Global challenges and policy solutions in breast cancer control
Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in women, worldwide.[1] In 2020, breast cancer became the most diagnosed malignancy overall, surpassing lung cancer for the first time in history. It is also a major cause of death from cancer among women, accounting for 15.5% of cancer-related deaths. Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy with more than 7.7 million women living five years from diagnosis.[2] Data from population-based registries show that the survival at 5 years after a diagnosis of breast cancer exceeds 90% in high-income countries but is considerably lower in many low- and m...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - January 18, 2022 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dario Trapani, Ophira Ginsburg, Temidayo Fadelu, Nancy U. Lin, Michael Hassett, Andre M. Ilbawi, Benjamin O. Anderson, Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Therapeutic implications of germline vulnerabilities in DNA repair for precision oncology
It is estimated that ∼5-10% of all cancers are due to pathogenic variants (PV) inherited in the germline.[1] For high-risk families, early identification of a cancer-predisposing germline PV is critical, as subsequent genetic counseling can encourage and motivate patients to adhere to risk-reducing interventions.[1] G ermline PVs in DNA repair genes are known to not only increase cancer risk but are also relevant for guiding cancer treatment. DNA repair is crucial for genome stability, with multiple specialized pathways existing in the cell to repair different types of DNA lesions (Figure 1). (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - January 5, 2022 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shreya M. Shah, Elena V. Demidova, Randy W. Lesh, Michael J. Hall, Mary B. Daly, Joshua E. Meyer, Martin J. Edelman, Sanjeevani Arora Source Type: research

How Far We Have Come Targeting BRAF-Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
BRAF belongs to the RAF family of serine/threonine kinases, which also includes ARAF and CRAF. RAF kinases are key players in the MAPK signaling pathway, which regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and survival (Figure 1). Almost two decades after the first report on cancer driver mutations in the BRAF kinase domain [1], nearly 300 distinct BRAF mutations have been identified in tumor samples and cancer cell lines from melanoma, colorectal cancer, papillary thyroid cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [2]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - December 31, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fabrizio Tabb ò, Chiara Pisano, Julien Mazieres, Laura Mezquita, Ernest Nadal, David Planchard, Anne Pradines, David Santamaria, Aurélie Swalduz, Chiara Ambrogio, Silvia Novello, Sandra Ortiz-Cuaran, on behalf of the BOLERO Consortium Source Type: research

Clinical development of IDH1 inhibitors for cancer therapy
Since the validation of targeted cancer therapies in the late 1990s, numerous active agents have been developed against a variety of different cancer types. Rituximab and trastuzumab were among the first examples, which proved to be highly effective against B-cell lymphoma and HER2-positive breast cancer, respectively [1,2]. In the last seven years alone, 83 drugs aimed at 56 different targets have been approved by the United States Food& Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of solid and hematologic malignancies [3]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - December 28, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mehrdad Zarei, Jonathan J. Hue, Omid Hajihassani, Hallie J. Graor, Erryk S. Katayama, Alexander W. Loftus, David Bajor, Luke D. Rothermel, Ali Vaziri-Gohar, Jordan M. Winter Source Type: research

Management of Adverse Events Associated with Cabozantinib Plus Nivolumab in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Review
Treatment of advanced clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has improved in recent years with the introduction of novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs [PD-L1, PD-1, and CTLA-4 inhibitors]) [1 –3]. Due to the angiogenic nature of RCC, TKIs targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) have been a cornerstone of therapy, providing improved disease control and survival with manageable safety profiles [4,5]. RCC is also immunogenic [4], which led to the development of I CIs in RCC as single-agents, in dual ICI combinations, and in combination with TKIs that ha...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - December 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bradley McGregor, Amir Mortazavi, Lisa Cordes, Cristina Salabao, Susan Vandlik, Andrea B. Apolo Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - December 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Bevacizumab-induced hypertension as a predictor of clinical outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer: an individual patient data-based pooled analysis of two randomized studies and a systematic review of the literature
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent malignancies, representing the second leading overall cause of cancer death [1]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - December 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Pasquale Lombardi, Daniele Rossini, Veronica Crespi, Marco Maria Germani, Francesca Bergamo, Filippo Pietrantonio, Daniele Santini, Giacomo Allegrini, Francesca Daniel, Filippo Pagani, Carlotta Antoniotti, Alberto Zaniboni, Veronica Conca, Tiziana Pia Lat Source Type: research

A comprehensive overview of tumour deposits in colorectal cancer: towards a next TNM classification
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently the third most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer deaths, with more than 1,800,000 new cases and nearly 900,000 deaths each year, worldwide [1]. Its management is based on the TNM staging system, developed in the 1950s, which has been constantly evolving throughout the history of scientific advances [2-6]. The latest 8th edition of the TNM classification has been published in 2017 [7]. Yet, it is essential to identify new histological markers to further improve the classification and to define more relevant subgroups of patients. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - December 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jean-Fran çois Delattre, Ayse Selcen Oguz Erdogan, Romain Cohen, Qian Shi, Jean-François Emile, Julien Taieb, Josep Tabernero, Thierry André, Jeffrey A. Meyerhardt, Iris D. Nagtegaal, Magali Svrcek Source Type: research

Targeting brain metastases in breast cancer
Metastatic breast cancer (BC) is, after lung cancer, the second most common cancer associated with brain metastases (BMs) [1]. As cancer research breakthroughs considerably improved survival of patients with advanced stage BC in the last decades, the incidence of BMs is increasing accordingly [2]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - December 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chiara Corti, Gabriele Antonarelli, Carmen Criscitiello, Nancy U. Lin, Lisa A. Carey, Javier Cort és, Philip Poortmans, Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Gene-expression signatures to inform neoadjuvant treatment decision in HR+/HER2 − breast cancer: Available evidence and clinical implications
Initially implemented in clinical practice for the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer (BC) patients, the use of neoadjuvant treatment has progressively increased over the last decades and is nowadays considered the standard of care for many early BC patients as well [1,2]. In this context, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is widely used to downstage initially operable BCs, increasing the rates of conservative surgery [3]; however, it is well-known that the magnitude of response to NCT varies significantly according to breast cancer subtype. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - December 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gaia Griguolo, Michele Bottosso, Grazia Vernaci, Federica Miglietta, Maria Vittoria Dieci, Valentina Guarneri Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Gene-expression signatures to inform neoadjuvant treatment decision in HR+/HER2- breast cancer: Available Evidence and Clinical Implications
Initially implemented in clinical practice for the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer (BC) patients, the use of neoadjuvant treatment has progressively increased over the last decades and is nowadays considered the standard of care for many early BC patients as well [1,2]. In this context, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is widely used to downstage initially operable BCs, increasing the rates of conservative surgery[3]; however, it is well-known that the magnitude of response to NCT varies significantly according to breast cancer subtype. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - December 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gaia Griguolo, Michele Bottosso, Grazia Vernaci, Federica Miglietta, Maria Vittoria Dieci, Valentina Guarneri Source Type: research

Interplay between coagulation and inflammation in cancer: Limitations and therapeutic opportunities
A deepening of understanding the molecular pathways of tumor progression have been the basic requirements for the development of so-called targeted therapies and ICIs. This new generation of drugs is designed to specifically block tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis or immune escape mechanisms and intend to reduce high cytotoxicity associated with chemotherapy. On the one hand, much attention has been devoted to the notion that a growing tumor requires blood supply and allowed the development of monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors directed against angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), vascular endothelial growth facto...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - November 30, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alexander T. Bauer, Christian Gorzelanny, Christoffer Gebhardt, Klaus Pantel, Stefan W. Schneider Source Type: research

Quality-of-life methodology in hormone receptor –positive advanced breast cancer: current tools and perspectives for the future
There is currently no cure for advanced breast cancer [1 –3]. The primary goals of patient care are to prolong survival, minimize disease symptoms, and maximize health-related quality of life (HRQOL) [2]. Given the severity of the disease and potential toxicity associated with treatment, assessment of patient-reported HRQOL is gaining importance as a tr eatment goal in clinical trials of cancer drugs and is accepted by the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency as an outcome to be considered in addition to efficacy endpoints during the drug evaluation process [4–7]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - November 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fatima Cardoso, David Cella, Galina Velikova, Victoria Harmer, Eva Schumacher-Wulf, Julie Rihani, Ana Casas, Nadia Harbeck Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - November 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

SELNET Clinical practice guidelines for soft tissue sarcoma and GIST
Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, encompassing more than 80 different histologic subtypes. Approximately three quarter of sarcoma arise from soft-tissue, about 15% are gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) and bone sarcoma represent the remaining 10%. The current guidelines will focus on soft-tissue and GIST, excluding Kaposi sarcoma and non-pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma. Bone sarcomas are covered in a different paper. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - November 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Blay JY, Hindi N, Bollard J, Aguiar Jr S, Angel M, Araya B, Badilla R, Bernabeu D, Campos F, Caro-S ánchez CHS, Carvajal B, Carvajal Montoya A, Casavilca-Zambrano S, Castro-Oliden V, Chacón M, Clara M, Collini P, Correa Genoroso R, Costa FD, Cuellar M, Source Type: research

Triplet chemotherapy in combination with anti-EGFR agents for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: current evidence, advances, and future perspectives
With over 935,000 deaths estimated to occur annually, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality [1]. Each year, ∼1.9 million cases of CRC occur worldwide, including ∼322,000 cases in North America and Western Europe [1], with metastatic disease developing in nearly 40% [2]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - November 10, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gunnar Folprecht, Erika Martinelli, Thibault Mazard, Dominik P. Modest, Akihito Tsuji, Regina Esser, Chiara Cremolini, Alfredo Falcone Source Type: research

Primary or adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer with intraoperative lymph node metastasis – a review
With 570,000 cases and 311,000 deaths yearly, cervical cancer currently ranks fourth in cancer incidence and mortality [1]. Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is the standard treatment for clinically visible early-stage disease and chemoradiotherapy for more advanced stages. Upon intraoperative discovery of lymph node metastasis, the gynaecologist may pursue one of two treatment strategies. Abandonment of radical hysterectomy followed by primary (chemo)radiotherapy (PRT), is currently recommended by international guidelines [2,3]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - November 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hans H.B. Wenzel, Ester P. Olthof, Ruud L.M. Bekkers, Ingrid A. Boere, Valery E.P.P. Lemmens, Hans W. Nijman, Lukas J.A. Stalpers, Maaike A. van der Aa, Jacobus van der Velden, Constantijne H. Mom Source Type: research

KRAS Inhibitors – yes but what next? Direct targeting of KRAS– vaccines, adoptive T cell therapy and beyond
Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) is a proto-oncogene of the RAS-MAPK pathway. KRAS mutations are present in a variety of malignancies including lung, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer. Until the recent approval of sotorasib, a KRAS G12C inhibitor, lack of targeted therapy for KRAS has resulted in poor prognosis of patients with tumors harboring KRAS mutations [1]. The KRAS protein is a GTPase that transmits intracellular signals upon binding to GTP [2 –3]. Under physiologic conditions, this system is maintained by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, favoring the GDP-bound inactive form. (Source: Can...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Misako Nagasaka, Bindu Potugari, Alexis Nguyen, Ammar Sukari, Asfar S Azmi, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou Source Type: research

KRAS Inhibitors- Yes But What Next? Direct targeting of KRAS- Vaccines, Adoptive T Cell Therapy and Beyond
Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) is a proto-oncogene of the RAS-MAPK pathway. KRAS mutations are present in a variety of malignancies including lung, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer. Until the recent approval of sotorasib, a KRAS G12C inhibitor, lack of targeted therapy for KRAS has resulted in poor prognosis of patients with tumors harboring KRAS mutations [1]. The KRAS protein is a GTPase that transmits intracellular signals upon binding to GTP [2 –3]. Under physiologic conditions, this system is maintained by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, favoring the GDP-bound inactive form. (Source: Can...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Misako Nagasaka, Bindu Potugari, Alexis Nguyen, Ammar Sukari, Asfar S Azmi, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou Source Type: research

Genomic Sequencing to Inform Therapy in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
Pancreatic cancer is projected to overtake colorectal cancer to become the second most frequent cause of cancer death by 2030, with approximately 46,000 people in the US dying annually[1]. Pancreatic cancer is uniquely challenging for several reasons. In contrast to other cancers, screening has limited utility outside of rare genetic conditions[2], most cancers present at an advanced and incurable stage[3], and the latest advances in cancer therapy such as immunotherapy have not provided benefit[4,5] in unselected pancreatic cancer so far. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nicholas Meti, Deirdre Kelly, Michael J. Allen, Ashley Lanys, Rouhi Fazelzad, Ravi Ramjeesingh, George Zogopoulos, Faiyaz Notta, Jennifer J. Knox, Eitan Amir, Steven Gallinger, Grainne O'Kane, Robert C. Grant Source Type: research

Major breakthroughs in lung cancer adjuvant treatment: looking beyond the horizon
Approximately 30% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients present a resectable disease at the time of diagnosis [1] and this proportion will hopefully increase in the near future through the implementation of screening programs worldwide [2]. The prognosis of surgically resected NSCLC patients, is mainly ascribed to the pathological TNM staging, with 5-year survival rate dropping from 90% (stage IA) to 40% (stage IIIA) [3]. In this heterogeneous scenario, the optimal management of early stage NSCLC patients has historically represented a difficult and appealing challenge for medical oncologists dealing with thoracic...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Francesco Passiglia, Valentina Bertaglia, Maria Lucia Reale, Marco Donatello Delcuratolo, Fabrizio Tabb ò, Emanuela Olmetto, Enrica Capelletto, Paolo Bironzo, Silvia Novello Source Type: research

A systematic review of phase II trials exploring anti-PD-1/PD-L1 combinations in patients with solid tumors
Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) including Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) or Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitors determined a significant improvement in the treatment of several cancer types [1,2]. However, a considerable proportion of patients does not benefit from them [3,4]. Combining PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors with other therapeutic partners - including a second immunotherapeutic agent, targeted agents, chemotherapy or radiotherapy - has been increasingly pursued over the last years [5]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: F. Martorana, I. Colombo, G. Treglia, S. Gillessen, A. Stathis Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognostic factors for relapse in resected gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of thegastroenteropancreatic(GEP) tract, hereby referred to as GEP-NENs, are aheterogeneousgroup oftumours originating from neuroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract.[1] Neuroendocrine neoplasms comprise both well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC), which differ significantly in clinical behaviour.[2] Although considered a rare group of cancers, the incidence ofGEP-NENs has increased in all primary sites over the last four decades, with an overall incidence of 5.25 per 100,000 per year. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 10, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Rachel Broadbent, Roseanna Wheatley, Sabrina Stajer, Timothy Jacobs, Angela Lamarca, Richard A Hubner, Juan W Valle, Eitan Amir, Mair éad G McNamara Source Type: research

De-escalation of axillary irradiation for early breast cancer – has the time come?
Decades of progress in early breast cancer (BC) treatment, in particular advances in early detection and tumor-biology-driven systemic therapy have resulted in improvements in both local/distant control and overall survival (OS) [1]. Resultant improved disease control together with the morbidity associated with locoregional treatments have led to locoregional treatment (surgery and radiation) de-escalation attempts, aiming to decrease treatment-related sequelae and – as a result – improve patients’ quality-of-life. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 7, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: El żbieta Senkus, Maria Joao Cardoso, Orit Kaidar-Person, Aleksandra Łacko, Icro Meattini, Philip Poortmans Source Type: research

Emerging molecular alterations leading to histology-specific targeted therapies in ovarian cancer beyond PARP inhibitors
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the major cause of gynecological cancer-related deaths in Western countries[1]. Its relative low incidence and the absence of screening programs, represent major limitations to early disease detection[2]. As a result, OC is usually diagnosed at late stage with unfavorable impact on the outcome. Cytoreductive surgery, aimed to remove all the macroscopic implants from the abdomen and the pelvis, represents the only curative treatment option and is the therapeutic mainstay in early and advanced OC. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 29, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: M. Bartoletti, L. Musacchio, G. Giannone, V. Tuninetti, A. Bergamini, G. Scambia, D. Lorusso, G. Valabrega, G. Mangili, F. Puglisi, S. Pignata Source Type: research

Advanced oesophago-gastric adenocarcinoma in older patients in the era of immunotherapy. A review of the literature
Gastric cancer (GC) remains one of the most common and deadly cancers worldwide, even if its incidence has decreased over time, mainly because of prevention and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection[1]. Contrarily, the incidence of gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinomas has increased, attributable to smoking and elevated body mass index (BMI) [2]. Much progress has been made in the management of advanced G/GEJ adenocarcinomas: the identification of molecular sub-groups benefiting from specific therapies (HER2 positive tumors, MSI/dMMR and EBV positive tumors, FGFR amplified tumors, etc)[3 –6], the intr...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: C. de la Fouchardiere, L. Decoster, E. Samalin, C. Terret, C. Kenis, J.P. Droz, C. Coutzac, E. Smyth Source Type: research

Efficacy of VEGFR-TKIs plus immune checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients with favorable IMDC prognosis
Anti-angiogenic agents and immunotherapy are the cornerstone of advanced/metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC) treatment. Recently, the therapeutic scenario of first-line therapy for mRCC has been completely revolutionized. The combination of the two immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) nivolumab and ipilimumab (targeting PD-1 and CTLA4, respectively) yielded a significant survival advantage, compared to sunitinib, in International Metastatic RCC Database consortium (IMDC) intermediate- and poor-risk patients, but failed to improve outcomes of favorable-risk patients [1]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: C. Ciccarese, R. Iacovelli, C. Porta, G. Procopio, E. Bria, S. Astore, MA. Cannella, G. Tortora Source Type: research

Late Hepatic Toxicity Surveillance for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer: Recommendations from the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group
Advances in the treatment of childhood, adolescent and young adult (CAYA) cancer have greatly improved 5-year survival, which now exceeds 80% [1 –3]. Unfortunately, many survivors experience long-term morbidity and early mortality resulting from their cancer and/or its treatment [4–6]. Although uncommon, hepatic late complications can lead to substantial morbidity, quality of life impairment and even early mortality. In the Childhood Can cer Survivor Study cohort, the rate of self-reported liver cirrhosis in North American adult survivors of CAYA cancer was 0.2 per 1000 person-years, which was 9 times higher th...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Edit Bardi, Ren ée L Mulder, Elvira C van Dalen, Neel S Bhatt, Kathy A Ruble, Jennifer Burgis, Sharon M Castellino, Louis S Constine, Caroline M den Hoed, Daniel M Green, Bart GP Koot, Gill Levitt, László Szonyi, W Hamish Wallace, Roderick Skinner, Mel Source Type: research

The role of the tumor primary chemosensitivity relative to the success of the medical-surgical management in patients with advanced ovarian carcinomas
About 22,000 new cases of ovarian carcinomas are detected every year in the US [1]. It is considered that around 65% to 80% of patients are diagnosed with advanced stages III-IV diseases, depending on the pathology subtypes [1]. The backbone of the standard first-line treatment has historically relied on two components, with the combination of debulking surgery and systemic medical therapy. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Benoit You, Gilles Freyer, Antonio Gonzalez-Martin, Stephanie Lheureux, Iain McNeish, Richard T Penson, Sandro Pignata, Eric Pujade-Lauraine Source Type: research

The Impact of Radiological Assessment Schedules on Progression-Free Survival in Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis
The main objectives of treating metastatic cancer are to prolong survival and to improve quality of life. While overall-survival (OS) is considered the gold standard for demonstrating clinical benefit in oncology trials, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepts intermediate endpoints for clinical benefit when considering drugs for approval [1]. Progression-free survival (PFS) is used increasingly as a primary endpoint in cancer randomized controlled trials (RCTs) [2]. PFS may shorten the required duration of follow-up, quicken the time to drug approval and reduce costs [3]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dor Reuven Dabush, Daniel Shepshelovich, Tzippy Shochat, Ariadna Tibau, Eitan Amir, Hadar Goldvaser Source Type: research

Brain metastases in patients with oncogenic-driven non-small cell lung cancer: Pros and cons for early radiotherapy
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes approximately 85% of all lung cancers and is well known for high incidence of brain metastases (BMs). BM has been reported at an incidence rate of 10 – 20% at diagnosis and ∼25% during the course of the disease.[1–3] (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jiyun Lee, Myung-Ju Ahn Source Type: research

Systemic therapy for older patients with early breast cancer
Age is a risk factor for breast cancer, with almost half of cases diagnosed in women aged 65 and older.[1] Nonetheless, older individuals are less frequently offered guideline-concordant care with substantial treatment and outcome variation at national and international levels.[2] Older adults are heterogeneous and affected by differing burdens of comorbidities, functional problems, cognitive impairments, polypharmacy, malnutrition, psychological distress and lack of social support. These factors may significantly impact treatment efficacy, degree of benefit and safety. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 10, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nicol ò Matteo Luca Battisti, Kroopa Joshi, Mariam Syeda Nasser, Alistair Ring Source Type: research

Comparing cancer and cardiovascular disease trends in 20 middle- or high-income countries 2000 –19: A pointer to national trajectories towards achieving Sustainable Development goal target 3.4
Twenty years have passed since governments adopted the UN Political Declaration on Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and committed to action to combat premature mortality from NCDs. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, diabetes and chronic lung disease dominate the premature mortality landscape. These and all other NCDs have been estimated to be responsible for over three-quarters (77.0%) of the 20.4 million deaths at ages 30 to 70 worldwide in 2019 [1], and the burden is expected to rise over the next decades as populations ’ age, communicable diseases are progressively controlled, and the prevalence of key risk fac...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 9, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Freddie Bray, Mathieu Laversanne, Bochen Cao, Cherian Varghese, Bente Mikkelsen, Elisabete Weiderpass, Isabelle Soerjomataram Source Type: research

Comparing cancer and cardiovascular disease trends in 20 middle- or high-income countries 2000-19: a pointer to national trajectories towards achieving Sustainable Development Goal target 3.4
Twenty years have passed since governments adopted the UN Political Declaration on Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and committed to action to combat premature mortality from NCDs. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, diabetes and chronic lung disease dominate the premature mortality landscape. These and all other NCDs have been estimated to be responsible for over three-quarters (77.0%) of the 20.4 million deaths at ages 30 to 70 worldwide in 2019[1], and the burden is expected to rise over the next decades as populations ’ age, communicable diseases are progressively controlled, and the prevalence of key risk fact...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 9, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Freddie Bray, Mathieu Laversanne, Bochen Cao, Cherian Varghese, Bente Mikkelsen, Elisabete Weiderpass, Isabelle Soerjomataram Source Type: research

Targeting ARID1A Mutations in Cancer
Potential Therapeutic Targets for ARID1A AlterationsCaption: Multiple potential therapeutic targets exist for cancers with ARID1A alterations. There is evidence that ARID1A alterations lead to resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy, and mixed evidence regarding the efficacy of PARP inhibitors. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jaren Mullen, Shumei Kato, Jason K. Sicklick, Razelle Kurzrock Source Type: research

Adoptive t-cell immunotherapy in digestive tract malignancies: current challenges and future perspectives
T cells are at the forefront of the tumor immune surveillance. They are able to recognize tumor antigens, derived from intracellularly degraded proteins, that are loaded onto cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules through a unique, clone-specific receptor named T cell receptor (TCR). The TCR complex comprises highly polymorphic single α- and β-glycoprotein chains (1-5% of TCRs harbor γ and δ chains) that contain variable and constant regions, and non-polymorphic signaling chains named CD3 γ, δ, ε and ζ. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 4, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Barbara Mandriani, Eleonora Pelle', Gaetano Pezzicoli, Jonathan Strosberg, Daniel Abate-Daga, Attilio Guarini, Mauro Cives, Camillo Porta Source Type: research

The Role of Transforming Growth Factor β in Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers: A Systematic Review
Schematic overview of the effect of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in gastric and esophageal cancer. VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor, HLA-G = human leukocyte antigen G, MMT = mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, Treg = regulatory T cell. A red highlight denotes a tumor-promoting effect, a green highlight shows a tumor-suppressing effect and a grey highlight indicates no effect of TGF-β. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Linde M. Veen, Tim Skrabanja, Sarah Derks, Tanja D. de Gruijl, Maarten F. Bijlsma, Hanneke W.M. van Laarhoven Source Type: research

Targeting HER2 heterogeneity in breast cancer
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was identified in the mid 1980 ’s as an oncogene that stimulates cancer cell growth. It is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase (TK) receptor that forms an active dimer with EGFR (HER1), another member of the HER receptor family. The subsequent phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on the receptor leads to activation of intracellular signaling pathways that promote cell growth and proliferation. HER2 is overexpressed in ∼20-25% of breast cancers mainly as a consequence of gene amplification [1] and patients with breast cancer whose tumors overexpress HER2 are known to hav...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Erika Hamilton, Mythili Shastry, S. Michelle Shiller, Rongqin Ren Source Type: research

Roadmap to cure multiple myeloma
Despite significant advances in the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), which led to unprecedented response rates and prolonged survival, most patients eventually relapse and cannot be cured. We propose in this review a roadmap to achieve the dream of cure for MM based on five complementary strategies. First, to gain better understanding of myelomagenesis and the biology of aggressive clones. Second, to consider undetectable measurable residual disease (MRD), defined by high-sensitive techniques, as the new endpoint of therapy. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 31, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Paula Rodriguez-Otero, Bruno Paiva, Jes ús F. San-Miguel Source Type: research

Platinum-based chemotherapy in early-stage triple negative breast cancer: A meta-analysis
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), accounts for approximately 15% of early-stage breast cancer diagnoses and is characterized by a younger age at diagnosis and more aggressive features such as more advanced stage and worse survival [1,2]. TNBC is a heterogeneous disease, which can include chemoresistant cases which are associated with early relapse and adverse outcomes and a contrasting group of chemosensitive tumors which with multimodality therapy can have a very low risk of relapse [3]. Pre-clinical data suggest that TNBC are associated with dysfunctional DNA-repair mechanisms (e.g. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 28, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ramy R. Saleh, Michelle B. Nadler, Alexandra Desnoyers, Nicholas Meti, Rouhi Fazelzad, Eitan Amir Source Type: research

Vascular events with immune checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma or non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Advances in immunological treatment challenged the management of cancer patients in the last decade [1]. Immune checkpoint molecules, including the programmed cell death protein (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4), control immune responses within the tumor microenvironment. Targeting the PD-1 and CTLA4 receptors on T cells has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in different cancer types, but only subgroups of patients have durable responses. Hence, understanding their benefit/risk is of paramount importance in a routine activity to set their therapeutic role [1 –5]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Michela Giustozzi, Cecilia Becattini, Fausto Roila, Giancarlo Agnelli, Mario Mandal à Source Type: research

Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of cardiac toxicity induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors and BRAF and MEK inhibitors
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dimitri Arangalage, Nils Degrauwe, Olivier Michielin, Pierre Monney, Berna C. Özdemir Source Type: research

Fed or Fasted State for Oral Therapies in Breast Cancer Treatment? A comprehensive review of clinical practice recommendations
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide and lead cause of cancer mortality in women.[1] Several drugs are available to manage patients with breast cancer, and a number of them are administered orally. Designing oral treatments is an attractive area of pharmacology research, for the more convenient and easy administration, flexibility in administration (e.g., timing and place), potentially resulting in improved patient ’s quality of life.[2] However, the oral administration of medicines harbors challenges in the uptake and delivery of the active principles. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nicol ò Eleonora, Trapani Dario, Berton Giachetti Pier Paolo Maria, Zagami Paola, Curigliano Giuseppe Source Type: research

Emerging Therapies for Rare Cutaneous Cancers: A Systematic Review
Medical therapies for skin cancer have seen tremendous growth over the past two decades, with shifts from cytotoxic chemotherapy to more targeted therapies. For rare cutaneous cancers, including extramammary Paget ’s disease (EMPD), Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC), microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC), Kaposi sarcoma (KS), and cutaneous angiosarcoma (CA), studies demonstrating high biomarker activity for treatment targets have led to several trials aiming to test efficacy [1]–[ 8]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Andrew Garcia, Kamaria Nelson, Vishal Patel Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pleural Mesothelioma (PM) – the status of systemic therapy
Mesothelioma is a universally lethal malignancy of serosal membranes, which commonly affects the pleura of the lung, and less commonly the peritoneum, pericardium and testes.[1] Since the first reported case of mesothelioma in 1908, where the patient survived for 8 months after diagnosis,[2] the prognosis of mesothelioma has largely remained poor. The median overall survival rates reported in population-based registry studies range between 8 to 12 months,[1] and between 12 to 18 months in contemporary clinical trials. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 4, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wanyuan Cui, Sanjay Popat Source Type: research

Systematic review of real-world studies evaluating the impact of medication non-adherence to endocrine therapies on hard clinical endpoints in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women [1] with more than 16 million prevalent cases worldwide and is responsible for over 600,000 deaths annually [2,3]. According to the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) Global Burden of Disease Study, in 2019 breast cancer was the 20th leading cause of global Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and contributed to 1.4% of global DALYs [4]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Andr ás Inotai, Tamás Ágh, Ramona Maris, Dalma Erdősi, Sándor Kovács, Zoltán Kaló Conceptualisation, Elżbieta Senkus Source Type: research

Radiomics and radiogenomics in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: potential contribution to patient management and challenges
Heterogeneity is a hallmark of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and this is manifested at different levels, most notably in its complex anatomy including several potential primary tumor sites, various carcinogenic pathways, a broad genomic landscape, and high tumor microenvironment variability. This molecular and biological heterogeneity is reflected in the different clinical outcomes in patients treated with the same standard therapy, in both locally advanced and recurrent/metastatic settings. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 25, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gema Bruixola, Elena Remacha, Ana Jim énez-Pastor, Delfina Dualde, Alba Viala, Jose Vicente Montón, Maider Ibarrola-Villava, Ángel Alberich-Bayarri, Andrés Cervantes Source Type: research

Treatment opportunities and future perspectives for pancreatic cancer patients with germline BRCA1-2 pathogenic variants
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) still presents a grim prognosis with less than 10% of newly diagnosed patients alive after 5-year, and by the end of 2030 PDAC is expected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States [12]. Currently, only 15 –20% of patients are diagnosed with resectable disease and even with radical surgery 75% of them will recur within 5 years, supporting the idea of PDAC as a systemic disease since the onset. In metastatic or unresectable cancers, FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine regimens represent th e standard treatment, however offering a ...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Macchini Marina, Centonze Federico, Peretti Umberto, Orsi Giulia, Militello Anna Maria, Valente Maria Maddalena, Cascinu Stefano, Reni Michele Source Type: research