The Landscape of New Drugs in Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma
Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTCL) is an aggressive hematological malignancy and accounts for 5.2% and 3% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Far East and Central/South America, respectively.(1,2) Chinese statistics disclosed that ENKTCL constituted 6.4% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and more than 20% of mature T- and NK-cell lymphoma.(3) ENKTCL shows a predilection for population with EBV infection and shares strong associations with Asian genetic background.(1,4,5) However, both the pathogenesis of ENKTCL and the significant role of EBV during the lymphomagenesis remain largely unknown. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 1, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Liang Wang, Lin-Rong Li, Luo Zhang, Jing-wen Wang Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Metronomic Chemotherapy for Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer: Review of Effectiveness and Potential Use During Pandemics
The conventional use of chemotherapy for all types of cancer is based on the concept of “Dose Intensity”, which means periodic delivery of the drugs at an established maximum tolerated dose (MTD), usually every 3-4 weeks. This mode of delivery aims at targeting dividing cancer cells and may affect actively dividing normal cells thus leading to the reported multiple adverse events s econdary to chemotherapy. Delivering the chemotherapy drugs at a certain interval is essential to allow the recovery of normal cells thus limiting adverse effects; however, this may allow cancer cells to regrow and acquire resistance...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Johny E. Fares, Paul El Tomb, Lana E. Khalil, Rula W. Atwani, Hiba A. Moukadem, Ahmad Awada, Nagi S. El Saghir Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Biomarkers for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer: beyond hormone receptors
Human epidermal (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 24, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Maria Vittoria Dieci, Federica Miglietta, Gaia Griguolo, Valentina Guarneri Tags: Laboratory-Clinic Interface Source Type: research

Exposure-response modeling of cabozantinib in patients with renal cell carcinoma: Implications for patient care
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway is an established target in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a number of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) approved for the treatment of patients with advanced disease. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 23, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Daniel Castellano, Jose Pablo Maroto, Fawzi Benzaghou, Naila Taguieva, Linh Nguyen, Douglas O. Clary, Eric Jonasch Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

A comprehensive overview of promising biomarkers in stage II colorectal cancer
Colorectal cancer ranks as the third most common cancer worldwide [1]. Alone it accounts for approximately 10% of all diagnosed cancer (stage I or II: 10%-35%, stage III: 35%, stage IV: 20%) [2]. While the management of patients with stage I, III, and IV is standardized, therapeutic strategy for stage II colon cancer (CC) is not straightforward and remains debatable as a one-size-fits-all strategy is not suitable in this setting. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 22, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Pauline Parent, Romain Cohen, Elie Rassy, Magali Svrcek, Julien Taieb, Thierry Andr é, Anthony Turpin Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Dedifferentiated melanomas: Morpho-phenotypic profile, genetic reprogramming and clinical implications
Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer that arises from melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells of the body. The seminal discovery that approximately 40-50% of melanomas are driven by BRAFV600 mutations and advances in tumour immunology have paved the way to targeted and immune therapies that have significantly improved response rates and outcome [1]. However, reliable diagnoses are required to provide the best treatment strategy. The diagnosis of primary melanoma, based on well-established morpho-phenotypic features, is usually straightforward [2,3]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 22, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Daniela Massi, Daniela Mihic-Probst, Dirk Schadendorf, Reinhard Dummer, Mario Mandal à Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

The global landscape of drug development for kidney cancer
Kidney cancer is the third most diagnosed genitourinary malignancy in the world, after prostate and bladder cancer. In 2018, more than 400,000 new cases were diagnosed, causing 175,000 deaths.(1) Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) comprises more than 90% of such malignancies, primarily clear cell (70%) and papillary (10 –15%) histologic types.(2) Overall, nearly a half of the diagnoses were performed in low- and middle income countries (LMs) in 2018, where mortality due to RCC was 60%. The prognosis for a patient with RCC in LMs is poorer than in high- income settings (HICs), related to untimely recognition of sy mptoms, fra...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 22, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: D. Trapani, G. Curigliano, Eniu Alexandru, C.N. Sternberg Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Cancer, immune suppression and Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19): Need to manage drug safety
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrom-CoronaVirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide since late 2019, causing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) in humans, involving severe acute respiratory syndrome associated with a multi-symptom presentation. From Wuhan in the Hubei province of China [1,2], the virus spread rapidly in all continents, leading the World Health Organization, on March 11, 2020, to upgrade it as a pandemic [3]. There are currently so far nor approved preventive neither curative treatments. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 22, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Florian Slimano, Amandine Baudouin, J érémie Zerbit, Anne Toulemonde-Deldicque, Audrey Thomas-Schoemann, Régine Chevrier, Mikaël Daouphars, Isabelle Madelaine, Bertrand Pourroy, Jean-François Tournamille, Alain Astier, Florence Ranchon, Jean-Louis Ca Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Isolated limb perfusion for soft tissue sarcoma: current practices and future directions. A survey of experts and a review of literature
Soft tissue sarcomas constitute 1% of adult malignant tumors. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: K.S. Martin-Tellez, W.J. van Houdt, F. van Coevorden, C. Colombo, M. Fiore Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Oncology clinical trials during the COVID-19 outbreak: lessons learnt during the crisis and future opportunities
Starting in the city of Wuhan in China in December 2019, the coronavirus COVID-19 spread through Asia, Europe and US reaching a pandemic scale that paralyzed the entire globe. Thousands of deaths were registered in only a few months. Many activities in- and outside hospitals significantly slowed down, oncology drug development included [1,2]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Elisa Fontana, Hendrik-Tobias Arkenau Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors and metastatic prostate cancer therapy: learning by making mistakes
Since the evidence that Ipilimumab, a human monoclonal antibody (mAb) inhibiting cytotoxic T ‑lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA‑4), improved survival in patients with metastatic melanoma [1], the interest of the scientific community for tumor immunology and immunotherapeutic strategies in the last decade has rapidly increased. Nowadays, multiple immunotherapies have been approved for many soli d and hematologic malignancies (i.e. kidney cancer, melanoma, head and neck cancer, urothelial cancer, lung cancer, Hodgkin’s lymphoma) [2]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Claps M élanie, Mennitto Alessia, Guadalupi Valentina, Sepe Pierangela, Stellato Marco, Zattarin Emma, Gillessen Sommer Silke, Sternberg Cora N, Berruti Alfredo, De Braud Filippo Guglielmo Maria, Verzoni Elena, Procopio Giuseppe Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 9, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Testicular cancer: determinants of cisplatin sensitivity and novel therapeutic opportunities
Testicular cancer (TC) accounts for approximately 1% of all cancers in men worldwide, while it is the most common solid tumor among young men (15-40 years) [1]. Incidence of TC varies widely across different regions, with highest incidence in Northern Europe and very low incidence in central Africa [1]. Incidence rates of TC have increased since the 1960s in Northern European countries, affecting age groups older than 15 years with no proven causative mechanisms identified so far [2]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gerda de Vries, Ximena Rosas-Plaza, Marcel A.T.M. van Vugt, Jourik A. Gietema, Steven de Jong Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Cancer and COVID-19: unmasking their ties
Since the inception of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Hubei province, China, in late 2019, it has rapidly spread across the globe[1]. On the 11th of March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the magnitude of which has only continued to soar since[2]. While the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are mild in the majority of those infected, it appears as though nearly 20% of confirmed patients develop significant symptoms. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: A. Addeo, A. Friedlaender Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Intrathecal administration of anti-HER2 treatment for the treatment of meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer: a metanalysis with meta-regression
HER2 is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor, belonging to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, which is overexpressed in less than 20% of breast cancers [1]; as early as 1986, HER2 was established as a strong negative prognostic marker [2]. The monoclonal antibody trastuzumab was the first targeted agent specifically designed for the treatment of HER2-positive BC. Trastuzumab is directed against the extracellular domain of HER2 leading to the inhibition of the receptor, and blockade of the autophosphorylation cascade, and cell degradation via immunological effects. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Flora Zagouri, Panagiotis Zoumpourlis, Emilie Le Rhun, Rupert Bartsch, Eleni Zografos, Kleoniki Apostolidou, Dimopoulos Meletios-Athanasios, Matthias Preusser Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 31, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immunotherapy in Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Innate, Adaptive and Targeted Immunological Strategies
The concept of harnessing the immune system to defend against cancer has been recognized since around the turn of the last century when Dr. William Coley advocated cancer immunotherapy with bacterial toxins [1,2]. The advancement of molecular medicine and increased understanding of tumor-immune cell interactions has led to the development of novel immunotherapeutic strategies that have been implemented for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Lymphoma, however, is somewhat unique in that it is a malignancy of the immune system; hence, the malignant cell interacts with the immune system, regulates the host immun...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Aung M. Tun, Stephen M. Ansell Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

The role of autophagy in resistance to targeted therapies
Autophagy is a self-degradative cellular process, involved in stress response such as starvation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress. This mechanism balances macro-molecule recycling to regulate cell homeostasis. In cancer, autophagy play a role in the development and progression, while several studies describe it as one of the key processes in drug resistance. In the last years, in addition to standard anti-cancer treatments such as chemotherapies and irradiation, targeted therapy became one of the most adopted strategies in clinical practices, mainly due to high specificity and reduced side effects. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Luigi Mele, Vitale del Vecchio, Davide Liccardo, Claudia Prisco, Melanie Schwerdtfeger, Nirmal Robinson, Vincenzo Desiderio, Virginia Tirino, Gianpaolo Papaccio, Marcella La Noce Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Systemic adjuvant therapy for adult patients at high risk for recurrent melanoma: A systematic review
The majority of melanomas are cutaneous, but melanoma can also occur in mucosal surfaces or ocular structures (uveal melanoma). Mucosal melanoma is a rare disease, and accounts for approximately 0.03% of all cancers diagnosed [1], and 1.36% of all melanoma cases in the United States [2]. Survival rates are lower than for cutaneous melanoma, at least in part due to more advanced stage at detection. Uveal melanoma is even rarer and patients with this type of melanoma were excluded from the review. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tara D. Baetz, Glenn G. Fletcher, Gregory Knight, Elaine McWhirter, Sudha Rajagopal, Xinni Song, Teresa M. Petrella Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Immunotherapy in gastrointestinal cancer: the current scenario and future perspectives
Gastrointestinal cancers (GIC), mostly populated by Colorectal Cancer (CRC), Oesophageal Cancer (OC), Gastric Cancer (GC), Pancreatic Cancer (PC), Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) and biliary tract cancers (BTC) are the most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide with significant associated morbidity. If managed early, radical approaches can lead to better outcomes, contrasted with less than 15% in advanced stage disease[1]. Unfortunately, many patients are diagnosed late –for example up to 79% of those with PC are diagnosed at stage III or above in the UK[2]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mohammed Abdul-Latif, Katherine Townsend, Charles Dearman, Kai-Keen Shiu, Khurum Khan Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Incorporating parp-inhibitors in primary and recurrent ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of 12 phase ii/iii randomized controlled trials
After almost 20 years of carboplatin plus paclitaxel upfront treatment for ovarian cancer [1,2], the new millennium started with the successful introduction of targeted-therapies into the management of advanced disease [3,4]. In 2011, the anti-angiogenetic monoclonal antibody Bevacizumab was the first to be incorporated into first-line management of advanced disease (EMA, December 2011). The second decade of 2000s is witnessing a new ovarian cancer paradigm shift based on the results recently obtained in first line setting by a new categories of targeted agents: the Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-Inhibitors (PARPi) [5...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 26, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ilary Ruscito, Filippo Bellati, Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Mansoor Raza Mirza, Andreas du Bois, Maria Luisa Gasparri, Flavia Costanzi, Maria Paola De Marco, Marianna Nuti, Donatella Caserta, Sandro Pignata, oliver Dorigo, Jalid Sehouli, Elena Ioana Braicu Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

HER2-positive Advanced Breast Cancer Treatment in 2020
Approximately 15% to 20% of breast cancers are human epidermal growth factor receptor-positive (HER2-positive), which is associated with worse survival outcomes as compared to estrogen receptor (ER) positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. Over the last 30 years, the development of a number of anti- (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Marcelle G Cesca, Lucas Vian, Sofia Crist óvão-Ferreira, Noam Pondé, Evandro de Azambuja Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

ATR-CHK1 pathway as a therapeutic target for acute and chronic leukemias
During the last decade, discovery of innovative therapies targeting important components of DNA damage signaling and repair pathways has offered a possibility of significant therapeutic improvement in oncology [1]. Current research efforts are directed toward identifying small inhibitory molecules targeting specific pathways involved in DNA damage response (DDR). Cancer cells have often compromised DDR pathways, which render them susceptible to DDR inhibition. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Miroslav Boudny, Martin Trbusek Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Real world data in the era of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs): increasing evidence and future applications in lung cancer
During the course of last five years, the introduction of a new class of drugs, the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), has dramatically changed the treatment of lung cancer. Anti-PD1 (pembrolizumab and nivolumab) and anti-PD-L1 (atezolizumab and durvalumab) are able to avoid certain tumor immune-escaping mechanisms, thus restoring the antitumor response of patient ’s immune system[1]. ICIs were firstly introduced as first or second line treatment of patients with advanced stage disease, both in PD-L1 selected (pembrolizumab) and all comers[2–5]; later on, durvalumab was introduced as consolidation treatment i...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Giulia Pasello, Alberto Pavan, Ilaria Attili, Alberto Bortolami, Laura Bonanno, Jessica Menis, PierFranco Conte, Valentina Guarneri Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Risk factors for neurocognitive decline in lung cancer patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation: A systematic review
Lung cancer patients frequently develop brain metastases (BM). For example, approximately 30% of radically treated stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients present with symptomatic BM in the course of their disease, despite being treated with radical chemoradiotherapy[1]. In metastatic NSCLC with an oncogenic driver, BM incidence is up to 60%[2]. BM incidence of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients is even higher (up to 80% at autopsy)[3]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Haiyan Zeng, Lizza E.L. Hendriks, Wouter H. van Geffen, Willem J.A. Witlox, Danielle B.P. Eekers, Dirk De Ruysscher Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Reconsider radiation exposure from imaging during immune checkpoint inhibitor trials to reduce risk of secondary cancers in long-term survivors?
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have improved the outcomes for patients with advanced cancers, also resulting in increased numbers of long-term survivors in subgroups of patients with metastatic disease or irresectable tumors. In advanced stage melanoma, for example, a pooled analysis has shown an overall survival (OS) rate of 20% at 10 years in patients treated with ipilimumab. An OS rate of 34% at 5 years was seen when given a programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) antibody, for treatment-na ïve patients this was 40% [1–3]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Daan G. Knapen, Derk Jan A. de Groot, Thomas C. Kwee, Emmy I.M. Meijne, Rudolf S.N. Fehrmann, Elisabeth G.E. de Vries Tags: Controversy Source Type: research

Plasma circulating tumor DNA in pancreatic adenocarcinoma for screening, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and follow-up: A Systematic Review
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) is expected to be the 4th leading cause of cancer-related death, with 47 050 deaths projected to occur in 2020 in the United States [1]. Its 5-year survival rate is one of the worst in the field of oncology and is (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ra ëf Abdallah, Valérie Taly, Shulin Zhao, Daniel Pietrasz, Jean-Baptiste Bachet, Debora Basile, Léo Mas, Aziz Zaanan, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Julien Taieb Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

How did lomustine become standard of care in recurrent glioblastoma?
Lomustine, also known as CCNU (chloroethyl-cyclohexyl-nitrosourea), is an alkylating agent of the nitrosourea family [1,2,3] (Fig. 1). It is a monofunctional alkylating agent which alkylates DNA and RNA and can cross-link DNA and thus acts in a cell cycle-dependent and -independent manner. One of the most relevant lesions induced by lomustine, the formation of O6-chloroethylguanine, can be reverted by O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Lomustine may also inhibit enzymatic functions by carbamoylation of amino acids but the contribution of this activity to clinical activity remains unknown. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Michael Weller, Emilie Le Rhun Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

MSI as a predictive factor for treatment outcome of gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma
Globally, gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma are among the most common causes of cancer related deaths.1 Treatment still largely relies on conventional cytotoxic agents which are only limitedly effective in the majority of patients.2,3 According to a comprehensive molecular analysis by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network, gastric cancer (including gastroesophageal junction cancer) can be classified into four subgroups based on its molecular characteristics: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected tumors, microsatellite instable (MSI) tumors, genomically stable (GS) tumors and chromosomally instable (CIN) tumors. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - April 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: M.J.M. van Velzen, S. Derks, N.C.T. van Grieken, N. Haj Mohammad, H.W.M. van Laarhoven Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Resistance to anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in metastatic colorectal cancer: what does still need to be addressed?
Survival rate for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) at five years remains poor[1]. Approved standard chemotherapy and targeted treatments have provided increased survival outcomes in the last years but still a too small number of patients could really experience a long-term benefit. This is due to the presence of mechanisms of resistance that occur before or during the treatment and impact negatively on drug efficacy. Many efforts have been made to enlarge the understanding of the complex panorama of CRC heterogeneity and offer the best tailored treatment to any single patient. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - April 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Giulia Martini, Davide Ciardiello, Pietro Paolo Vitiello, Stefania Napolitano, Claudia Cardone, Antonio Cuomo, Teresa Troiani, Fortunato Ciardiello, Erika Martinelli Tags: New Drugs Source Type: research

Targeting the PI3K pathway and DNA damage response as a therapeutic strategy in ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy in industrialized countries [1]. Most women with ovarian cancer are diagnosed at advanced stages and recurrence is common after initial platinum-based chemotherapy leading to incurable disease with limited treatment options [2]. Therefore, a critical need remains for new effective therapeutic strategies. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - April 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tzu-Ting Huang, Erika J. Lampert, Cynthia Coots, Jung-Min Lee Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

The promise of selective MET inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer with MET exon 14 skipping
Molecules that inhibit receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have shown promise as therapies in a range of tumor types. This is because activated RTKs are able to act as primary driver oncogenes: through acquired mutations, they can initiate carcinogenesis and play a key role in tumor development. For example, oncogenic activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through EGFR mutation is observed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and such tumors are sensitive to EGFR-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - April 9, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ravi Salgia, Martin Sattler, Juergen Scheele, Christopher Stroh, Enriqueta Felip Tags: New Drugs Source Type: research

Imaging and clinical correlates with regorafenib in metastatic colorectal cancer
Imaging is a key clinical tool used to evaluate tumor burden and response to treatment across tumor types [1]. In colorectal cancer (CRC), imaging plays an important role in determining tumor stage and prognostic characteristics, selecting appropriate treatment strategies, and in assessing response to systemic therapy and disease recurrence [2 –4]. In solid tumors, response to therapy is typically measured using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), which was developed for clinical trials to measure tumor response to chemotherapy in a standard and reproducible way [1,5]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - April 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Khurum Khan, Stefano Cascinu, David Cunningham, Sun-Young Kim, Eiji Oki, Tara Seery, Lin Shen, Salvatore Siena, Christophe Tournigand, Nazim Serdar Turhal, Alain Hendlisz Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Review of Precision Cancer Medicine: Evolution of the Treatment Paradigm
The rapidly expanding body of knowledge about the roles of genomics and the immune system in cancer has enabled the development of therapies targeted to specific molecular alterations or other biologic characteristics, such as those implicated in immune suppression. However, genomics has also revealed a complicated reality about malignancies that requires a major shift in the therapy paradigm: away from tumor type-centered and toward gene-directed, histology-agnostic treatment, which is individualized for each patient on the basis of biomarker analysis. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 31, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Apostolia M. Tsimberidou, Elena Fountzilas, Mina Nikanjam, Razelle Kurzrock Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

A Review of Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma Genomics
Retroperitoneal liposarcomas (RPL) are rare tumours that are challenging to manage surgically, and generally respond poorly to chemotherapy. They possess high local recurrence rates and in certain subtypes can metastasise. The retroperitoneum represents the second most common site of origin of these tumours after the extremities. There is general consensus in the sarcoma community that surgery to remove RPL with clear margins is the most beneficial intervention to improve recurrence free survival, and possibly overall survival. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 28, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Robert Tyler, Kasun Wanigasooriya, Philippe Taniere, Max Almond, Samuel Ford, Anant Desai, Andrew Beggs Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Bevacizumab (Avastin ®) in cancer treatment: A review of 15 years of clinical experience and future outlook
Cancer cells differ fundamentally from normal cells, as a result of having acquired hallmark capabilities that enable tumor growth and progression [1]. Due to their high metabolic demands, growing solid tumors depend on vascularization for provision of nutrients and oxygen and disposal of metabolic waste products. Vascularization can be promoted by angiogenesis, i.e. the generation of new blood vessels by sprouting from existing blood vessels. In normal physiology, angiogenesis plays a vital role in the generation of new vasculature during embryogenesis, but it is mostly quiescent in the adult body, with transient activati...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 26, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Josep Garcia, Herbert I. Hurwitz, Alan B. Sandler, David Miles, Robert L Coleman, Regula Deurloo, Olivier L Chinot Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Bevacizumab (Avastin ®) in cancer treatment: a review of 15 years of clinical experience and future outlook
Cancer cells differ fundamentally from normal cells, as a result of having acquired hallmark capabilities that enable tumor growth and progression [1]. Due to their high metabolic demands, growing solid tumors depend on vascularization for provision of nutrients and oxygen and disposal of metabolic waste products. Vascularization can be promoted by angiogenesis, i.e. the generation of new blood vessels by sprouting from existing blood vessels. In normal physiology, angiogenesis plays a vital role in the generation of new vasculature during embryogenesis, but it is mostly quiescent in the adult body, with transient activati...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 26, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Josep Garcia, Herbert I. Hurwitz, Alan B. Sandler, David Miles, Robert L Coleman, Regula Deurloo, Olivier L Chinot Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer: A 2020 update
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is the seventh leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes, causing more than 331,000 deaths per year globally [1]. An estimation of 174,650 new cases was expected to be diagnosed in the USA with 45,750 deaths expected to occur in 2019 [2]. PAC is associated with an extremely poor prognosis reaching a 5-year overall survival (OS) rate below 5% [3] and 1-year OS rate at 24% based on standard treatments [4]. Even for patients with resectable disease, the prognosis is very poor, reflecting an OS rate of only 17% [4]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dimitrios Schizas, Nikolaos Charalampakis, Christo Kole, Panagiota Economopoulou, Evangelos Koustas, Efthymios Gkotsis, Dimitrios Ziogas, Amanda Psyrri, Michalis V. Karamouzis Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Thymic epithelial tumors: from biology to treatment
Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are rare tumors arising from thymic epithelial cells. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 23, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fabio Conforti, Laura Pala, Giuseppe Giaccone, Tommaso De Pas Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

The role of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Gastric Cancer development and their potential as a therapeutic target
Gastric cancer (GC) is characterized by high incidence and mortality and it represents the sixth most common cancer type and fifth leading cause of cancer death worldwide [1]. When diagnosed in an advanced stage, GC is characterized by very poor prognosis, with a five-year overall survival rate of about 5% [2]. Historically GC has been classified into two main subgroups, intestinal and diffuse, according to different microscopic features [3]. Several molecular classifications based on comprehensive analyses have been proposed to gain better understanding of GC biology and for a personalized medicine approach [4-6]. (Source...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 23, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: V. Gambardella, J. Castillo, N. Tarazona, F. Gimeno-Valiente, C. Mart ínez-Ciarpaglini, M. Cabeza, S. Roselló, D. Roda, M. Huerta, A. Cervantes, T. Fleitas Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Parathyroid cancer: an update
Parathyroid cancer (PC) is a rare malignant tumor which comprises 0.5-5% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) [1 –3]. As opposed to the female predominance in benign causes of PHPT, parathyroid cancer has an equal frequency of occurrence in both sexes and is usually diagnosed in the fifth decade of life [4,5]. The challenge to the clinician is to distinguish PC from the far more common parathyroid adenoma (P A) or hyperplasia, as there are no specific clinical, biochemical, or radiological characteristic of PC. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Juan P. Rodrigo, Juan C. Hernandez-Prera, Gregory W. Randolph, Mark E. Zafereo, Dana M. Hartl, Carl E Silver, Carlos Su árez, Randall P. Owen, Carol R. Bradford, Antti A. Mäkitie, Ashok R. Shaha, Justin A. Bishop, Alessandra Rinaldo, Alfio Ferlito Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

The safety and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with advanced cancers and pre-existing chronic viral infections (Hepatitis B/C, HIV): a review of the available evidence
Over the last decade immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of many cancers, especially with the better understanding of molecular biology and immunology. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory cell-surface receptor expressed on the surface of T cells, B cells, and natural-killer cells. The effector functions of T cells that express PD-1 in the tumor microenvironment can be downregulated upon activation by its ligands (PD-L1 or PD-L2), which are expressed by the tumoral cells. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a B7/CD28 protein receptor that functions as an immune checkpoint, inhibiting T ...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: G. Tapia Rico, M.M. Chan, K.F. Loo Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The future of bladder cancer therapy: optimizing the inhibition of the fibroblast growth factor receptor
Bladder cancer (BC) is a major global health challenge with 549,393 new cases and nearly 200,000 deaths during 2018 [1]. In 2018, estimated BC incidence and mortality in Europe were 197,100 and 65,000 cases, respectively [2]. Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common histologic subtype of BC and represents nearly 90% of all cases. Other less common subtypes are squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and small cell carcinoma [3]. Around 30% of cases are diagnosed as muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and most are locally advanced or metastatic at diagnosis, requiring systemic treatment [4]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Rafael Morales-Barrera, Cristina Su árez, Macarena González, Claudia Valverde, Ester Serra, Joaquín Mateo, Carles Raventos, Xavier Maldonado, Juan Morote, Joan Carles Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Broadening the therapeutic horizon of advanced biliary tract cancer through molecular characterisation
Biliary tract cancer (BTC) comprises a group of rare and anatomically distinct epithelial cell tumours of the biliary tree, including gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHC) and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHC), which together account for approximately 1% of adult cancers worldwide [1]. Despite being rare, BTCs are an important cause of cancer-related mortality and display a dismal prognosis, even with sequential chemotherapy. Geographically, the incidence of GBC is highest in Southeast Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe and demonstrates a female preponderance [2,3]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 12, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Avani Athauda, Caroline Fong, David K. Lau, Milind Javle, Ghassan K. Abou-Alfa, Chigusa Morizane, Keith Steward, Ian Chau Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Targeting complex, adaptive responses in melanoma therapy
The approval of a BRAF-inhibitor for clinical use in BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma patients in 2011 encouraged the scientific and medical communities that an increasingly more sophisticated mechanistic understanding of tumor progression will ultimately result in substantial improvements in clinical responses. Indeed, since that time many new drugs have significantly improved overall survival. However, it has become increasingly obvious that most tumors have an astounding ability to adapt to the latest therapies and combinations, which results in only delayed progression for a matter of months for the majority of patient...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Phil Cheng, Mitchell Levesque, Reinhard Dummer, Joanna Mangana Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

The force of HER2 – a druggable target in NSCLC?
The past decade, systemic treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has undergone major changes. Several targeted therapies have been approved and recommended for use in subsets of patients who have specific genetic alterations [1]. One of these alterations involves the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), a member of the ERBB family of tyrosine kinase receptors. Each receptor is composed of three segments: an extracellular ligand binding domain, an α-helical trans membrane segment and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - February 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: M. Jebbink, A.J. de Langen, M.C. Boelens, K. Monkhorst, E.F. Smit Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

The significance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor uncommon mutations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: a systematic review and critical appraisal
Despite the increase of therapeutic options available in clinical setting, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) still remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide, representing over 85% of all lung cancers.[1] The clinical knowledge of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) molecular status, emerging over a decade ago, has led to a dramatic shift in the treatment paradigm of metastatic NSCLC. The prevalence of EGFR mutations ranges from 10% to 15% in Caucasian patients [2] and up to 50% in East-Asian patients, [3] mainly but not only with adenocarcinoma histology, female gender and quite pec...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Valerio Gristina, Umberto Malapelle, Antonio Galvano, Pasquale Pisapia, Francesco Pepe, Christian Rolfo, Silvia Tortorici, Viviana Bazan, Giancarlo Troncone, Antonio Russo Source Type: research

Current Management of Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma without Distant Metastasis
Stage IV nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) without distant metastasis is defined as clinically T4 or N3 disease in the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union against Cancer Control (UICC) 8th edition [1]. This is either a locally infiltrative tumor with intracranial extension, involvement of cranial nerves, hypopharynx, orbit, parotid gland and/or extensive soft tissue infiltration beyond the lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid muscle (T4), or unilateral or bilateral metastasis in cervical lymph node(s) larger than 6 cm in greatest dimension, and/or extension below the caudal border of cric...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wai Tong Ng, June Corry, Johannes A. Langendijk, Anne W.M. Lee, Antti M äkitie, William M. Mendenhall, Alessandra Rinaldo, Juan P. Rodrigo, Nabil F. Saba, Robert Smee, Primož Strojan, Carlos Suárez, Jan B. Vermorken, Alfio Ferlito Source Type: research

Evolving role of regorafenib for the treatment of advanced cancers
Regorafenib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved for patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) after imatinib and sunitinib, and unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following sorafenib [1,2]. Initially, regorafenib was approved for mCRC based on improved overall survival (OS) in the randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 CORRECT trial [3], which was confirmed in an expanded population of Asian patients in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 CONCUR trial [4]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Axel Grothey, Jean-Yves Blay, Nick Pavlakis, Takayuki Yoshino, Jordi Bruix Source Type: research