via firstly introducing cyanuric acid and urea into melamine in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the precursor for the MCU-C3N4. A variety of characterization methods, including XRD, XPS, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, UV-vis, photoluminescence (PL), and photocurrent generation, were applied to investigate the structure, morphology, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties of the g-C3N4 and MCU-C3N4 (3:3:1). Rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue (MB), and bisphenol A (BPA) were selected as target pollutants to evaluate...
Source: Chemosphere - October 28, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Huang J, Cheng W, Shi Y, Zeng G, Yu H, Gu Y, Shi L, Yi K Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Occurrence, distribution, and air-water exchange of organophosphorus flame retardants in a typical coastal area of China.
Abstract Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) have been detected ubiquitously in the air and water worldwide, but no study has focused on their air-water exchange process. Here, we investigated the concentrations, distributions, and seasonal variations of OPFRs in the coastal air and water of Dalian, China. The total concentrations of 10 OPFRs in the air based on passive air sampling ranged from 0.50 to 20.0 ng/m3, while the concentrations of OPFRs in the water dissolved phase ranged from 48.3 to 681 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations were mainly discovered near the industry areas or river estuaries, su...
Source: Chemosphere - October 28, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Wang Y, Wu X, Zhang Q, Zhao H, Hou M, Xie Q, Chen J Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Continuous degradation of ciprofloxacin in a manganese redox cycling system driven by Pseudomonas putida MnB-1.
Abstract Ciprofloxacin (CIP), as an extensively used antibiotic, has been widely detected at a high level in the environment and has raised environmental pollution concerns. Thus, efficient and cost-effective methods for CIP degradation are highly desired. Biologically produced manganese oxides (BioMnOx) offer a promising perspective for CIP degradation because of their catalytic reactivity and cost-effectiveness. However, the release of Mn(II) from BioMnOx prevents the further oxidation of pollutants. As a consequence, continuous CIP degradation by BioMnOx is not feasible. In this work, a manganese redox cycling ...
Source: Chemosphere - October 28, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zhou NQ, Liu DF, Min D, Cheng L, Huang XN, Tian LJ, Li DB, Yu HQ Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Influence of organic management on As bioavailability: Soil quality and tomato As uptake.
Abstract The research studied the effects of organic vs. conventional management of soil quality and tomato yield quality, cultivated in a geogenic arsenic contaminated soil. The chemical and biochemical properties were analyzed to evaluate soil quality, arsenic mobility and its phyto-availability, as well as arsenic accumulation in the tomato plant tissues and if tomatoes cultivated in arsenic rich soil represents a risk for human health. A general improvement of tomato growth and soil quality was observed in the organic management, where soil organic carbon increased from 1.24 to 1.48% and total nitrogen content...
Source: Chemosphere - October 28, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Stazi SR, Mancinelli R, Marabottini R, Allevato E, Radicetti E, Campiglia E, Marinari S Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Lethal and sublethal toxicity of abamectin and difenoconazole (individually and in mixture) to early life stages of zebrafish.
a ELG Abstract In recent years, the need for the development of alternative test methods for the conventional acute fish toxicity test (AFT) with adult fish has often been discussed. In addition, concerns have been raised on the potential risks related with environmentally realistic pesticide mixtures since risk evaluations have traditionally been based on individual pesticides. The insecticide/acaricide abamectin and the fungicide difenoconazole are the main pesticides that are intensively used in Brazilian strawberry crop and are hence likely to occur simultaneously in edge-of-field waterbodies. The aim of the p...
Source: Chemosphere - October 21, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Sanches ALM, Daam MA, Freitas EC, Godoy AA, Meireles G, Almeida AR, Domingues I, Espíndola ELG Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

A pilot-scale investigation of disinfection by-product precursors and trace organic removal mechanisms in ozone-biologically activated carbon treatment for potable reuse.
Abstract Although granular activated carbon (GAC) has been broadly applied in ozone-biologically activated carbon filtration (O3/BAC) systems for potable reuse of municipal wastewater, the mechanisms of various pollutant removal remain largely unknown as the regenerated GAC develops microbial populations resulting in biofiltration but loses significant adsorption capacity as it becomes spent GAC. Therefore, pilot-scale parallel performance comparisons of spent and regenerated GAC, along with a range of pre-oxidant ozone doses, were used to shed light on the mechanisms responsible for the removal of various types o...
Source: Chemosphere - October 21, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Sun Y, Angelotti B, Brooks M, Dowbiggin B, Evans PJ, Devins B, Wang ZW Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a neutral electrolysed oxidising water (NEOW) device in reducing Legionella pneumophila in a water distribution system: A comparison between culture, qPCR and PMA-qPCR detection methods.
Abstract Disinfection of hot water systems is critical for reducing Legionnaires' disease in high-risk buildings. The use of neutral electrolysed oxidising water (NEOW) is a promising method for the control of microorganisms in hot water systems. However, full-scale evaluations of the efficacy of NEOW devices to control Legionella pneumophila are currently lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a NEOW device in reducing L. pneumophila in a hotel water network. Water samples (n = 67) were collected from different sites of a hotel distribution system before and after the installat...
Source: Chemosphere - October 21, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Bonetta S, Pignata C, Bonetta S, Meucci L, Giacosa D, Marino E, Gorrasi I, Gilli G, Carraro E Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Efficient prevention of nanomaterials transport in the porous media by treatment with polyelectrolytes.
Abstract Contamination of soil by engineered nanomaterials (ENM) is an emergent environmental problem that urges the development of robust treatment protocols to prevent ENM transport through soil. We developed a method for efficient entrapment and retention of ENM in solid porous media of quartz sand with grain size of 300-500 μm used as a simple model of soil and studied the transport properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, silica and gold nanoparticles through the sand-packed column by UV-vis and fluorescent spectroscopy. The treatment of ENM-contaminated porous media with a mixture of opp...
Source: Chemosphere - October 21, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Soenaryo T, Murata S, Zinchenko A Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Chromium uptake by lettuce as affected by the application of organic matter and Cr(VI)-irrigation water: Implications to the land use and water management.
Abstract Toxic chromium [(Cr(VI)] in food chain has created an alarming situation for human life and ecosystems. The present study through a greenhouse pot experiment aims to (a) investigate the ability of organic matter in reducing Cr uptake by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) from a sandy loam soil irrigating with Cr(VI)-water, (b) to provide a way for the restriction of Cr transfer from contaminated soils and irrigation water to plants/crops and (c) to contribute to the better management of soil (land) and water use, without reduction of the agricultural production. Since soil and groundwater contamination by Cr is ...
Source: Chemosphere - October 21, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Raptis S, Gasparatos D, Economou-Eliopoulos M, Petridis A Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Metals and arsenic in sediment and fish from Cau Hai lagoon in Vietnam: Ecological and human health risks.
Abstract Concentrations of Al, As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, U, V and Zn were quantified in surface sediments collected from 13 different sampling sites from Cau Hai lagoon in Central Vietnam, and in 8 wild and farmed-fishes involving both pelagic and benthic species. Multivariate analysis shows that these trace elements are mainly associated with lithogenic matter, and are most likely the result of alteration and erosion processes in the lagoon. Enrichment factors and geo-accumulation indices reveal substantial sediment enrichments for both As and Bi with respect to the mean composition in the upper...
Source: Chemosphere - October 18, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Tran TAM, Leermakers M, Hoang TL, Nguyen VH, Elskens M Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research