Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - November 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A basic review on systemic treatment options in WHO grade II-III gliomas
The overall age-adjusted incidence of malignant primary CNS tumors in the US reaches about 7.1/100000 [1]. The vast majority of primary CNS tumors are composed of diffuse gliomas, a clinical and molecular heterogenous group of tumors deriving from glial precursor cells [1]. Whereas glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) accounts for approximately 55% of glioma [1], the remaining 45% of glial tumor are composed of several different histologies including grade II (diffuse) and grade III (anaplastic) astrocytoma as well as WHO grade II and III oligodendroglioma. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - November 12, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Maximilian J. Mair, Marjolein Geurts, Martin J. van den Bent, Anna S. Berghoff Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Bugs as Drugs: The Role of Microbiome in Cancer Focusing on Immunotherapeutics
The microorganisms living on and in the human body including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and other microbes, as well as their collective genomes and metabolic products constitute the human microbiome. The field of microbiome research in cancer has grown substantially over the past decade, with a nearly 46-fold increase in publications from 2009 to 2019 (37 to 1727 articles) based on PubMed using the search terms “microbiome” and “cancer”. The bacterial component of the intestinal microbiome has gained specific interest in oncology as accumulating evidence indicates a strong association with h...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - November 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Daniel V. Araujo, Geoffrey A. Watson, Marc Oliva, Alya Heirali, Bryan Coburn, Anna Spreafico, Lillian L. Siu Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - November 1, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Comparison of radiological criteria for hyperprogressive disease in response to immunotherapy
Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been added to the therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of many advanced cancers such as melanoma (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 28, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ana Luiza Gomes da Morais, Maria de Miguel, Jos é Miguel Cardenas, Emiliano Calvo Tags: Complications of Treatment Source Type: research

Prognostic factors in patients with oligometastatic breast cancer – A systematic review
Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is traditionally regarded as an incurable condition and patients receive treatment with a palliative intent. A small subset of patients with MBC survives beyond 10  years and these patients often have limited metastatic burden, also referred to as oligometastases [1–4]. Hellman and Weichselbaum first introduced the term oligometastatic cancer to describe patients with limited metastatic burden in 1995 [5]. They postulated that oligometastatic cancer represe nts an intermediate state between localized disease and widespread metastatic cancer. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Annemiek van Ommen – Nijhof, Tessa G Steenbruggen, Winnie Schats, Terry Wiersma, Hugo M. Horlings, Ritse Mann, Linetta Koppert, Erik van Werkhoven, Gabe S. Sonke, Agnes Jager Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Prognostic factors in patients with oligometastatic breast cancer - A systematic review
Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is traditionally regarded as an incurable condition and patients receive treatment with a palliative intent. A small subset of patients with MBC survives beyond 10 years and these patients often have limited metastatic burden, also referred to as oligometastases [1-4]. Hellman and Weichselbaum first introduced the term oligometastatic cancer to describe patients with limited metastatic burden in 1995 [5]. They postulated that oligometastatic cancer represents an intermediate state between localized disease and widespread metastatic cancer. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Annemiek van Ommen – Nijhof, Tessa G Steenbruggen, Winnie Schats, Terry Wiersma, Hugo M Horlings, Ritse Mann, Linetta Koppert, Erik van Werkhoven, Gabe S Sonke, Agnes Jager Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

National Comprehensive Cancer Network Recommendations for Drugs without US Food and Drug Administration approval in Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Cross-sectional Study
Availability of clinical practice guidelines can improve the delivery of healthcare[1]. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) is a non-profit alliance of 30 leading cancer centers. The NCCN publishes evidence-based, consensus-driven guidelines for cancer prevention, diagnosis, treatment and supportive care[2]. The NCCN Guidelines are recognized globally, with 11.3 million downloads in 2019 from over 180 countries, nearly half outside the U.S.[3] Additionally, NCCN Guidelines influence both private and public health coverage world-wide[4]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tal Etan, Eitan Amir, Adriane Tibau, Rinat Yerushalmi, Assaf Moore, Daniel Shepshelovich, Hadar Goldvaser Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Sarcomas: immune biomarker expression and checkpoint inhibitor trials
Sarcomas are a heterogenous group of cancers stemming from mesenchymal tissues, and can be classified into soft-tissue and bone sarcomas [1]. These broad tumor categories are further divided based on distinct morphology and genetic changes into more than 100 subtypes as defined by the World Health Organization [1]. While most sarcomas are detected as local tumors and treated with excisional surgery and radiation, metastasis will occur in up to 50% within the first five years (depending on the site, grade and subtype) [2]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mayanne MT Zhu, Elahe Shenasa, Torsten O Nielsen Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Special subtypes with favorable prognosis in breast cancer: A registry-based cohort study and network meta-analysis
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of death in women[1, 2]. Classifications for breast cancer vary significantly, ranging from histologic subtypes and growth patterns to molecular subtypes[3-6]. The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified breast cancer into at least 21 distinctive histologies based on cell morphology, growth, and architecture patterns[7]. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) accounts for 75% of all breast cancers and constitutes a diagnosis by exclusion, while the remaining 25% comprise subtypes that display distinctive morphologic and prognostic profiles. (Source...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hanwen Zhang, Ning Zhang, Meena S. Moran, Yaming Li, Yiran Liang, Peng Su, Bruce G. Haffty, Qifeng Yang Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Newly diagnosed ovarian cancer: which first-line treatment?
The advent of PARP inhibitors in ovarian cancer treatment (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Domenica Lorusso, Valentina Ceni, Gennaro Daniele, Vanda Salutari, Antonella Pietragalla, Margherita Muratore, Camilla Nero, Francesca Ciccarone, Giovanni Scambia Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Oxaliplatin retreatment in metastatic colorectal cancer: systematic review and future research opportunities
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most diagnosed type of cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide [1]. Overall survival (OS) after 5 years from diagnosis of CRC is around 60% [2]. Median OS for patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) is up to 30 months, progressively increasing alongside the last two decades [2 –6]. However, despite recent discoveries in precision oncology and immunotherapy of tumors, treatment developments in CRC have been incremental rather than transformative. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gianluca Mauri, Viviana Gori, Erica Bonazzina, Alessio Amatu, Federica Tosi, Katia Bencardino, Lorenzo Ruggieri, Giorgio Patelli, Sabrina Arena, Alberto Bardelli, Salvatore Siena, Andrea Sartore-Bianchi Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of systemic induction therapy in initially unresectable locally advanced intrahepatic and perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: a systematic review
Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for biliary tract cancer (BTC)[1]. Unfortunately, approximately 80% of the patients with BTC are considered to have locally advanced or metastatic disease at presentation [2, 3]. There is no widely implemented staging system nor criteria to assess resectability of perihilar (pCCA) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) may be different across centers. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer staging system (MSKCC) made a pre-operative staging system who tries to incorporate resection but this system has not gained wide acceptance [4]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - October 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ali Belkouz, Lynn E. Nooijen, Hanae Riady, Lotte C. Franken, Martijn G.H. van Oijen, Cornelis J.A. Punt, Joris I. Erdmann, Heinz-Josef Kl ümpen Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

Association of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors with Respiratory Infections: A Review
Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been used to treat many types of cancer, including lung cancer. In addition to advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer without driver gene mutations, combined chemotherapy and immunotherapy has been recommended in the initial treatment of advanced-stage small cell lung cancer. During treatment with ICIs, managing immune-related adverse events (irAE) can be problematic. Among these, ICI-related pneumonitis (ICI-P) is sometimes fatal, and caution is required [1]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ryosuke Hamashima, Junji Uchino, Yoshie Morimoto, Masahiro Iwasaku, Yoshiko Kaneko, Tadaaki Yamada, Koichi Takayama Tags: Complications of Treatment Source Type: research

Liquid biopsy in lymphoma: molecular methods and clinical applications
‘Precision Medicine’ requires detailed knowledge of the molecular profile of a patient’s lymphoma. Currently, this information is typically obtained from a tissue biopsy; however, invasive biopsies have significant limitations. Tissue biopsies carry procedural risks and cannot account for spat ial inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity (1, 2) due to sampling from only one location in a single tumor lesion. ‘Liquid biopsies’ – an emerging class of methods to detect and characterize tumors through a blood draw – can potentially improve on these limitations. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Melita Cirillo, Alexander F.M. Craig, Sven Borchmann, David M. Kurtz Tags: Laboratory-Clinic Interface Source Type: research

Therapeutic options following second-line platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer: comparison of active surveillance and maintenance treatment
Ovarian cancer is the eighth leading cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, with an estimated 185,000 deaths in 2018, representing 4% of all cancer deaths in women [1]. The relapsing nature of the disease has a profound impact on patients and their quality of life (QoL). (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Mansoor Raza Mirza, Sandro Pignata, Axel Walther, Ignacio Romero, Andreas du Bois Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

The optimal timing for the interval to surgery after short course preoperative radiotherapy (5 ×5 Gy) in rectal cancer - are we too eager for surgery?
Short course preoperative radiotherapy (SCPRT) reduced the 5-year local recurrence (LR) rate in patients with rectal cancer from 27% to 11%, from 11% to 5%, and from 12% to 5% in the Swedish [1], Dutch [2 –4], and Medical Research Council (MRC) CR07 trial [5,6] respectively, compared to surgery alone or surgery and selective postoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Earlier trials of SCPRT often used larger fraction sizes, larger fields and sometimes 2-field delivery [7–15]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: R. Glynne-Jones, M. Hall, I.D. Nagtegaal Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

EGFR exon 20 insertions in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: A new history begins
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion (ex20ins) mutations occur in ~2 –3% of all non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, representing ~10–12% of all cancers with documented EGFR mutation [1–4]. These mutations are the third most common EGFR mutation subtype after the common sensitizing EGFR mutations, i.e. the exon 19 deletions and exon 21 L858R mutation [4]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jordi Remon, Lizza E.L. Hendriks, Andres F. Cardona, Benjamin Besse Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

The optimal timing for the interval to surgery after short course preoperative radiotherapy (5 x5 Gy) in rectal cancer- are we too eager for surgery?
Short course preoperative radiotherapy (SCPRT) reduced the 5-year local recurrence (LR) rate in patients with rectal cancer from 27% to 11%, from 11% to 5%, and from 12% to 5% in the Swedish [1], Dutch [2-4], and Medical Research Council (MRC) CR07 trial [5,6] respectively, compared to surgery alone or surgery and selective postoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Earlier trials of SCPRT often used larger fraction sizes, larger fields and sometimes 2-field delivery [7-15]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: R. Glynne-Jones, M. Hall, I.D. Nagtegaal Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

‘EGFR exon 20 insertions in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a new history begins
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion (ex20ins) mutations occur in ∼2-3% of all non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, representing ∼10-12% of all cancers with documented EGFR mutation [1–4]. These mutations are the third most common EGFR mutation subtype after the common sensitizing EGFR mutations, i.e. the exon 19 deletions and exon 21 L858R mutation [4] . (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - September 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jordi Remon, Lizza E.L. Hendriks, Andres F. Cardona, Benjamin Besse Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Organoid models in gynaecological oncology research
The chronicles of cell cultures represent a long journey from simplified cell monolayers to complex, multi-dimensional, multi-cell structures resembling entire organs. Indeed, since Aristotle articulated his theory of “spontaneous generation”1, purporting that life can arise from non-living matter, a long distance has been covered until the recent emergence of 3D organoid cultures from a variety of tissues, allowing the reconstruction of architectural and functional organ replicates from single cells. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 31, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anita Semertzidou, Jan J Brosens, Iain McNeish, Maria Kyrgiou Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 –specific antibodies in cancer outpatients in Madrid (Spain): A single center, prospective, cohort study and a review of available data
Coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a global pandemic1. COVID-19 was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, among a group of individuals presenting with atypical pneumonia of unknown etiology2. Published data suggests that patients with a history of or active malignancy are at increased risk of infection and developing COVID-19 related complications3,4. Data from China have shown that cancer patients infected with COVID-19 are at 3.5 times the risk of requiring mechanical ventilation or intensive care unit (ICU) admission, c...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Luis Cabez ón-Gutiérrez, Sara Custodio-Cabello, Magda Palka-Kotlowska, Eduardo Oliveros-Acebes, María José García-Navarro, Parham Khosravi-Shahi Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Is dna repair a potential target for effective therapies against malignant mesothelioma?
The pathogenic mechanisms of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are related to exposure of the mesothelial cells to asbestos fibres, which directly interfere with mitotic spindle formation and induce chronic inflammation with consequent oxidative stress and DNA damage. The incidence of MPM in Europe is increasing due to the long latency and persistent environmental exposure to asbestos and other mineral fibres [1]. Prognosis is dismal, with a short median survival after diagnosis (9-12 months in untreated patients). (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 23, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ilaria Fuso Nerini, Elisa Roca, Laura Mannarino, Federica Grosso, Roberta Frapolli, Maurizio D'Incalci Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Targeting the DNA damage response for patients with lymphoma: preclinical and clinical evidences
The DNA damage response (DDR) is an integrated kinase-driven cellular network activated by both endogenous and exogenous DNA damage [1-3] and has a key role in maintaining genomic integrity. The main steps in DDR are DNA damage recognition and activation of intra-cellular signaling pathways, mainly through sequential phosphorylations, which lead to transient cell cycle arrest and activation of DNA repair pathways. The ultimate goal of the DDR is the survival of cells that have successfully repaired DNA lesions. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Laura Carrassa, Ilaria Colombo, Giovanna Damia, Francesco Bertoni Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

BAP1: Not Just a BRCA1-Associated Protein
BRCA1-Associated Protein 1 (BAP1), encoded by the BAP1 gene, was originally discovered in 1998 as a novel ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase, an enzyme responsible for removing ubiquitin from protein substrates.[1] BAP1 was initially shown to localize to the nucleus where its primary interaction was binding to BRCA1 and enhancing its tumor suppressive activity.[1] In subsequent years, numerous research groups have revealed that BAP1 acts independently as a tumor suppressor, utilizing its deubiquitinating activity to regulate proteins involved in DNA damage repair, cellular differentiation, chromatin modulation, cell cycl...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bryan H. Louie, Razelle Kurzrock Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Comparison of treatment-related adverse events of different Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors in metastatic breast cancer: a network meta-analysis
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) in combination with endocrine therapy are a standard of care in hormone receptor positive, HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer. Palbociclib(1-5), ribociclib(6-11) and abemaciclib(12-15) have all been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency among other regulatory bodies. CDK4/6i can be used in combination with aromatase inhibitors (AI) or with fulvestrant. Multiple randomized trials(1-3, 9-12, 15) support the registration of CDK4/6i and both trial-level(16) and individual patient data(17) meta-analyses confirm the benefit fro...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alexandra Desnoyers, Michelle B. Nadler, Vikaash Kumar, Ramy Saleh, Eitan Amir Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cellular immunotherapy in breast cancer: The quest for consistent biomarkers
The exploitation of the immune system ’s anti-cancer roles and clinical actionability has opened a new chapter in cancer treatment [1]. Although breast cancer patients are now provided with a variety of therapies, still a fairly high proportion of them experiences resistance or non-responsiveness to pharmacotherapy, including immunoth erapy [2–4]. In this respect, cellular immunotherapy (CI) is emerging as an intriguing field of active research both in translational and clinical settings [5,6]. Despite CI has been initially celebrated in hematologic malignancies and melanoma, several studies have been carried o...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Konstantinos Venetis, Marco Invernizzi, Elham Sajjadi, Giuseppe Curigliano, Nicola Fusco Source Type: research

Cellular immunotherapy in breast cancer: the quest for aconsistent biomarkers
The exploitation of the immune system ’s anti-cancer roles and clinical actionability has opened a new chapter in cancer treatment [1]. Although breast cancer patients are now provided with a variety of therapies, still a fairly high proportion of them experiences resistance or non-responsiveness to pharmacotherapy, including immunoth erapy [2–4]. In this respect, cellular immunotherapy (CI) is emerging as an intriguing field of active research both in translational and clinical settings [5,6]. Despite CI has been initially celebrated in hematologic malignancies and melanoma, several studies have been carried o...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 12, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Konstantinos Venetis, Marco Invernizzi, Elham Sajjadi, Giuseppe Curigliano, Nicola Fusco Source Type: research

Current management and future perspectives of penile cancer: an updated review
Penile cancer (PeCa) represents a rare disease worldwide, accounting for less than one percent of all malignancies in men [1] with devastating physical and psychological effects. Although PeCa may affect young males, it is most commonly diagnosed in the sixth and seventh decade of life [2]. While PeCa is uncommon in developed countries, it remains a significant public health concern in developing nations with an alarming higher incidence in some areas [3,4]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Florent Peyraud, Cl ément Allenet, Marine Gross-Goupil, Charlotte Domblides, Félix Lefort, Amaury Daste, Mokrane Yacoub, Thibaud Haaser, Ludovic Ferretti, Grégoire Robert, Alain Ravaud Source Type: research

Immunotherapy in cervix cancer
Incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in developed countries have both decreased since the introduction of Pap test and screening campaigns in the 1940s, thanks to an earlier diagnosis [1]. Nevertheless, cervical cancer is still one of the most common malignancies in the female population worldwide, with higher risk for socioeconomic disadvantaged groups, and a poor prognosis for advanced disease [2-4]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - August 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Laura Attademo, Valentina Tuninetti, Carmela Pisano, Sabrina Chiara Cecere, Marilena Di Napoli, Rosa Tambaro, Giorgio Valabrega, Lucia Musacchio, Sergio Venanzio Setola, Patrizia Piccirillo, Daniela Califano, Anna Spina, Simona Losito, Stefano Greggi, San Source Type: research

Clinical evidence for the first-line treatment of advanced urothelial carcinoma: Current paradigms and emerging treatment options
Bladder cancer ranks as the ninth most common malignancy worldwide, with more than 165,000 deaths reported in 2012 [1]. The highest incidence rates occur in Southern Europe, Western Europe, and North America, although mortality rates are highest in Western Asia and Northern Africa [1]. Urothelial carcinoma (UC; also known as transitional cell carcinoma) accounts for 90% of all bladder cancers in Western Europe and the United States; squamous cell bladder cancer due to schistosomiasis infections is more common in Africa [1]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Maria Koufopoulou, Paulo A.P. Miranda, Paulina Kazmierska, Sohan Deshpande, Priyanka Gaitonde Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Impact of high tumor mutational burden in solid tumors and challenges for biomarker application
Use of immune checkpoint blockade has resulted in improved overall survival (OS) in patients with multiple solid cancers, including but not limited to, advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, urothelial cancer and renal cell carcinoma [1 –4]. Not all patients experience benefit from immunotherapy (and may experience immunotherapy-associated toxicities needlessly), highlighting the need for better patient selection. Reports have suggested that programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry, T-cell infiltration levels, T-cell receptor clonality, gut microbiome composition [5], gene expression signat...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mair éad G. McNamara, Timothy Jacobs, Angela Lamarca, Richard A Hubner, Juan W Valle, Eitan Amir Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Clinical evidence for the first-line treatment of metastatic urothelial carcinoma: Current paradigms and emerging treatment options
Bladder cancer ranks as the ninth most common malignancy worldwide, with more than 165,000 deaths reported in 2012 [1]. The highest incidence rates occur in Southern Europe, Western Europe, and North America, although mortality rates are highest in Western Asia and Northern Africa [1]. Urothelial carcinoma (UC; also known as transitional cell carcinoma) accounts for 90% of all bladder cancers in Western Europe and the United States; squamous cell bladder cancer due to schistosomiasis infections is more common in Africa [1]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Maria Koufopoulou, Paulo A.P. Miranda, Paulina Kazmierska, Sohan Deshpande, Priyanka Gaitonde Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Clinical features affecting survival in metastatic NSCLC treated with immunotherapy: a critical review of published data
In recent years, the immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) used in monotherapy or combination with other compounds, changed the management of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), without oncogene alterations (Tables 1-2). 1-15 (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Antonio Passaro, Ilaria Attili, Stefania Morganti, Ester Del Signore, Letizia Gianoncelli, Gianluca Spitaleri, Valeria Stati, Chiara Catania, Giuseppe Curigliano, Filippo de Marinis Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Basket Trials: From Tumour Gnostic to Tumour Agnostic Drug Development
At the beginning of this century, the unprecedented novel findings in molecular biology have justified the expectation of substantially improving the fate of patients with cancer. In contrast thereto, analyses of the drug developmental process and of the access of cancer (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Christian Dittrich Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Melanoma Brain Metastases – Interdisciplinary Management Recommendations 2020
The prognosis of patients with advanced unresectable or metastatic melanoma profoundly improved over the last decade. With the advent of the immune checkpoint and MAP-kinase pathway inhibitors (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ralf Gutzmer, Dirk Vordermark, Jessica C. Hassel, Dietmar Krex, Christina Wendl, Dirk Schadendorf, Thomas Sickmann, Stefan Rieken, Tobias Pukrop, Christoph H öller, Thomas K. Eigentler, Friedegund Meier Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Systemic therapy in the management of recurrent or metastatic salivary duct carcinoma: a systematic review
Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is one of the 22 subtypes of salivary gland cancer (SGC), and has histological and immunohistochemical similarities with high grade intraductal and ductal carcinoma of the breast [1]. SDC is most prevalent in the parotid gland and approximately one third of the cases arises from a pleomorphic adenoma (carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma) [2, 3]. SDC comprises approximately 4-10% of all SGC and distinguishes itself from many of the other subtypes by its often very aggressive behavior [4-7]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: M.J.M. Uijen, G. Lassche, A.C.H. van Engen-van Grunsven, Y. Tada, G.W. Verhaegh, J.A. Schalken, C.M.L. Driessen, C.M.L. van Herpen Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research

KRAS: From undruggable to a druggable Cancer Target
Ras is a membrane-bound protein that possesses inherent GTPase (guanosine triphosphatases) activity and is expressed in all humans (1). When activated, it can “switch on” downstream pathways, which ultimately turn on genes that are involved in various physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and survival. It was initially identified in the 1960s by Harvey and Kirsten as a retroviral oncogene when sarcomas were induced in rodent s from a murine leukemogenic virus preparation; hence it’s named- Kirsten rat sarcoma 2 viral oncogene homolog (2, 3). (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dipesh Uprety, Alex A. Adjei Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Review of conditioning regimens for haplo-identical donor transplants using post-transplant cyclophosphamide in recipients of G-CSF mobilised peripheral stem cell
Haplo-identical transplant activity has significantly increased recently, with highest increase seen in South East Asia/West Pacific region (48.6%), followed by Europe (29.9%) and the Americas (19.8%)1 . The most common platforms to overcome HLA-mismatching are: 1) Anti-thymocytic globulin (ATG)-based and 2) Post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based (PTCy). The ATG-based platform is used extensively in China and involves use of G-CSF mobilised peripheral stem cells as well as G-CSF primed bone marrow. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sushrut Patil, Victoria Potter, Prof Mohamad Mohty Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 and cancer: Are they really partners in crime?
The SARS-COV-2 is a novel coronavirus that has been identified after an outbreak of unusual pneumonia in Wuhan, China. The genome of the virus has been sequenced and assigned GeneBank accession number MN908947 [1]. Phylogenetically it belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus (subgenus Sarbecovirus) and has similarities with the other human betacoronaviruses SARS-CoV-1 [2] and MERS-CoV [1]. There is also 96% concordance with the genome of a bat coronavirus suggesting its potential origin [3,4]. SARS-CoV-2 contains a single strand RNA associated with a nucleoprotein within a capsid comprised of matrix protein. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 9, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Peter A. van Dam, Manon Huizing, Gino Mestach, Stazie Dierckxsens, Wiebren Tjalma, Xuan Bich Trinh, Kostantinos Papadimitriou, Sevilay Altintas, Jan Vermorken, Christof Vulsteke, Annelies Janssens, Zwi Berneman, Hans Prenen, Leander Meuris, Wim Vanden Ber Tags: Complications of Treatment Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 and Cancer: are they really partners in crime ?
The SARS-COV-2 is a novel coronavirus that has been identified after an outbreak of unusual pneumonia in Wuhan, China. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 9, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Peter A. van Dam, Manon Huizing, Gino Mestach, Stazie Dierckxsens, Wiebren Tjalma, Xuan Bich Trinh, Kostantinos Papadimitriou, Sevilay Altintas, Jan Vermorken, Christof Vulstekeb, Annelies Janssens, Zwi Berneman, Hans Prenen, Leander Meuris, Wim Vanden Be Tags: Complications of Treatment Source Type: research

Immunotherapy in NSCLC patients with brain metastases. Understanding brain tumor microenvironment and dissecting outcomes from immune checkpoint blockade in the clinic
Brain metastases are the most frequent cancer-related neurological complication and are associated with a negative impact in neurocognitive function, quality of life deterioration, and poor prognosis [1]. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - July 5, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: N. Vilari ño, J. Bruna, J. Bosch-Barrera, M. Valiente, E. Nadal Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

The Landscape of New Drugs in Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma
Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTCL) is an aggressive hematological malignancy and accounts for 5.2% and 3% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Far East and Central/South America, respectively.(1,2) Chinese statistics disclosed that ENKTCL constituted 6.4% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and more than 20% of mature T- and NK-cell lymphoma.(3) ENKTCL shows a predilection for population with EBV infection and shares strong associations with Asian genetic background.(1,4,5) However, both the pathogenesis of ENKTCL and the significant role of EBV during the lymphomagenesis remain largely unknown. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Liang Wang, Lin-Rong Li, Luo Zhang, Jing-wen Wang Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Metronomic Chemotherapy for Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer: Review of Effectiveness and Potential Use During Pandemics
The conventional use of chemotherapy for all types of cancer is based on the concept of “Dose Intensity”, which means periodic delivery of the drugs at an established maximum tolerated dose (MTD), usually every 3-4 weeks. This mode of delivery aims at targeting dividing cancer cells and may affect actively dividing normal cells thus leading to the reported multiple adverse events s econdary to chemotherapy. Delivering the chemotherapy drugs at a certain interval is essential to allow the recovery of normal cells thus limiting adverse effects; however, this may allow cancer cells to regrow and acquire resistance...
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 28, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Johny E. Fares, Paul El Tomb, Lana E. Khalil, Rula W. Atwani, Hiba A. Moukadem, Ahmad Awada, Nagi S. El Saghir Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Biomarkers for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer: beyond hormone receptors
Human epidermal (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 23, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Maria Vittoria Dieci, Federica Miglietta, Gaia Griguolo, Valentina Guarneri Tags: Laboratory-Clinic Interface Source Type: research

Exposure-response modeling of cabozantinib in patients with renal cell carcinoma: Implications for patient care
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway is an established target in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a number of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) approved for the treatment of patients with advanced disease. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 22, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Daniel Castellano, Jose Pablo Maroto, Fawzi Benzaghou, Naila Taguieva, Linh Nguyen, Douglas O. Clary, Eric Jonasch Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research

Cancer, immune suppression and Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19): Need to manage drug safety (French Society for Oncology Pharmacy [SFPO] guidelines)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrom-CoronaVirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide since late 2019, causing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) in humans, involving severe acute respiratory syndrome associated with a multi-symptom presentation. From Wuhan in the Hubei province of China [1,2], the virus spread rapidly in all continents, leading the World Health Organization, on March 11, 2020, to upgrade it as a pandemic [3]. There are currently so far nor approved preventive neither curative treatments. (Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews)
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - June 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Florian Slimano, Amandine Baudouin, J érémie Zerbit, Anne Toulemonde-Deldicque, Audrey Thomas-Schoemann, Régine Chevrier, Mikaël Daouphars, Isabelle Madelaine, Bertrand Pourroy, Jean-François Tournamille, Alain Astier, Florence Ranchon, Jean-Louis Ca Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research