Facilitated arsenic immobilization by biogenic ferrihydrite-goethite biphasic Fe(III) minerals (Fh-Gt Bio-bi-minerals).
Abstract Biogenic iron(III) minerals (BIM) widely occur in aquatic systems. However, characteristics and mechanisms of As sequestration by biogenic biphasic Fe(III) minerals (Bio-bi-minerals) are not clearly understood. We investigated characteristics of Bio-bi-minerals induced by Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002 and explored their As sequestration mechanisms by monitoring particle morphology, mineralogical composition, and As binding properties. Results showed that Fe(II) oxidation (about 3 mM) by Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002 under growth condition produced biogenic ferrihydrite-goethite biphasic Fe(III...
Source: Chemosphere - May 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Xiu W, Yu X, Guo H, Yuan W, Ke T, Liu G, Tao J, Hou W, Dong H Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Maternal exposure to cadmium impairs cognitive development of male offspring by targeting the Coronin-1a signaling pathway.
Abstract Direct exposure to cadmium (Cd) may induce persistent impairment in learning and memory. However, the outcomes of maternal exposure on the neurological development of offspring are much less clear, and the underlying mechanism leading to toxicity remains undisclosed. Following chronic exposure of female rats during gestation and lactation, low level of Cd was detectable in the cerebral cortex but not in the hippocampus of F1 male offspring. The synapses and neurites in hippocampus were destroyed by high Cd exposure level as evidenced by abnormal morphology and cognitive behavior deficit lasting from child...
Source: Chemosphere - May 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Feng J, Chen S, Wang Y, Liu Q, Yang M, Li X, Nie C, Qin J, Chen H, Yuan X, Huang Y, Zhang Q Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Interaction effects of oxytetracycline and copper at different ratios on marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana.
Abstract Contamination with both oxytetracycline (OTC) and Cu is prevalent in water. OTC can chelate with Cu to form OTC + Cu composites. Through the study of the effects of the interaction of OTC and Cu on the algae Isochrysis galbana at multiple coordination ratios, it was found that the OTC + Cu complex was antagonistic to algae growth after 24 h of exposure but was synergistic in treatment (T) 3 and T4 after 48 and 72 h. Compared with OTC alone, the addition of Cu addition significantly inhibited the biosynthesis of chlorophyll a, but the ratio (R) in the OTC + Cu and OT...
Source: Chemosphere - May 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Wu C, He C Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Mapping human health risk from exposure to potential toxic metal contamination in groundwater of Lower Dir, Pakistan: Application of multivariate and geographical information system.
Abstract The study aimed to assess the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolve solid (TDS), oxidation reduction potential (ORP), Temperature) and potential toxic metals (PTMs), including Ni, Mn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Co, Fe and Zn in the groundwater of Lower Dir, Pakistan. Furthermore, the pollution sources and spatial distribution pattern of PTMs were also investigated via principal component analysis (PCA) and geographic information system (GIS) application to understand the changing behaviors of PTMs in groundwater. The average concentrations of physicochemical parameters such as ...
Source: Chemosphere - May 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Rashid A, Khan S, Ayub M, Sardar T, Jehan S, Zahir S, Khan MS, Muhammad J, Khan R, Ali A, Ullah H Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Pregnancy protects against the pro-inflammatory respiratory responses induced by particulate matter exposure.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data suggest that pregnancy reduces the inflammatory response to silica and alters the immune response to DEP. These responses were accompanied by pregnancy related changes including increased IL-4 production, reduced IL-8 production and an increase in the proportion of CD4+CD25 + T cells in response to PM exposure. PMID: 30904759 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Chemosphere)
Source: Chemosphere - May 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Thaver S, Bennett EJ, Foa L, Richards SM, Lyons AB, Zosky GR Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

New insights into the chemical forms of extremely high methylmercury in songbird feathers from a contaminated site.
Abstract The chemical forms of mercury (Hg), particularly methylmercury (MeHg), in songbird feathers from an abandoned mining region were analyzed via X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis (XANES). In feathers, proportions of MeHg as total mercury (75.6-100%) quantified by the XANES were directly comparable to the chemical extraction values (74.1-95.9%). Most of MeHg were bound with cysteine (Cys) and reduced glutathione (GSH), whereas inorganic mercury (IHg) was mainly bound with GSH. These results were consistent with those found in fish muscles and human hairs of both fish consumers and occupational Hg ...
Source: Chemosphere - May 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Xu Z, Abeysinghe KS, Xu X, Gu C, Liang L, Lu Q, Zhang Y, Zheng L, Wang WX, Qiu G Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Introducing a soil universal model method (SUMM) and its application for qualitative and quantitative determination of poly(ethylene), poly(styrene), poly(vinyl chloride) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) microplastics in a model soil.
In this study, we evaluated the potential of a soil universal model method (SUMM) based on thermogravimetry (TGA) for the identification and quantification of microplastics in standard loamy sand. Blank and spiked soils (with amounts of one of four microplastic types) were analyzed by TGA. For each sample, thermal mass losses (TML) in 10 °C intervals were extracted and used for further analysis. To explain and demonstrate the principles of SUMM, two scenarios were discussed. The first refers to a rare situation in which an uncontaminated blank of investigated soil is available and TML of spiked and blank soils are su...
Source: Chemosphere - May 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: David J, Weissmannová HD, Steinmetz Z, Kabelíková L, Demyan MS, Šimečková J, Tokarski D, Siewert C, Schaumann GE, Kučerík J Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

A holistic study on potential toxic effects of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos/larvae.
Abstract Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have widespread use in industrial and consumer products and great potential in biomedical applications. This leads to inevitably their release into the environment and the formation of their toxic effects on organisms. These effects can change depending on their physicochemical characteristics. Therefore, the toxicological findings of MWCNTs are inconsistent. Their toxicities related to surface modification have not been elucidated in a holistic manner. Hence, this study was conducted to clarify their potential toxic effects on zebrafish embryos/larvae in a comprehen...
Source: Chemosphere - May 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Icoglu Aksakal F, Ciltas A, Simsek Ozek N Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Assessment of heavy metal pollution, distribution and quantitative source apportionment in surface sediments along a partially mixed estuary (Modaomen, China).
Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution, ecological risk and quantitative source apportionment of seven heavy metals in surface sediments along a partially mixed estuary (Modaomen, China). The study area was divided into three regions based on salt-freshwater mixing: a tidal river channel, weakly mixed zone and strongly mixed zone. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were significantly higher in the weakly mixed zone, while a higher Co content was found in the tidal river channel. From enrichment factor (EF) analyses, Cd was moderate to extreme severely enriched at most statio...
Source: Chemosphere - May 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Liu Q, Jia Z, Li S, Hu J Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Human biomonitoring health surveillance for metals near a waste-to-energy incinerator: The 1-year post-operam study.
Abstract This human biomonitoring (HBM) follow-up survey, within the SPoTT project, assessed the temporal and spatial trends of exposure to 18 metals in a cohort living around the waste-to-energy (WTE) incinerator of Turin (Italy) before (T0, 2013) and after 1-year of plant activity (T1, 2014). Urine of 380 adult individuals (186 exposed and 194 unexposed subjects, classified on fallout maps) were analyzed by sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. A decrease trend of the majority of metals in all subjects indicates that the overall air quality of the studied sites was not significantly compromised, al...
Source: Chemosphere - May 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ruggieri F, Alimonti A, Bena A, Pino A, Orengia M, Farina E, Salamina G, Procopio E, Gandini M, Cadum E, Bocca B Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Reconstruction of uranium and plutonium isotopic signatures in sediment accumulated in the Mano Dam reservoir, Japan, before and after the Fukushima nuclear accident.
ard O Abstract The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in Japan resulted in a major release of radionuclides into the environment. Compared to other radionuclides, few studies have investigated the fate of actinides in the environment. Accordingly, this research investigates the Pu composition in soil samples collected in paddy fields before and after the accident. Furthermore, the vertical distributions of Pu and U isotopic signatures, along with 137Cs activities, were measured in a sediment core collected in the Mano Dam reservoir, in the Fukushima Prefecture. Changes in the relative contribu...
Source: Chemosphere - May 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jaegler H, Pointurier F, Diez-Fernández S, Gourgiotis A, Isnard H, Hayashi S, Tsuji H, Onda Y, Hubert A, Laceby JP, Evrard O Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Natural radioactivity in urban soils of mining centers in Armenia: Dose rate and risk assessment.
Abstract Soil radioactivity levels, dose rate and radiological health risk were assessed in metal mining centers of Armenia, at the towns of Kapan and Kajaran. Archive soil samples of the multipurpose soil surveys implemented in Kapan and Kajaran were used for estimation of total alpha and total beta activity levels using gas-less iMatic™ alpha/beta cօunting system (Canberra). Ten representative soil samples per town were randomly selected from different urban zones for naturally occurring radionuclide measurements (238U, 232Th, 40 K) using high purity germanium detector. Four radiological indices: radium...
Source: Chemosphere - May 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Belyaeva O, Pyuskyulyan K, Movsisyan N, Saghatelyan A, Carvalho FP Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Real-time analysis of atrazine biodegradation and sessile bacterial growth: A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring study.
In this study, we employ a novel Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation technique (QCM-D) for continuous, real-time monitoring of the attachment of atrazine-degrading bacteria to the surface, atrazine adsorption and degradation, and the consequent proliferation of the irreversibly attached sessile bacteria. The effect of atrazine biodegradation was observed in a batch mode of operation, in which a significant frequency decrease of the piezoelectric sensor was observed in the QCM-D, due to the proliferation of atrazine-degrading bacteria on the expense of atrazine. The latter was confirmed microscopically. Results als...
Source: Chemosphere - May 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: LeviRam I, Gross A, McCarthy D, Herzberg M Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Complex to simple: In  vitro exposure of particulate matter simulated at the air-liquid interface discloses the health impacts of major air pollutants.
Complex to simple: In vitro exposure of particulate matter simulated at the air-liquid interface discloses the health impacts of major air pollutants. Chemosphere. 2019 May;223:263-274 Authors: Wang R, Chen R, Wang Y, Chen L, Qiao J, Bai R, Ge G, Qin G, Chen C Abstract Particulate matter (PM) exposure poses many adverse effects on human health. However, it is challenging to clearly differentiate between the contributions of individual pollutants on toxicity from complex mixtures of ambient air pollutants. The aim of this study is to generate aerosols constituted by silica nanoparticles (NPs) and ...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Wang R, Chen R, Wang Y, Chen L, Qiao J, Bai R, Ge G, Qin G, Chen C Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

High-throughput analysis of photocatalytic reactivity of differing TiO2 formulations using 96-well microplate reactors.
We present a simple and efficient method for assessing the photocatalytic activity of different photocatalyst nanomaterials that eliminates the solid separation process. The 96-well microplate method demonstrated an improved applicability as a high-throughput screening method for photocatalytic reaction mechanisms using a wide range of chemical substrates (i.e., methyl orange, methylene blue, terephthalic acid, and β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme) and photocatalyst concentrations (1-100 mg/L). By employing photocatalysts at lower concentrations compared to the slurry system, rapid screening was accompli...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Bi Y, Westerhoff P Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Application of common duckweed (Lemna minor) in phytoremediation of chemicals in the environment: State and future perspective.
Abstract Over the past 50 years, different strategies have been developed for the remediation of polluted air, land and water. Driven by public opinion and regulatory bottlenecks, ecological based strategies are preferable than conventional methods in the treatments of chemical effluents. Ecological systems with the application of microbes, fungi, earthworms, plants, enzymes, electrode and nanoparticles have been applied to varying degrees in different media for the remediation of various categories of pollutants. Aquatic macrophytes have been used extensively for the remediation of pollutants in wastewater efflue...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ekperusi AO, Sikoki FD, Nwachukwu EO Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Structure, dissolution, and plant uptake of ferrous/zinc phosphates.
In this study, mixed Fe(II)/Zn(II) phosphates (0-100 at% Zn) were prepared by aqueous precipitation and their structural characteristics and dissolution kinetics in a sand column were measured as model for divalent metal and phosphate release in soil. Three minerals were identified, namely vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O) at 0-20 at% Zn, phosphophyllite (Zn2Fe(PO4)2·4H2O) at 20-79 at% Zn, and hopeite (Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O) at 79-100 at% Zn. The Fe-rich materials had high SSA of 42-64 m2 g-1, which decreased to ≤4 m2 g-1 for ≥79 at% Zn. The Fe K-edge and Zn K-edge XANES spectroscopy measurem...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Knijnenburg JTN, Laohhasurayotin K, Khemthong P, Kangwansupamonkon W Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Distribution and release of phosphorus fractions associated with soil aggregate structure in restored wetlands.
In this study, the release risk of phosphorus was evaluated by investigating the distribution of phosphorus fractions in different grain-sizes of soil aggregates in wetlands with restoration durations of 1, 2, 3, 5, 13 or 19 years. The results showed that the soil aggregate structure tended to be stable when paddy fields were changed into wetland, though aggregate structure first condensed fine-aggregates (0.25 mm), which was then reversed until the process stabilized after 5 restoration years. With the exception of labile inorganic phosphorus (L-Pi), which continuously decreased within extended abandoned period, total p...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Cui H, Ou Y, Wang L, Wu H, Yan B, Li Y Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Enhanced recovery of aluminum from wastewater using a fluidized bed homogeneously dispersed granular reactor.
This study deals with the recovery of aluminum from aqueous solutions using Fluidized-bed homogeneous granulation process (FBHGP) without seeds. The hydraulic operating conditions were optimized using Box-Behnken Design (BBD) to attain the optimum aluminum removal (AR%) and granulation ratio (GR%). Optimum values of AR% = 98.8% and GR% = 96.9% were attained at the following conditions: influent aluminum concentration, 334.1 mg L-1; precipitant pH, 10.4; molar ratio (MR) of precipitant to metal [OH-]in/[Al3+]in, 2.5. The characteristics of the granules were comparable with those of orthorhombic structure of alum...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Vilando AC, Caparanga AR, Lu MC Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Trace metals in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) inhabiting two southern California coastal estuaries.
Abstract Foraging aggregations of east Pacific green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) inhabit the Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (SBNWR) and San Diego Bay (SDB), two habitats in southern California, USA, located near urbanized areas. Both juvenile and adult green turtles forage in these areas and exhibit high site fidelity, which potentially exposes green turtles to anthropogenic contaminants. We assessed 21 trace metals (TM) bioaccumulated in green turtle scute and red blood cell (RBC) samples collected from SBNWR (n = 16 turtles) and SDB (n = 20 turtles) using acid digestion and inductively coupled plas...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Barraza AD, Komoroske LM, Allen C, Eguchi T, Gossett R, Holland E, Lawson DD, LeRoux RA, Long A, Seminoff JA, Lowe CG Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Bacterial-facilitated uranium transport in the presence of phytate at Savannah River Site.
Abstract At the Department of Energy (DOE) managed Savannah River Site (SRS), uranium and other heavy metals continue to pose threats to the ecosystem health and processes. In the oxic soil of this site, uranium is present primarily as soluble salts of the uranyl ion (i.e., U(VI) or UO22+). Although UO22+ has a strong sorption to the soil, the mobile indigenous bacteria may facilitate its transport. On the contrary, precipitation of UO22+ with phosphate has been found to be an alternative remediation strategy. This research investigated the effects of mobile bacteria and phytate on UO22+ transport at SRS in column...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Li R, Ibeanusi V, Hoyle-Gardner J, Crandall C, Jagoe C, Seaman J, Anandhi A, Chen G Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Distribution characteristics of poly-brominated diphenyl ethers between water and dissolved organic carbon from anaerobic digestate: Effects of digestion conditions.
Abstract It is becoming increasingly urgent to investigate the partition coefficients (expressed as log KDOC values) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) present in wastewater. In the current study, after 72 h of equilibration, the concentrations of four common PBDEs were measured in the presence of four DOC solutions from two laboratories and two full-scale anaerobic digestion plants. Sixteen log KDOCs were determined by calculation and unit conversion. The results for the laboratory samples, such as log KDOCs for 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether being 6.38 and 5.46...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Shi C, Hu Y, Kobayashi T, Zhang N, Zhang Z, Kuramochi H, Matsukami H, Zhang Z, Xu KQ Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Effect of oxygen supply strategy on nitrogen removal of biochar-based vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland: Intermittent aeration and tidal flow.
This study investigated four biochar-based vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (VSFCWs) (system I: intermittent aeration without biochar addition; system II: intermittent aeration with biochar addition; system III: tidal flow without biochar addition; system IV: tidal flow with biochar addition) to compare the effect of oxygen supply strategies on the performance and mechanism of nitrogen removal. The results showed that NH4+N removal efficiencies were 85.83%, 87.88%, 96.19%, and 98.30% for systems I-IV respectively. The abundance of microbes involved in nitrogen transformation also increased in all VSFCWs, parti...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Li J, Hu Z, Li F, Fan J, Zhang J, Li F, Hu H Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Effective stabilization and distribution of emulsified nanoscale zero-valent iron by xanthan for enhanced nitrobenzene removal.
Abstract The reactivity and delivery of remediants and treatment of organic contaminants in heterogeneous aquifer are particularly challenging issues for injection-based remedial treatments. Our objective was to enhance the reactivity and delivery of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and improve the sweeping efficiency of nZVI into low permeable zones (LPZs) to reduce nitrobenzene (NB). This was accomplished by conducting batch and transport experiments that quantified NB degradation by different modified nZVI and the ability of emulsified nZVI (EZVI) or xanthan carried EZVI (XG-EZVI) to penetrate and cover a lens...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zhang M, Dong Y, Gao S, Cai P, Dong J Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Direct filtration for the treatment of the coagulated domestic sewage using flat-sheet ceramic membranes.
Abstract Direct membrane filtration (DMF) is considered as a promising technology for municipal wastewater treatment. We utilized an innovative application of flat-sheet ceramic membranes (FSCM) for DMF for the rapid treatment of domestic sewage. Coagulation was applied before FSCM filtration to increase the pollutant removal and to mitigate membrane fouling. This coagulation-FSCM filtration can significantly reduce the pollutant load on the downstream treatment and concentrate organics and nutrients into sludge to facilitate resource recovery. Using polyaluminum chloride (PACl) based FSCM filtration, approximatel...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zhao YX, Li P, Li RH, Li XY Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Identifying sulfur species adsorbed on particulate matters in exhaust gas emitted from various vessels.
In this study, sulfonate derived from fuel or oxidation of sulfide in fuel was identified in addition to sulfate. Total sulfur and sulfate concentrations in soot increased with increasing fuel sulfur content. The concentration of organosulfurorganosulfurs in soot such as thiophen and sulfonate, which originated mainly from fuel and engine oil, tended to increase with increasing fuel sulfur content. PMID: 30784746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Chemosphere)
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Asaoka S, Dan T, Asano I, Hayakawa S, Takeda K Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Biochar alleviates fluoride toxicity and oxidative stress in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seedlings.
Abstract An original research was laid out as factorial to evaluate the possible effects of biochar (0, 25 and 50 g kg-1 soil) on mitigating fluoride toxicity (non-contamination, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg NaF kg-1 soil) in safflower seedlings. Increasing fluoride toxicity up to 200 mg NaF kg-1 soil did not decrease the safflower growth. However, the growth of plants under 400 and 800 mg NaF kg-1 was reduced by enhancing soluble fluoride concentration in the soil. This growth reduction was the consequence of an increase in fluoride content of plant tissues, generation of super oxide radicals and hydrogen p...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ghassemi-Golezani K, Farhangi-Abriz S Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Degradation of aniline in aqueous solution by dielectric barrier discharge plasma: Mechanism and degradation pathways.
Abstract The degradation of aniline solution using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was studied in this paper. The results indicated that the initial concentration of aniline, applied voltage and initial pH value affected the removal efficiency of aniline significantly. After 12 min with DBD plasma treatment, 90.2% removal efficiency was achieved at aniline concentration of 100 mg L-1 with an applied voltage of 3.0 kV and pH 8.43. The removal efficiency decreased with the presence of radical scavengers, indicating that hydroxyl radical plays a key role in the degradation process. The removal e...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Sang W, Cui J, Feng Y, Mei L, Zhang Q, Li D, Zhang W Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Assessment of biomass ash applications in soil and cement mortars.
Abstract The pH-dependent availability and leaching of major and trace elements was investigated for a wide range of biomass ash from different fuels and conversion technologies. A technical and environmental assessment of selected biomass ash for application in soil or cement mortars was performed, using both the total content and leaching of elements. A large variation in biomass ash composition, yet consistent pH dependent leaching patterns were observed for most elements and conversion technologies. Chromium showed a distinct behaviour which was hypothesized to reflect redox conditions during conversion of the...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Tosti L, van Zomeren A, Pels JR, Dijkstra JJ, Comans RNJ Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

The detection of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in drinking water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Abstract Pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse including novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are emerging as newer contaminants in the aquatic environment. The presence of such pollutants has implications on the environment as well as public health and therefore their identification is important when monitoring water quality. This research presents a new method for the simultaneous detection of 20 drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in drinking water, including 15 NPS, three traditional illicit drugs and two antidepressants. The developed method is based on the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid ch...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Peng Y, Gautam L, Hall SW Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Reducing arsenic in rice grains by leonardite and arsenic-resistant endophytic bacteria.
Abstract Arsenic contaminated in rice plants can cause many physiological, biochemical and productivity in rice. This also had a negative impact on human health. To decrease arsenic in grains, a combination of leonardite as amendment and arsenic-resistance endophytic bacteria was investigated. The results showed that 1% (w/v) leonardite (91.86 ± 2.04%) had the highest efficiency in adsorbing initial arsenic concentration of 2 mg L-1, which was higher than bagasse fly ash (16.25 ± 3.97%), rice husk ash (10.36 ± 1.28%), and sawdust fly ash (63.00 ± 5.67%) under the sam...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Dolphen R, Thiravetyan P Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Simultaneous bioprecipitation of cadmium to cadmium sulfide nanoparticles and nitrogen fixation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris TN110.
This study investigated the abilities of a purple non-sulfur bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris TN110 to bioremediate cadmium through the biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles and to fix nitrogen simultaneously. Under microaerobic-light conditions, R. palustris TN110 synthesized CdS nanoparticles. The produced CdS nanoparticles had a spherical shape and an average size of 4.85 nm. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the nanoparticles reveals the carbonyl groups, bending vibrations of the amide I and II bands of proteins, and CN stretching vibrations of aromatic and aliphatic amines. These bands and groups sugg...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Sakpirom J, Kantachote D, Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi S, McEvoy J, Khan E Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Slow-releasing permanganate ions from permanganate core-manganese oxide shell particles for the oxidative degradation of an algae odorant in water.
Abstract In this work, potassium permanganate particles (KMnO4) were modified with a manganese oxide (MnOx) shell comprising passages for the slow release of permanganate ions (MnO4-) in aquatic systems. The bare particle (KMnO4) and KMnO4 core-MnOx shell particles (CP-60) were characterized by attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The CP-60 were evaluated as a slow source of MnO4- for the oxidative treatment of pure and lake water containing dimethyl trisul...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Omoike AI, Harmon D Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

The role of PERK and IRE1 signaling pathways in excessive fluoride mediated impairment of lymphocytes in rats' spleen in  vivo and in vitro.
This study aimed to explore the roles of Protein kinase receptor-like ER kinase (PERK) and inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) signaling pathways in excessive fluoride-induced immunotoxicity, focusing on the regulatory roles of these two pathways in cell division and apoptosis. Firstly, we assessed the changes in cell division and apoptosis in rats exposed to 0, 50, or 100 mg/L fluoride, and detected the expression of PERK and IRE1 signaling-related proteins in spleen. Additionally, to validate the role of these two pathways, we evaluated the changes in cell division and apoptosis of primary lymphocytes from rat's spleen ...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Wei W, Pang S, Fu X, Tan S, Wang Q, Wang S, Sun D Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

The adsorption, regeneration and engineering applications of biochar for removal organic pollutants: A review.
Abstract In recent years, with the continuous development of industry and agriculture, the content of organic pollutants in the environment has been increasing, which has caused serious pollution to the environment. Adsorption has proven to be an effective and economically viable method of removing organic contaminants. Since biochar has many advantages such as various types of raw materials, low cost, and recyclability, it can achieve the effect of turning waste into treasure when used for environmental treatment. This paper summarizes the source and production of biochar, points out its research status in the re...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Dai Y, Zhang N, Xing C, Cui Q, Sun Q Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Anaerobic/aerobic conditions determine antibiotic resistance genes removal patterns from leachate by affecting bacteria taxa-genes co-occurrence modules.
This study aimed to investigate the ARGs removal potential, kinetics and mechanism from leachate in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Simulated landfill reactors showed the efficacy in reducing ARGs, and the removal efficiencies depended on ARGs types and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. The ARGs tetQ and blaCTX-M were more likely to attenuate with the log-removal efficiencies of 1.50-3 order of magnitude. The ARGs removal kinetic was well fitted by modified Collins-Selleck model, and aerobic condition showed better removal capacities and kinetics than anaerobic condition. Among the ARGs with great removal performance, sul2, ...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Su Y, Wang J, Xia H, Xie B, Li X Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Preferential adsorption of nitrate with different trialkylamine modified resins and their preliminary investigation for advanced treatment of municipal wastewater.
Abstract In this paper, a series of mono-functional and bifunctional anion exchange resins with different kinds of trialkylammonium groups were synthesized and used for adsorption of nitrate from aqueous solution. The obtained resins were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and pore size distribution. Adsorptive behaviors and mechanisms were investigated by batch experiments. The nitrate could be preferentially adsorbed in the presence of chloride, sulfate and humic acid by longer-chain trialkylamine modified resins. Especially, the L20 resin with t...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Li Q, Lu X, Shuang C, Qi C, Wang G, Li A, Song H Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Knockdown of cytochrome P450 CYP6 family genes increases susceptibility to carbamates and pyrethroids in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.
In this study, four cDNA sequences of CYP6 genes were identified and characterized. Transcription levels of LmCYP6HC1 and LmCYP6HCL1 were high in first- and fourth-instar nymph stages, respectively. LmCYP6HN1 was primarily expressed in the egg to third-instar nymph stages, while LmCYP6HQ1 was predominantly expressed in the stages from fourth-instar nymph to the adult. The four CYP6 genes were predominantly distributed in the antenna, brain, fat body, integument, and hemolymph. Piperonyl butoxide exposure inhibited total CYP activity and synergized the toxicity of carbamates and pyrethroids. Knockdown of LmCYP6HL1, LmCYP6HN...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zhang X, Dong J, Wu H, Zhang H, Zhang J, Ma E Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Real-time monitoring of water quality of stream water using sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as bio-indicator.
In this study, an online WQ monitoring system using sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) was tested to monitor WQ changes in real-time in natural stream water. The WQ monitoring system consisted of three SOB reactors (one continuous and two semi-continuous mode reactors). The SOB system did not detect any toxicity in relatively-unpolluted, natural stream water when operated for more than six months. When diluted swine wastewater (50:1) was added to the influent of the reactors, the system detected toxic conditions in both the continuous and semi-continuous operational modes, showing 90% inhibition of SOB activity within 1 h o...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Hassan SHA, Gurung A, Kang WC, Shin BS, Rahimnejad M, Jeon BH, Kim JR, Oh SE Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Tetrabromobisphenol A-induced depolarization of rat cerebellar granule cells: ex  vivo and in vitro studies.
Tetrabromobisphenol A-induced depolarization of rat cerebellar granule cells: ex vivo and in vitro studies. Chemosphere. 2019 May;223:64-73 Authors: Diamandakis D, Zieminska E, Siwiec M, Tokarski K, Salinska E, Lenart J, Hess G, Lazarewicz JW Abstract The brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is toxic to cultured brain neurons, and glutamate receptors partially mediate this effect; consequently, the depolarizing effect of TBBPA on neurons is to be expected, but it is yet to be actually demonstrated. The aim of this study was to detect TBBPA-evoked depolarization and identi...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Diamandakis D, Zieminska E, Siwiec M, Tokarski K, Salinska E, Lenart J, Hess G, Lazarewicz JW Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Alterations in fingerprints of polychlorinated biphenyls in benthic biota at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site (Oregon, USA) suggest metabolism.
Abstract In order to understand the sources and fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in several species of benthic biota, including clams (Corbicula fluminea), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), and mussels (Margaritifera falcata and Anodonta nuttalliana) at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site (PHSS), their congener fingerprints were examined. First, diagnostic ratios of congeners known to be metabolizable vs. recalcitrant in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathway were significantly lower in biota than in its co-located sediment, indicating metabolism may have occurred. Next, the congener patterns were analyzed ...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Rodenburg LA, Delistraty DA Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Temporal pattern in levels of the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, in an urban stream.
Abstract Imidacloprid is a widely used insecticide with high runoff potential posing a significant threat to aquatic ecosystems. In order to determine the spatial and temporal concentrations of imidacloprid in Forester Creek, a tributary to the San Diego River, surface water samples were collected from two sites under wet-weather and dry-weather conditions. Solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were utilized to quantify imidacloprid levels in all samples. Imidacloprid was detected with 100% frequency in surface water samples from Forester Creek with a median concentration of 16....
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Batikian CM, Lu A, Watanabe K, Pitt J, Gersberg RM Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Continuous monitoring for leaching of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes incorporated with ZnCl2 under the attacks of chloride and sulfate.
Abstract Ionic zinc is considered as an environmental pollutant. This work systematically investigated leaching mechanisms of calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) pastes incorporated with/without ZnCl2 under the attacks of chloride and/or sulfate. The leaching behaviors of CSA pastes in the leaching solution are in-situ and continuously monitored by innovative non-contact electrical impedance measurement (NCEIM) and pH meter. The dissolution and diffusion during the leaching process are experimentally identified. Other techniques are also performed to verify the finding of NCEIM: the ion chromatograph and inductive...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Tang S, Yuan J, Cai R, Wei X, Zhao C, Cai X, He Z, Chen E Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Concentrations of brominated and phosphorous flame retardants in Finnish house dust and insights into children's exposure.
Abstract Brominated and phosphorous flame retardants (BFRs, PFRs) are added to household and consumer products to reduce their flammability. Some FRs are persistent in the environment and may have adverse health effects. As exposure indoors contributes significantly to total exposure, we wanted to estimate the exposure of children (3 years of age) through dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. We measured 17 BFRs and 10 PFRs in indoor dust, predicted their respective concentrations in the indoor air and assessed children's exposure. Among the BFRs, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) had highest median l...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Rantakokko P, Kumar E, Braber J, Huang T, Kiviranta H, Cequier E, Thomsen C Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Seasonal mobility of antimony in sediment-water systems in algae- and macrophyte-dominated zones of Lake Taihu (China).
In this study, seasonal sampling was conducted in algal- and macrophyte-dominated zones of Lake Taihu, China. High-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) techniques were used to measure soluble Sb and DGT-labile Sb in the sediment-water profiles at a 4 mm vertical resolution. Results showed that total Sb in sediments from the two zones were on average 3.50 mg/kg and 3.21 mg/kg in the algal- and macrophyte-dominated zones, respectively, with the residual fraction being 96.3% and 95.4% of the total Sb contents in the two zones. In winter, soluble Sb concentrations in both zones incr...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ren M, Wang D, Ding S, Yang L, Xu S, Yang C, Wang Y, Zhang C Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Immobilisation of high-arsenic-containing tailings by using metallurgical slag-cementing materials.
In this study, these cementitious materials were combined with high-arsenic-containing tailings to form cemented backfill material (CBM). The results indicated that the optimal design of CBM was that of specimen CBM2 which showed good early strength (10.09 MPa) at a curing age of 3 days containing 60% BF slag, 30% SS, and 10% gypsum. And the arsenic leaching concentration of CBM2 at a curing age of 7 days and 28 days were both less than the limits specified in standards for drinking water quality (Chinese Standard GB 5749-2006). The predominant hydration products of CBM2 contained rod-like ettringite and amorphous C-S-H ...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zhang Y, Zhang S, Ni W, Yan Q, Gao W, Li Y Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Fish exposed to water contaminated with eprinomectin show inhibition of the activities of AChE and Na+/K+-ATPase in the brain, and changes in natural behavior.
In conclusion, eprinomectin even in low concentrations may be a hazardous environmental contaminant for aquatic organisms, as it causes brain damage and affects the natural behavior of fish. PMID: 30772591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Chemosphere)
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Serafini S, de Freitas Souza C, Baldissera MD, Baldisserotto B, Segat JC, Baretta D, Zanella R, Schafer da Silva A Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Hydrogen generation and simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) by hydrolysis of NaBH4 using Fe-Al-Si composite as accelerator.
Abstract The present study reports a novel method for hydrogen generation and simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) from synthetic wastewater using NaBH4 as the reducing agent and Fe-Al-Si composite as accelerator. The results showed that the hydrogen generation yields of NaBH4 occurred at low pH, high temperature and stirring speed. The presence of Cr(VI) was found to inhibit hydrogen generation at the initial pH 3.0, especially at low temperature conditions. Increasing temperature resulted in the increase of hydrogen generation, whereas a higher reduction rate of Cr(VI) was obtained at low temperature. Therefore, to al...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zhao S, Zhang J, Chen Z, Tong Y, Shen J, Li D, Zhang M Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Biodegradation potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by immobilized Klebsiella sp. in soil washing effluent.
Abstract A strain KL (Klebsiella sp.), with a high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation efficiency, was isolated and purified. Immobilization of strain KL using a boric acid-CaCl2 cross-linking method based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium alginate (SA)-nano alumina (ALNPs) composite was investigated for removal of phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), and pyrene (PYR) in soil washing effluent. The concentration of PVA, SA, and ALNPs in immobilized beads had significant effects on the physicochemical properties and biodegradation performance. When beads had a PVA, SA, and ALNPs content of 10% (w/...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Xu X, Zhou H, Chen X, Wang B, Jin Z, Ji F Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Potential effects of suspended TiO2 nanoparticles on activated sludge floc properties in membrane bioreactors.
This study investigated the potential effects of suspended TiO2 NPs on activated sludge flocculation properties in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Results showed that suspended TiO2 NPs inhibited the viability of activated sludge flocs, and led to bacterial protein secretion for bacterial protection, causing an overall protein increase of soluble microbial products. Suspended TiO2 NPs also destabilized the activated sludge floc structure and reduced flocculation capacity of flocs, causing an over production of organic matter and resulting in a floc size decrease of over 50%. Suspended TiO2 NPs also caused a change in the phyl...
Source: Chemosphere - April 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zhou L, Zhuang WQ, De Costa Y, Xia S Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research