Molecular targeted therapy of glioblastoma
Glioblastoma is an intrinsic brain tumor that may occur at any age and is thought to originate by genetic alterations affecting neuroglial stem or progenitor cells [1]. Incidence increases steadily with age. Median age at diagnosis is in the range of 65 years, and males are approximately 1.7-fold more often affected than females. Young age and good performance status are therapy-independent positive prognostic factors (See Figs. 1 and 2). (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Emilie Le Rhun, Matthias Preusser, Patrick Roth, David A. Reardon, Martin van den Bent, Patrick Wen, Guido Reifenberger, Michael Weller Tags: New Drugs Source Type: research

Should platinum-based chemotherapy be preferred for germline BReast CAncer genes (BRCA) 1 and 2-mutated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide, associated with poor prognosis even when diagnosed at an early clinical stage (CS). Despite advances in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, the 5-year overall survival rate is only 7.0-8.5% [1]. FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) and nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine are first-line treatment options in the metastatic setting, with a median overall survival of less than 1 year [2,3]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Taiane F. Rebelatto, Maicon Falavigna, Marta Pozzari, Francesca Spada, Chiara A. Cella, Alice Laffi, Stefania Pellicori, Nicola Fazio Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Comprehensive intra-individual genomic and transcriptional heterogeneity: evidence-based Colorectal Cancer Precision Medicine
Genome and transcriptome sequencing and editing technologies, complemented by machine learning, are revolutionizing biomedical research shaping a shift from inexact science to Precision Medicine [1 –8]. Especially for cancer, progress has been so impressive that a transition from research on spatiotemporal tumor heterogeneity [9–11] to early phase clinical trials is now beginning [4,12–17]. Precise characterization of dynamic intra-individual genomic and transcriptomic landscapes could e nhance prediction of drug response in individual patients and optimize combinatorial therapy towards clinical Cancer Pr...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ioannis D. Kyrochristos, Dimitrios H. Roukos Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Introducing article numbering to Cancer Treatment Reviews
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Liquid biopsy for rectal cancer: A systematic review
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most diagnosed cancers worldwide, with 1.84 million estimated new cases in 2018 [1]. About 25-30% of all colorectal cancer diagnoses accounts for rectal cancer (RC) [2].In the European Union, the incidence of RC is ∼125000 per year, i.e. ∼35% of the total colorectal cancer incidence, reflecting 15–25 cases/100 000 population per year and is predicted to further increase in both genders. The mortality is 4–10/100 000 population per year, with a median age at diagnosis of ∼70 years [3]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Daniela Massihnia, Elio Gregory Pizzutilo, Alessio Amatu, Federica Tosi, Silvia Ghezzi, Katia Bencardino, Pietro Di Masi, Elena Righetti, Giorgio Patelli, Francesco Scaglione, Angelo Vanzulli, Salvatore Siena, Andrea Sartore-Bianchi Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Evolution of treatment strategies for oligometastatic NSCLC patients - A systematic review of the literature
Metastatic NSCLC has long been thought of as incurable and treatment consisted mainly of palliative chemotherapy (CHT). Local treatments, such as surgery or radiotherapy, with palliative, non-ablative doses were restricted to symptom control. The concept of oligometastatic disease (OMD) is currently challenging this dogma by defining an intermediate stage of metastatic disease with a more favorable disease biology and dynamic. OMD is characterized by a limited number of metastatic lesions and a low overall metastatic burden that opens a therapeutic window for radical treatment to all cancer sites, the locoregional primary ...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Daniel H. Schanne, Jana Heitmann, Matthias Guckenberger, Nicolaus Andratschke Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Collecting ducts carcinoma: an orphan disease. Literature overview and future perspectives
Collecting ducts carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumor arising from the principal cells of distal segment of the collecting ducts of Bellini in the renal medulla [1]. CDC is a rare tumor, accounting for only 1% of renal tumors with distinct clinical, histological and pathological characteristics [2 –4], first recognized by Mancilla-Jimenez et al. in 1976 [5] and then further described by Fleming and Lewi in 1986 [6]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Filippo Pagani, Maurizio Colecchia, Pierangela Sepe, Giulia Apollonio, Melanie Claps, Elena Verzoni, Filippo de Braud, Giuseppe Procopio Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Management of Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
The previous review by the International Head and Neck Scientific Group (IHNSG) on recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) summarized the available data that had emerged over the past decade prior to 2010 to identify the scope of the problem [1]. With the adoption of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) +/- stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for the primary management of NPC in the contemporary era, a renewed review of strategies is needed for the management of recurrent NPC as most failures are now likely to be related to radioresistance. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anne W.M. Lee, Wai Tong Ng, Jimmy Y.W. Chan, June Corry, Antti M äkitie, William M. Mendenhall, Alessandra Rinaldo, Juan P. Rodrigo, Nabil F. Saba, Primož Strojan, Carlos Suárez, Jan B. Vermorken, Sue S. Yom, Alfio Ferlito Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Gastric cancer: translating novels concepts into clinical practice
Gastric cancer (GC) remains a considerable health burden as it ranks as the sixth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide[1]. In fact, despite a steadily decline in incidence overall, gastroesophageal junction cancers and cases in young-adults are on the rise, particularly in developed countries[2]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 14, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Massimiliano Salati, Giulia Orsi, Elisabeth Smyth, Giordano Beretta, Fernando De Vita, Maria Di Bartolomeo, Valentina Fanotto, Sara Lonardi, Federica Morano, Filippo Pietrantonio, Carmine Pinto, Lorenza Rimassa, Enrico Vasile, Caterina Vivaldi, Alberto Za Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Therapeutic Landscape of Metaplastic Breast Cancer
Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MPBC) represents 0.2-5% of all breast cancers and is typically very aggressive, with worse clinical outcomes than triple negative invasive breast cancers (TNBC)[1,2]. It is comprised of ductal, squamous, and/or chondroid, and spindle elements, with squamous cell carcinoma being the most frequent histological subtype. The World Health Organization (WHO) further divides metaplastic breast cancer into several subgroups: low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, fibromatosis-like metaplastic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma with mesenchymal differentiation...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: N. Tray, J. Taff, S. Adams Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the larynx: A comparative analysis
Neuroendocrine tumors of the larynx constitute a rare and morphologically heterogeneous group of tumors. They are characterized by the presence of neurosecretory granules and share a characteristic immune profile. According to the 2017 WHO proposed classification, the poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) comprise the poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of a small cell-type (SCNEC) and a large cell-type (LCNEC) (Fig. 1). The other two tumors of epithelial origin are the well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma and the moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma [1]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Primo ž Strojan, Juan C. Hernandez-Prera, Jonathan J. Beitler, Avraham Eisbruch, Nabil F. Saba, William M. Mendenhall, Carlos Suarez Nieto, Robert Smee, Alessandra Rinaldo, Alfio Ferlito Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

The evolving landscape of immunotherapy in small-cell lung cancer: a focus on predictive biomarkers
Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) accounts for 15-17% of all lung cancers. Most patients have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, with a 5-year survival rate of only 2-8%. In this context, unfortunately, no improvement in survival has been achieved in the last 30 years [1]. In first-line setting, the standard of care is still based on platinum-etoposide [2], with platinum-irinotecan being an alternative option in Japan [3]. Although high response rates to first-line chemotherapy are observed (around 70-80%), most patients relapse within few months, leading to a median overall survival (mOS) of 8-12 months [4]. (Source...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Francesco Gelsomino, Giuseppe Lamberti, Claudia Parisi, Laura Casolari, Barbara Melotti, Francesca Sperandi, Andrea Ardizzoni Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Taxanes during pregnancy in cervical cancer: A systematic review and pooled analysis
Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies diagnosed during pregnancy with an estimated incidence of 1:2,000-10,000 pregnancies[11]. Discrepancies in inclusion criteria, such as live births, births beyond 20 weeks etc, may explain the variation of these results. Moreover an underestimation of the incidence of cervical cancer diagnosed during pregnancy may be due to lack of data of pregnancies that ended in a miscarriage or induced abortion. Management of cervical cancer during pregnancy represents a challenge for physicians due to its low incidence and to the lack of strong data. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Flora Zagouri, Anna-Maria Korakiti, Roubini Zakopoulou, Anastasios Kyriazoglou, Eleni Zografos, Dimitrios Haidopoulos, Kleoniki Apostolidou, Maria Alkistis Papatheodoridi, Meletios A. Dimopoulos Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Opportunities of Circulating Tumor DNA in Lung Cancer
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) refers to non-encapsulated DNA in the bloodstream, which was first discovered in the 1940s [1]. Increased levels of cfDNA were later found to be associated with pathological processes, most commonly with neoplastic diseases [2,3]. In cancer patients, a fraction of their cfDNA is derived from tumor cells and referred to as circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ting-Hui Wu, Emily Han-Chung Hsiue, James Chih-Hsin Yang Tags: Laboratory-Clinic Interface Source Type: research

The Promise of Combining Cancer Vaccine and Checkpoint Blockade for Treating HPV-Related Cancer
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) strains had previously been described in the literature, the earliest published evidence of the link between HPV and cervical cancer dates to 1983 by Harald zur Hausen and colleagues [1]. Since then, over 200 HPV genotypes have been described [2], and the 2008 Nobel Prize was awarded to zur Hausen for his pioneering work in the field. HPV is a common virus that is efficiently transmitted by sexual exposure and skin-to-skin contact [2]. Certain genotypes of HPV (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68) are categorized as high-risk (HR) due to their causative association...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 5, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Takeo Shibata, Benjamin J. Lieblong, Toshiyuki Sasagawa, Mayumi Nakagawa Tags: Anti-Tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Drug-induced gene expression profile changes in relation to intestinal toxicity: State-of-the-art and new approaches
The intestines are one of the organs that compose the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract, being mainly responsible to turn food into nutrients and energy, expelling the waste as faeces. The intestines present a distinctive architecture that supports the important and complex functions of this organ and they are divided into small and large intestine. Each part presents a unique structure and metabolic activity [1], has a different composition of cells [2], expression of genes/proteins [3] and composition of the microbiome [4]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Daniela Rodrigues, Terezinha Souza, Danyel G.J. Jennen, Lieve Lemmens, Jos C.S. Kleinjans, Theo M. de Kok Tags: Complications of Treatment Source Type: research

Checkpoint inhibitors in pancreatic cancer
In 2016 pancreatic cancer (PC) moved from 4th[1,2] to 3rd leading cause of cancer death in the US, surpassing breast cancer[3]. PC is projected to be the second leading cause of cancer related death in 2020[4,5]. Over 90% of PC cases develop in the exocrine tissue. Pancreatic adenocarcinomas compromise most of the exocrine tumors and of these the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most frequent histological subtype[6]. About half of patients with PC present with distant metastases while approximately a third present with locally advanced disease[7]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Andreas Henriksen, Anne Dyhl-Polk, Inna Chen, Dorte Nielsen Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

FGFR2 genomic aberrations: Achilles heel in the management of advanced cholangiocarcinoma
Cholangiocarcinoma is the most common aggressive biliary tract malignancy with dismal prognosis. Though surgical resection of the primary tumors yields better prognosis, majority of patients present at advanced, inoperable stages rendering systemic therapy as the only option. A significant progress has been made in understanding the cholangiocarcinoma tumorigenesis and molecular markers over the last decade, which opens doors to precision medicine in this dismal cancer. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas are most likely to harbor mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1, IDH2), fibroblast growth factor receptors (FG...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Amit Mahipal, Sri Harsha Tella, Anuhya Kommalapati, Daniel Anaya, Richard Kim Tags: Anti-Tumour Treatment Source Type: research

The role of PET/CT in the modern treatment of Hodgkin Lymphoma
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has been the archetype for tumor staging and restaging in oncology[1] with extensive evidence of the high diagnostic accuracy of [18F]-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) combined with computed tomography (PET/CT).[2 –4] The exceptional performance of PET/CT in HL results most likely from the peculiar architecture of HL composed of a minority (5%) of neoplastic cells, the Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells, embedded in a microenvironment (ME) of non-neoplastic inflammatory/immune cells. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jan Maciej Zaucha, Stephane Chauvie, Renata Zaucha, Alberto Biggii, Andrea Gallamini Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Novel TCR-based biologics: mobilising T cells to warm ‘cold’ tumours
The T cell repertoire evolved to distinguish self from foreign antigens, enabling the recognition and elimination of pathogen-infected cells, while avoiding reactions to healthy organs and tissues. Although the T cell system monitors almost all types of body cells and eliminates aberrant ones, for example if they display viral antigens, it is nevertheless often completely or, at least, partly ineffective against cancer cells. The T cell repertoire is selected so as to not recognise self-antigens and, as malignant cells display an almost normal antigen selection, they are often ‘invisible’ to T cell-mediated imm...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kate L. Lowe, David Cole, Rupert Kenefeck, Ita OKelly, Marco Lepore, Bent K. Jakobsen Tags: Anti-Tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Androgen receptor plasticity and its implications for prostate cancer therapy
Drug resistance is a common occurrence in many diseases, ranging from antibiotic resistance in bacteria and antiviral resistance by HIV strains to drug resistance in cancer, where it represents an especially pressing and unresolved issue. Resistance arises in nearly all cancer types and across numerous different drug classes with distinct mechanisms of action [1]. This is due to the inherent nature of cancer, where populations of tumour cells are put under selective pressure; such that the cells that survive are those which evolve ways to avoid the immune system and chemotherapies. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Oliver Snow, Nada Lallous, Kriti Singh, Nathan Lack, Paul Rennie, Artem Cherkasov Tags: Complications of Treatment Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognostic value of receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (ROR) family in cancer: A meta-analysis
Identification of membrane proteins expressed exclusively on tumor cells is a goal for cancer drug development. The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor type 1 and 2 (ROR1/2), are type-I transmembrane proteins expressed in cancer but not in adult normal tissue. Here, we explore the prognostic role ROR1/2 expression on patient outcome. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ramy R. Saleh, Jes ús Fuentes Antrás, Paloma Peinado, Pedro Pérez-Segura, Atanasio Pandiella, Eitan Amir, Alberto Ocaña Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Optimizing the management of locally advanced pancreatic cancer with a focus on induction chemotherapy: Expert opinion based on a review of current evidence
Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in developed countries [1]. Incidence rates vary between regions, with the highest in North America (7.4 per 100,000 people in 2012) and Western Europe (7.3 per 100,000) [1]. Mortality rates are almost as high as incidence rates (6.9 per 100,000 in North America and 6.8 per 100,000 in Western Europe), reflecting how lethal pancreatic cancer is [1]. Despite being the 11th most common cancer worldwide [1], it is the 4th most fatal cancer in both men (after lung, colorectal and prostate cancers) and women (after breast, colorectal and lung cancers) [2,3],...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Thomas Seufferlein, Pascal Hammel, Jean Robert Delpero, Teresa Macarulla, Per Pfeiffer, Gerald W. Prager, Michele Reni, Massimo Falconi, Philip A. Philip, Eric Van Cutsem Tags: Anti-Tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Comparison and Applicability of Molecular Classifications for Gastric Cancer
GC is a heterogeneous disease, which currently ranks as the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide [1]. Despite many efforts to improve treatment strategies in the last decade, gastric cancer (GC) still presents dismal outcomes. Only 30% of GC are diagnosed at a local stage and the 5-year survival for pTNM stage groups classified according to the 8th edition of the Cancer staging manual of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) are between 80 and 68% for stage I, 60 and 46% for stage II, 30 and 8% for stage III and 5% for stage IV, based on data from NCDB (National Can...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: O. Serra, M. Gal án, M.M. Ginesta, M. Calvo, N. Sala, R. Salazar Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

PD-L1 Expression and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma Treated with Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Meta-Analysis
Bladder cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide.[1] Patients with advanced disease or those who relapse after radical cystectomy have very poor outcomes. For two decades, cisplatin-based combination therapy has been the standard of care for first-line treatment of metastatic urothelial cancers.[1,2] While these combinations have high response rates, almost all patients will ultimately progress and die from their disease. Several cytotoxic agents have modest clinical activity in the second-line setting (vinflunine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, pemetrexed) with overall response rates (ORR) ranging from 8-30% and ov...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ketan Ghate, Eitan Amir, Markus Kuksis, David Hernandez-Barajas, Laura Rodriguez-Romo, Christopher M. Booth, Francisco E. Vera-Badillo Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Management of bone health in solid tumours: From bisphosphonates to a monoclonal antibody
Bone health is an important consideration in patients with solid tumours, as both metastasis to bone and cancer therapy-induced bone loss (CTIBL) can increase morbidity and reduce quality of life [1,2]. Bone is a common site of metastasis in patients with cancer, with prostate, breast and lung the most frequent tumours leading to bone metastasis, accounting for 34%, 22% and 20% of cases, respectively [3]. A recent study in patients with solid tumours in the USA estimated the incidence of bone metastases in patients with solid tumours to be 6.9% at 5 years after diagnosis and 8.4% at 10 years [4], while a meta-analysis of 1...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Roger von Moos, Luis Costa, Eva Gonzalez-Suarez, Evangelos Terpos, Daniela Niepel, Jean –Jacques Body Tags: General and Supportive Care Source Type: research

Management of adverse events associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Improving outcomes for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that target pro-angiogenic molecules, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs), in the tumour microenvironment induce apoptosis by inhibiting tumour cell proliferation and angiogenesis [1]. TKIs are effective in treating a range of tumour types, including advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [2 –5]. HCC accounts for the majority of cases of primary liver cancer, which is the sixth most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide [6]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lorenza Rimassa, Romano Danesi, Tiziana Pressiani, Philippe Merle Tags: Anti-Tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Hedgehog Signaling Inhibitors in Solid and Hematological Cancers
Hedgehog (HH) signaling regulates development, cell proliferation, and tissue repair [1 –3]. In mammals, HH signaling is activated by 3 ligands: Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Indian hedgehog (IHH), or Desert hedgehog; SHH is the most widely expressed in adult tissues [3]. The primary receptor for these ligands is Patched-1 (Ptch1). In the absence of ligand, Ptch1 inhibits Smoothened (Smo) (F igure 1A); and upon ligand binding, Ptch1 inhibition is released, activating Smo, leading to activation of the glioma-associated oncogene (Gli) transcription factors Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3 (Figure 1B) [2]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jorge E. Cortes, Ralf Gutzmer, Mark W. Kieran, James A. Solomon Source Type: research

Immunotherapy of colorectal cancer: challenges for therapeutic efficacy
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second type in terms of mortality. Over 1.8 millions of CRC cases and 881.000 CRC-related deaths were estimated to occur in 2018 in the World [1]. Despite significant improvements in CRC treatment, the prognosis of patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) remains poor, with a median overall survival (OS) of approximately 30 months [2]. For this reason, novel and more effective therapeutic strategies are necessary for metastatic disease. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - May 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Davide Ciardiello, Pietro Paolo Vitiello, Claudia Cardone, Giulia Martini, Teresa Troiani, Erika Martinelli, Fortunato Ciardiello Tags: Anti-Tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Improving Attribution of Adverse Events in Oncology Clinical Trials
The reporting of adverse events (AEs) is an essential aspect of oncology drug development and the regulatory process. AE reporting is key to determining a new drug ’s toxicity profile, which will ultimately contribute to the benefit–risk assessment and will be included in the label. However, the process for determining the origin of the AE is sub-optimal and inefficient and produces information that may be of limited or uncertain value for regulatory decis ion-making and for informing clinical practice and future research steps. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - April 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Goldy C. George, Pedro C. Barata, Alicyn Campbell, Alice Chen, Jorge E. Cortes, David M. Hyman, Lee Jones, Thomas Karagiannis, Sigrid Klaar, Jennifer G. Le-Rademacher, Patricia LoRusso, Sumithra J. Mandrekar, Diana M. Merino, Lori M. Minasian, Sandra A. M Tags: Controversy Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - April 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Management of metastatic bladder cancer
Bladder cancer is among the most prevalent cancers worldwide, with around 430,000 new diagnoses each year [1]. Most UC develops in the urinary bladder and is derived from the pseudostratified epithelium known as the urothelium. Considerably fewer UCs develop in the renal pelvis and ureter (upper tract), which are also lined by urothelium. Tumors that invade the detrusor muscle are considered muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and are more likely to metastasize to lymph nodes or other organs. Approximately 75% of newly diagnosed patients have non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer with the remaining 25% having MIBC [2] or me...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - April 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Rosa Nadal, Joaquim Bellmunt Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Personalizing therapy for older adults with acute myeloid leukemia: Role of geriatric assessment and genetic profiling
The therapeutic landscape of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has changed with the recent discoveries of novel and targeted therapies. The FDA approval of 8 new AML drugs in a two-year time is unprecedented and is the result of decades of work in leukemia biology and therapeutics. The availability of multiple therapies requires us to develop rational therapy selection strategies to maximize the benefit of therapies and minimize the risk of toxicities for an individual patient. This review will focus on selection of an upfront chemotherapy option for older adults aged ≥60 years with AML, other than acute promyelocytic leukem...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - April 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Vijaya Raj Bhatt Tags: Anti-Tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Choosing wisely first line immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): What to add and what to leave out
The advent of immunotherapy has radically changed the therapeutic algorithm in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: C. Proto, R. Ferrara, D. Signorelli, G. Lo Russo, G. Galli, M. Imbimbo, A. Prelaj, N. Zilembo, M. Ganzinelli, L.M. Pallavicini, I. De Simone, M.P. Colombo, A. Sica, V. Torri, M.C. Garassino Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Genomic Profiling in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma and a Pathway towards Therapy Individualization: A Scoping Review
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has gained increasing attention over the last decade as its incidence continues to rise in contrast to other solid organ malignancies, and this trend is unlikely to change with the increasing life expectancy. Despite being an uncommon solid tumor (estimated 3.2 percent of all new cancer cases in 2018) PDAC is a large contributor to the toll of cancer deaths (estimated 7.3 percent for 2018)[1,2]. It has surpassed breast cancer as the third leading cause of cancer deaths, and with the current trend PDAC is predicted to overtake colorectal cancer to become the second leading cause of ca...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ritu R. Singh, Johanna Goldberg, Anna M. Varghese, Kenneth H. Yu, Wungki Park, Eileen M. O'Reilly Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Emerging therapeutic targets for patients with advanced prostate cancer
Prostate cancer represents the leading cause of cancer in men, with 164,690 new cases expected to be diagnosed in the United States, in 2018 [1]. Significant progress has been made in the past several years in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), with the approval of effective agents with unique mechanisms of action, including docetaxel, enzalutamide, abiraterone acetate, cabazitaxel, sipuleucel T, radium 223 dichloride, and apalutamide [2 –10]. Nonetheless, clinically significant prostate cancer remains associated with substantial mortality, as it currently represents the second most common ...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fred Saad, Neal Shore, Tian Zhang, Shikhar Sharma, Helen K. Cho, Ira A. Jacobs Tags: New Drugs Source Type: research

Aggressive variants of prostate cancer – Are we ready to apply specific treatment right now?
Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common malignancy in the western world [1]. For many years, the mainstay treatment for metastatic PC has been androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) [2]. However, the therapeutic landscape of metastatic hormone-sensitive PC (mHSPC) has changed substantially over the past years, with significantly improved survival following early combination of ADT with docetaxel or abiraterone acetate [3,4]. Eventually, treatment resistance of PC cells will evolve until a castration-resistant stage is reached [5]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Igor Tsaur, Isabel Heidegger, Alexander Kretschmer, Hendrik Borgmann, Giorgio Gandaglia, Alberto Briganti, Pieter de Visschere, Romain Mathieu, Massimo Valerio, Roderick van den Bergh, Piet Ost, Cristian Mirvald, Derya Tilki, Guillaume Ploussard, Cristian Source Type: research

Aggressive variants of prostate cancer - are we ready to apply specific treatment right now?
Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common malignancy in the western world [1]. For many years, the mainstay treatment for metastatic PC has been androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) [2]. However, the therapeutic landscape of metastatic hormone-sensitive PC (mHSPC) has changed substantially over the past years, with significantly improved survival following early combination of ADT with docetaxel or abiraterone acetate [3,4]. Eventually, treatment resistance of PC cells will evolve until a castration-resistant stage is reached [5]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Igor Tsaur, Isabel Heidegger, Alexander Kretschmer, Hendrik Borgmann, Giorgio Gandaglia, Alberto Briganti, Pieter de Visschere, Romain Mathieu, Massimo Valerio, Roderick van den Bergh, Piet Ost, Cristian Mirvald, Derya Tilki, Guillaume Ploussard, Cristian Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Short-duration versus 1-year adjuvant trastuzumab in early HER2 positive breast cancer: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) is overexpressed and/or amplified in approximately 15% –20% of early breast cancer patients[1] and is correlated with a worse prognosis. As an anti-HER2 humanized monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab can significantly reduce the risk of recurrence and improve the prognoses of HER2-positive patients[2–6]. According to a Cochrane meta-analysis, trastuzuma b confers a reduction in mortality by one-third, in relapse rate of 40%, in combination with (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy[7]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - March 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lujia Chen, Wenqi Zhou, Xiaolei Hu, Man Yi, Changsheng Ye, Guangyu Yao Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Refining adjuvant therapy for non-metastatic colon cancer, new standards and perspectives
With 1 360 802 new cases worldwide in 2012, colon cancer is the third most frequent cancer in males and the second in females [1]. More than 95% are adenocarcinoma, and 75% are diagnosed at a localized stage [2]. Even diagnosed at a localized stage, recurrence occurs in 30% of patients when there is nodal involvement (stage III) due to micrometastatic spreading. Hence, research has sought effective post-surgery treatments to kill this residual disease. To date only chemotherapeutic drugs such as fluoropyrimidines or oxaliplatin have proven effective and are currently recommended by scientific societies [2,3]. (Source: Canc...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - February 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Julien Taieb, Thierry Andr é, Edouard Auclin Source Type: research

Network meta-analysis of therapies for previously untreated advanced BRAF-mutated melanoma
Until recently, effective treatment options for patients with advanced stage melanoma were limited. Indeed, according to a 2011 systematic review of treatment options in melanoma, patients with metastatic disease had a median survival of under one year [1]. However, recent developments in understanding molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis, including the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, have led to the introduction of a number of novel treatment options. Approximately 40-70% of advanced melanoma cases harbor a BRAF mutation, causing constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway [1 –4...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - February 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Michael J Zoratti, Tahira Devji, Oren Levine, Lehana Thabane, Feng Xie Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - January 30, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The optimal duration of adjuvant endocrine therapy in early luminal breast cancer: A concise review
Endocrine therapy (ET) is the cornerstone of the adjuvant management of luminal early breast cancer (eBC), a group of breast cancer characterized by positive expression of hormone receptors (HR+). Possible therapies include tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) or, in pre-menopausal patients, ovarian function suppression (OFS), achieved by surgery (oophorectomy) or by GnRH agonists [1]. For some time, five years of adjuvant ET was considered optimal, and became the standard of care for all patients [1]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - January 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lorenzo Rossi, Amelia McCartney, Irene De Santo, Emanuela Risi, Erica Moretti, Luca Malorni, Laura Biganzoli, Angelo Di Leo Tags: Anti-Tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Drug-drug interactions in breast cancer patients treated with CDK4/6 inhibitors
CDK4/6 inhibitors, namely palbociclib, ribociclib and abemaciclib, belong to a new class of anticancer drugs used for the treatment of patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. Studies on the structure-activity relationship suggest that the presence of the 2-amino-pyridine group and the piperazine ring (Figure 1) are important molecular determinants for ATP-competitive inhibition and CDK4/6 selectivity [1]. Abemaciclib has the highest CDK4/CDK6 selectivity ratio within the class and the unique ability to target CDK9 at clinically relevant concen...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - January 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Stefano Fogli, Marzia Del Re, Giuseppe Curigliano, Ron H. van Schaik, Patrizio Lancellotti, Romano Danesi Tags: Complications of Treatment Source Type: research

Oligometastatic prostate cancer: the game is afoot
Prostate cancer, the second most frequent tumor and the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality in men [1], is characterized by a wide spectrum of biological behavior, which translates into different clinical presentations ranging from indolent microscopic disease to highly aggressive tumor with a strong tendency to metastasize.Table 1. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - January 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Andrea Lancia, Thomas Zilli, Verane Achard, Piet Dirix, Wouter Everaerts, Alfonso Gomez-Iturriaga, Gianluca Ingrosso, Nick Liefhooghe, Raymond Miralbell, Shankar Siva, Kim Van der eecken, Piet Ost Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research