Consideration of Pannexin 1 channels in COVID-19 pathology and treatment.
Abstract Pannexin1 (PANX1) is a ubiquitously expressed, channel-forming protein found in a number of tissues thoughout the body (e.g. lung, vasculature, liver, central nervous system, immune system) that is important in many key physiological and immune responses. PANX1 channels passively flux ATP (predominantly), multiple metabolites, and likely other small anions. PANX1 channels regulate inflammation and host responses to several pathogens, including viruses. While there is currently no evidence suggesting novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and PANX1 directly interact, there is an...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - June 10, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Swayne LA, Johnstone SR, Ng CS, Sanchez-Arias JC, Good ME, Penuela S, Lohman AW, Wolpe AG, Laubach VE, Koval M, Isakson BE Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

The ex-vivo perfused human lung is resistant to injury by high-dose s. pneumoniae bacteremia.
THE EX-VIVO PERFUSED HUMAN LUNG IS RESISTANT TO INJURY BY HIGH-DOSE S. PNEUMONIAE BACTEREMIA. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2020 Jun 10;: Authors: Ross JT, Nesseler N, Leligdowicz A, Zemans RL, Mahida RY, Minus E, Langelier C, Gotts JE, Matthay MA Abstract Few patients with bacteremia from a non-pulmonary source develop ARDS. However, the mechanisms that protect the lung from injury in bacteremia have not been identified. We simulated bacteremia by adding S. pneumoniae to the perfusate of the ex vivo perfused human lung model. In contrast to a pneumonia model in which bacteria were instilled int...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - June 10, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Ross JT, Nesseler N, Leligdowicz A, Zemans RL, Mahida RY, Minus E, Langelier C, Gotts JE, Matthay MA Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Heparin as a Therapy for COVID-19: Current Evidence and Future Possibilities.
chmidt EP Abstract Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the clinical syndrome associated with infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has impacted nearly every country in the world. Despite an unprecedented focus of scientific investigation, there is a paucity of evidence-based pharmacotherapies against this disease. Due to this lack of data-driven treatment strategies, broad variations in practice patterns have emerged. Observed hypercoagulability in COVID-19 patients has created debate within the critical care community on the therapeutic utility of heparin. We seek to provide ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - June 10, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Hippensteel JA, LaRiviere WB, Colbert JF, Langouët-Astrié CJ, Schmidt EP Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Is targeting Akt a viable option to treat advanced-stage COVID-19 patients?
Abstract One of the primary reasons for high mortality in the advanced stage coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients is the uncontrolled inflammation in the lungs leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Controlling the pathological inflammation in the ARDS lungs without compromising the immune system's fight against the virus is indeed a daunting task. In this situation, an appropriate therapeutic target would be the one that will not only reverse the damaging inflammation and promote resolution but also helps to check the root cause of the virus infection. Akt is a potential therapeutic target...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - June 10, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Somanath PR Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Spermidine supplementation and voluntary activity differentially affect obesity-related structural changes in the mouse lung.
In conclusion, excess fat consumption induced alveolar capillary remodeling indicative of impaired perfusion and gas diffusion. Spermidine alleviated obesity-related endothelial alterations indicating a beneficial effect, whereas physical activity reduced lung volumes apparently by other, possibly systemic effects. PMID: 32521164 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - June 10, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Ahrendt N, Steingrüber T, Rajces A, Lopez-Rodriguez E, Eisenberg T, Magnes C, Madeo F, Sedej S, Schmiedl A, Ochs M, Mühlfeld C, Schipke J Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative PCR: Identifying Reference Genes for Airway Epithelial Cells Exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Abstract Most q-PCR experiments report differential expression relative to the expression of one or more reference genes. Therefore, when experimental conditions alter reference gene expression, q-PCR results may be compromised. Little is known about the magnitude of this problem in practice. We found that reference gene responses are common, hard to predict, and that their stability should be demonstrated in each experiment. Our reanalysis of 15 airway epithelia microarray data sets retrieved from NCBI identified no common reference gene that was reliable in all 15 studies. Reanalysis of published RNA-seq data in...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - June 10, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Hampton TH, Koeppen K, Bashor L, Stanton BA Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Thoughts on the alveolar phase of COVID-19.
Abstract COVID-19 can be divided into three clinical stages, and one can speculate that these stages correlate with where the infection resides. For the asymptomatic phase, the infection mostly resides in the nose where it elicits a minimal innate immune response. For the mildly symptomatic phase, the infection is mostly in the psuedostatified stratified epithelium of the larger airways and is accompanied by a more vigorous innate immune response. In the conducting airways, the epithelium can recover from the infection, because the keratin V basal cells are spared and they are the progenitor cells for the bronchia...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Mason RJ Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

The enigmatic role of TIPE2 in asthma.
Abstract Unlike other members of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8/TIPE) family that play a carcinogenic role and regulate apoptosis, TNFAIP8-like 2 (TIPE2) can not only maintain immune homeostasis, but also regulate inflammation. TIPE2 mainly restrains the activation of T cell receptor (TCR) and Toll-like receptors (TLR), regulating its downstream signaling pathways, thereby regulating inflammation. Interestingly, TIPE2 is abnormally expressed in many inflammatory diseases and may promote or inhibit inflammation in different diseases. This review summarizes the molecular target and ce...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Shi BQ, Hao YQ, Li W, Dong HN, Xu MT, Gao P Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Understanding the age divide in COVID-19: Why are children overwhelmingly spared?
Abstract The rapid emergence and subsequent global dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 Disease (COVID-19) has resulted in over 4 million cases worldwide. The disease has a marked predilection for adults, and children are relatively spared. Understanding the age-based differences in pathophysiological pathways and processes relevant to the onset and progression of disease both in the clinical course and in experimental disease models may hold the key to the identification of therapeutic targets. The differences in the clinical course are highlighted by the lack of progression of the SARS-CoV-2 infection beyond mild symptom...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Lingappan K, Karmouty-Quintana H, Davies J, Akkanti B, Harting MT Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Measuring the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange using expired gas instead of arterial blood: Comparing the "ideal" PO2 of Riley with end-tidal PO2.
Measuring the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange using expired gas instead of arterial blood: Comparing the "ideal" PO2 of Riley with end-tidal PO2. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2020 Jun 03;: Authors: West JB, Liu MA, Stark PC, Prisk GK Abstract When using a new noninvasive method for measuring the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange, a key measurement is the oxygen deficit, defined as the difference between the end-tidal alveolar PO2 and the calculated arterial PO2. The end-tidal PO2 is measured using a rapid gas analyzer, and the arterial PO2 is derived from pulse oximetry after ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: West JB, Liu MA, Stark PC, Prisk GK Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase- α Amplifies TGF-β-Dependent Pro-Fibrotic Signaling in Lung Fibroblasts.
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-α Amplifies TGF-β-Dependent Pro-Fibrotic Signaling in Lung Fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2020 Jun 03;: Authors: Aschner Y, Nelson M, Brenner M, Roybal H, Beke K, Meador C, Foster D, Reynolds PR, Anderson K, Redente EF, Matsuda J, Riches DWH, Groshong SD, Pozzi A, Sap J, Wang Q, Rajshankar D, McCulloch CAG, Zemans RL, Downey GP Abstract Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrosing lung disease for which treatment remains suboptimal. Fibrogenic cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β, are central to its pathogene...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Aschner Y, Nelson M, Brenner M, Roybal H, Beke K, Meador C, Foster D, Reynolds PR, Anderson K, Redente EF, Matsuda J, Riches DWH, Groshong SD, Pozzi A, Sap J, Wang Q, Rajshankar D, McCulloch CAG, Zemans RL, Downey GP Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

P-selectin blockade in COVID-19-related ARDS.
PMID: 32464083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 29, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Neri T, Nieri D, Celi A Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid Regulates Mesenchymal Cell Differentiation Required for Perinatal Lung Morphogenesis and Function.
Abstract While antenatal glucocorticoids are widely used to enhance lung function in preterm infants, cellular and molecular mechanisms by which glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling influences lung maturation remain poorly understood. Deletion of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (Nr3c1) from fetal pulmonary mesenchymal cells phenocopied defects caused by global Nr3c1 deletion, while lung epithelial- or endothelial-specific Nr3c1 deletion did not impair lung function at birth. We integrated genome-wide gene expression profiling, ATAC-seq, and single cell RNA-seq data in mice in which GR was deleted or activated t...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 27, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Bridges JP, Sudha P, Lipps D, Wagner A, Guo M, Du Y, Brown K, Filuta A, Kitzmiller JA, Stockman C, Chen X, Weirauch MT, Jobe AH, Whitsett JA, Xu Y Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

MitoTEMPOL, a Mitochondrial Targeted Antioxidant, Prevents Sepsis Induced Diaphragm Dysfunction.
Abstract Clinical studies indicate that sepsis induced diaphragm dysfunction is a major contributor to respiratory failure in mechanically ventilated patients. Currently there is no drug to treat this form of diaphragm weakness. Sepsis induced muscle dysfunction is thought to be triggered by excessive mitochondrial free radical generation, we therefore hypothesized that therapies which target mitochondrial free radical production may prevent sepsis induced diaphragm weakness. The present study determined if MitoTEMPOL, a mitochondrially targeted free radical scavenger, could reduce sepsis induced diaphragm dysfunc...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 27, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Supinski GS, Wang L, Schroder EA, Callahan LAP Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Link between increased cellular senescence and extracellular matrix changes in COPD.
Abstract COPD is associated with features of accelerated aging, including cellular senescence, DNA damage, oxidative stress, and extracellular matrix (ECM) changes. We propose that these features are particularly apparent in patients with severe, early-onset (SEO-)COPD. Whether fibroblasts from COPD patients display features of accelerated aging and whether this is also present in, relatively young, SEO-COPD patients is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine markers of aging in (SEO-)COPD-derived lung fibroblasts and investigate the impact on ECM. Aging hallmarks and ECM markers were analyzed in lung fibroblast...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 27, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Woldhuis RR, de Vries M, Timens W, van den Berge M, Demaria M, Oliver BGG, Heijink IH, Brandsma CA Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Treatment of COVID-19 exacerbated asthma: should systemic corticosteroids be used?
Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is a new rapidly spreading infectious disease. Current guidance from the World Health Organisation (WHO) highlights asthmatics as a high-risk group for severe illness from COVID-19. Viruses are common triggers of asthma exacerbations and the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic raises several questions regarding the optimum management strategies. Here, we discuss the contentious issue of whether the mainstay therapies systemic corticosteroids should be used in the routine management of COVID-19-associated asthma exacerbations. Recent guidance from ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Kumar K, Hinks TS, Singanayagam A Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Surfactant-secreted phospholipase A2 interaction and respiratory outcome in preterm neonates.
G, Touqui L Abstract Secreted phospholipase A2 hydrolyses surfactant phospholipids and is crucial for the inflammatory cascade; preterm neonates are treated with exogenous surfactant but the interaction between surfactant and phospholipase is unknown. We hypothesize that this interplay is complex and the enzyme plays a relevant role in neonates needing surfactant replacement. We aimed to: 1) identify phospholipases A2 isoforms expressed in preterm lung; 2) study the enzyme role on surfactant re-treatment and function and the effect of exogenous surfactant on the enzyme system; 3) verify if phospholipase A2 is link...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: De Luca D, Shankar-Aguilera S, Autilio C, Raschetti R, Vedovelli L, Fitting C, Payré C, Jeammet L, Pérez-Gil J, Cogo PE, Carnielli VP, Lambeau G, Touqui L Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Lung-Resident Mesenchymal Stromal Cells are Tissue-Specific Regulators of Lung Homeostasis.
Abstract Until recently, data supporting the tissue-resident status of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has been ambiguous since their discovery in the 1950-60s. These progenitor cells were first discovered as bone marrow-derived adult multipotent cells and believed to migrate to sites of injury, opposing the notion that they are residents of all tissue types. In recent years, however, it has been demonstrated that MSC can be found in all tissues and MSC from different tissues represent distinct populations with differential protein expression unique to each tissue type. Importantly, these cells are efficient media...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Sveiven SN, Nordgren TM Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Urgent reconsideration of lung edema as a preventable outcome in COVID-19: Inhibition of TRPV4 represents a promising and feasible approach.
Abstract Lethality of Covid-19 during the 2020 pandemic, currently still in the exponentially-accelerating phase in most countries, is critically driven by disruption of the alveolo-capillary barrier of the lung, leading to lung edema as a direct consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We argue for inhibition of the TRPV4 calcium-permeable ion channel as a strategy to address this issue, based on the rationale that TRPV4 inhibition is protective in various preclinical models of lung edema, and that TRPV4 hyperactivation potently damages the alveolo-capillary barrier, with lethal outcome. We believe that TRPV4 inhibit...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Kuebler WM, Jordt SE, Liedtke WB Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Caspase-11 contributes to pulmonary host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae and local activation of coagulation.
Abstract Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae is a common cause of gram-negative pneumonia and sepsis. Caspase-11 is an intracellular receptor for lipopolysaccharide and regulates pyroptosis, a specific form of inflammatory cell death which aids in host defense against intracellular gram-negative bacteria. Recently, caspase-11 has also been implicated in blood coagulation. Previously, we found that local fibrin formation contributes to protective immunity against Klebsiella infection of the lung. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of caspase-11 in host defense during K. pneumoniae-evoked pneumonia and se...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Perlee D, De Beer R, Florquin S, van der Poll T, van 't Veer C, De Vos AF Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Oxygen Deficit is a Sensitive Measure of Mild Gas Exchange Impairment at Inspired O2 between 12.5%-21.
Abstract The oxygen deficit (OD) is the difference between the end-tidal alveolar PO2 and the calculated PO2 of arterial blood based on measured oxygen saturation that acts as a proxy for the alveolar-arterial PO2 difference. Previous work has shown that the Alveolar Gas Meter (AGM100) can measure pulmonary gas exchange, via the OD, in patients with a history of lung disease and in normal subjects breathing 12.5% O2. The present study measured how the OD varied at different values of inspired O2. Healthy subjects were split by age (young 22-31, n=23; older 42-90, n=13). Across all inspired O2 levels (12.5, 15, 17....
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Liu MA, Stark PC, Prisk GK, West JB Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

MUC1 contributes to goblet cell metaplasia and MUC5AC expression in response to cigarette smoke in vivo.
Abstract Goblet cell metaplasia (GCM) and mucin overproduction are a hallmark of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the airways, cigarette smoke (CS) induces activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) leading to GCM and overexpression of a gel-forming mucin MUC5AC. Although previous studies have demonstrated that a membrane-bound mucin, MUC1, modulates the activation of CS-induced EGFR, the role of MUC1 in CS-induced GCM and mucin overproduction has not been explored. In response to CS exposure, wild-type (WT) rats displayed aberrant Muc1 translocation from...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Kato K, Chang EH, Chen Y, Lu W, Kim MM, Niihori M, Hecker L, Kim KC Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Over-expression of Spock2 in mice leads to altered lung alveolar development and worsens lesions induced by hyperoxia.
This study brings strong arguments for the deleterious role of SPOCK2 on lung alveolar development especially after lung injury, suggesting its role in BPD susceptibility. These effects are not mediated by a deregulation in metalloproteases activity and in expression of factors essential to normal alveolarization. The balance between type 1 and 2 epithelial alveolar cells may be involved. PMID: 32374670 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 6, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Hadchouel A, Franco-Montoya ML, Guerin S, Do Cruzeiro M, Lhuillier M, Ribeiro Baptista B, Boyer L, Lanone S, Delacourt C Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Airway Remodeling in Ferrets with Cigarette Smoke Induced COPD using µCT Imaging.
Airway Remodeling in Ferrets with Cigarette Smoke Induced COPD using µCT Imaging. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2020 May 06;: Authors: Stanford D, Kim H, Bodduluri S, LaFontaine J, Byzek SA, Schoeb TR, Harris ES, Nath HP, Bhatt SP, Raju SV, Rowe SM Abstract RATIONALE: Structural changes to airway morphology such as increased bronchial wall thickness (BWT) and airway wall area are cardinal features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Ferrets are a recently established animal model uniquely exhibiting similar clinical and pathological characteristics of COPD as humans, including...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 6, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Stanford D, Kim H, Bodduluri S, LaFontaine J, Byzek SA, Schoeb TR, Harris ES, Nath HP, Bhatt SP, Raju SV, Rowe SM Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

IL-1 β dysregulates cGMP signaling in the newborn lung.
IL-1β dysregulates cGMP signaling in the newborn lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2020 May 06;: Authors: Zhong Y, Bry K, Roberts JD Abstract Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling is an important regulator of newborn lung function and development. Although cGMP signaling is decreased in many models of newborn lung injury, the mechanisms are poorly understood. We determined how IL-1β regulates the expression of the α1-subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGCα1), a prime effector of pulmonary cGMP signaling. Physiologic levels of IL-1β were discovered to rap...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 6, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhong Y, Bry K, Roberts JD Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Reply to Letter to the Editor: "Don't judge too RAShly: the multifaceted role of the renin-angiotensin system and its therapeutic potential in COVID-19".
Reply to Letter to the Editor: "Don't judge too RAShly: the multifaceted role of the renin-angiotensin system and its therapeutic potential in COVID-19". Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2020 May 01;318(5):L1029-L1030 Authors: Abassi ZA, Skorecki K, Heyman SN, Kinaneh S, Armaly Z PMID: 32364440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Abassi ZA, Skorecki K, Heyman SN, Kinaneh S, Armaly Z Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Don't judge too RAShly: the multifaceted role of the renin-angiotensin system and its therapeutic potential in COVID-19.
PMID: 32364441 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Walther T, Kuebler WM Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Rigor before speculation in COVID-19 therapy.
PMID: 32364442 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Welling PA, Batlle D, Byrd JB, Burrell LM, South AM, Sparks MA Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Reply to Letter to the Editor: "COVID-19: is the ACE2 just a foe?"
Reply to Letter to the Editor: "COVID-19: is the ACE2 just a foe?" Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2020 May 01;318(5):L1031 Authors: Abassi ZA, Skorecki K, Heyman SN, Kinaneh S, Armaly Z PMID: 32364443 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Abassi ZA, Skorecki K, Heyman SN, Kinaneh S, Armaly Z Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Aurothioglucose Enhances Pro-Angiogenic Pathway Activation in Lungs from Room Air and Hyperoxia-exposed Newborn Mice.
Abstract Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a long-term respiratory morbidity of prematurity, is characterized by attenuated alveolar and vascular development. Supplemental oxygen and immature antioxidant defenses contribute to BPD development. Our group identified thioredoxin reductase-1 (TXNRD1) as a therapeutic target to prevent BPD. The present studies evaluated the impact of the TXNRD1 inhibitor aurothioglucose (ATG) on pulmonary responses and gene expression in newborn C57Bl/6 pups treated with saline or ATG (25 mg/kg, i.p.) within 12h of birth and exposed to room air (21% O2) or hyperoxia (>95% O2) for 72...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 15, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Dunigan-Russell K, Lin V, Silverberg M, Wall SB, Li R, Gotham J, Nicola T, Sridharan A, Snowball J, Delaney C, Li Q, Tipple TE Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Gas exchange calculation may estimate changes in pulmonary blood flow during veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a porcine model.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is used as rescue for severe cardiopulmonary failure. We tested whether the ratio of CO2 elimination at the lung and the ECMO (VCO2ECMO/VCO2Lung) would reflect the ratio of respective blood flows and could be used to estimate changes in pulmonary blood flow (QLUNG), i. e. native cardiac output. METHODS: Four healthy pigs were centrally cannulated for VA-ECMO. We measured blood flows with an ultrasonic flow probes. VCO2ECMO and VCO2Lung were calculated from sidestream capnographs under constant pulmonary ventilation during ECMO we...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 15, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Bachmann KF, Haenggi M, Jakob SM, Takala J, Gattinoni L, Berger DC Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Call for Papers: The pathophysiology of COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 infection.
PMID: 32266822 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Morty RE, Ziebuhr J Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Real-time measurement of cellular bioenergetics in fully differentiated human nasal epithelial cells grown at air-liquid-interface.
Abstract Shifts in cellular metabolic phenotypes have the potential to cause disease-driving processes in respiratory disease. The respiratory epithelium is particularly susceptible to metabolic shifts in disease, but our understanding of these processes are limited by the incompatibility of the technology required to measure metabolism in real-time with the cell culture platforms used to generate differentiated respiratory epithelial cell types. Thus to date, our understanding of respiratory epithelial metabolism has been restricted to that of basal epithelial cells in submerged culture, or via indirect endpoint ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Mavin E, Verdon B, Carrie S, Saint-Criq V, Powell J, Kuttruff CA, Ward C, Garnett JP, Miwa S Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

microRNA-223 promotes autophagy to aggravate lung ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting the expression of transcription factor HIF2 α.
microRNA-223 promotes autophagy to aggravate lung ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting the expression of transcription factor HIF2α. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2020 Apr 08;: Authors: Ye C, Qi W, Dai S, Zou G, Liu W, Yu B, Tang J Abstract Lung ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury severely endangers human health, and recent studies have suggested that certain microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in this pathological phenomenon. The current study aimed to ascertain the ability of miR-223 to influence lung I/R injury by targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF2α). First, ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Ye C, Qi W, Dai S, Zou G, Liu W, Yu B, Tang J Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Resveratrol restores intracellular transport in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells.
Abstract We have demonstrated previously that intracellular transport is impaired in cystic fibrosis (CF) epithelial cells. This impairment is related to both growth and inflammatory regulation in CF cell and animal models. Understanding how transport in CF cells is regulated and identifying means to manipulate that regulation are key to identifying new therapies that can address key CF phenotypes. It was hypothesized that resveratrol could replicate these benefits since it interfaces with multiple pathways identified to affect microtubule regulation in CF. It was found that resveratrol treatment significantly res...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Lu B, Corey DA, Kelley TJ Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Call it by the correct name - pulmonary hypertension not pulmonary arterial hypertension.
PMID: 32233785 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Corris PA, Seeger W Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Video Laryngoscopic Oral Intubation in Rats - A Simple and Effective Method.
Abstract Endotracheal intubation is a vital component of many rat in vivo experiments to secure the airway and allow controlled ventilation. Even in the hands of experienced researchers, however, the procedure remains technically challenging. The safest and most reliable way for human intubation is by video laryngoscopy. Previous attempts to apply this technique in rodents have been complicated and expensive. We hereby describe a novel, non-invasive method to safely intubate rats orally by video laryngoscopy, thus avoiding the need for a surgical tracheostomy. By repurposing a commercially available ear wax remova...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Balzer C, Cleveland WJ, Jinka TR, Riess ML Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Asthma Without Borders.
PMID: 32233787 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Prakash YS Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Know Your Enemy: Understanding the Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Hypertension.
PMID: 32233788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Shimoda LA Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Strong correlation between air-liquid interface cultures and in vivo transcriptomics of nasal brush biopsy.
In this study, we employed RNA sequencing and compared the transcriptome of fresh brushings of nasal epithelial cells with those which have been cultured in ALI from the same patients. We observed a strong correlation between cells cultured at the ALI and cells obtained from the brushed nasal epithelia and 96% of expressed genes showed similar expression profiles, although there was greater similarity between the brushed samples. We observed that while ALI model does provide an excellent representation of the in vivo airway epithelial transcriptome for mechanistic studies, there are several pathways effected by the change ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Ghosh B, Park B, Bhowmik D, Nishida K, Lauver M, Putcha N, Gao P, Ramanathan M, Hansel NN, Biswal S, Sidhaye VK Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

World health days in May 2020: Pulmonary hypertension, asthma, and tobacco-, smoking-, and vaping-related disease in focus.
PMID: 32233790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Morty RE Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Lung health, tobacco and related products: Gaps, challenges, new threats and suggested research.
PMID: 32233791 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: St Claire S, Gouda H, Schotte K, Fayokun R, Fu D, Varghese C, Prasad VM Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

NADPH oxidase mediated endothelial injury in HIV and opioid induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.
In conclusion, this study describes NADPH oxidases as one of the main players in the oxidative stress mediated endothelial dysfunction on the dual hit of HIV-viral protein(s) and opioids. PMID: 32233792 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Agarwal S, Sharma H, Chen L, Dhillon NK Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

World No Tobacco Day 2020.
PMID: 32233793 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Nardiello C, Morty RE Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

TRPA1 causes rapid bronchodilation via non-epithelial PGE2.
Abstract Transient Potential Receptor Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a ligand-gated cation channel that responds to endogenous and exogenous irritants. TRPA1 is expressed on multiple cell types throughout the lungs, but previous studies have primarily focused on TRPA1 stimulation of airway sensory nerves. We sought to understand the integrated physiologic airway response to TRPA1 stimulation. The TRPA1 agonists allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde (CINN) were tested in sedated, mechanically ventilated guinea pigs in vivo. Reproducible bronchoconstrictions were induced by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves....
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Marsh BJ, Fryer AD, Jacoby DB, Drake MG Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

A Method for Translational Rat Ex vivoLung Perfusion Experimentation.
Abstract The application of ex vivolung perfusion (EVLP) has significantly increased the successful clinical use of marginal donor lungs. While large animal EVLP models exist to test new strategies to improve organ repair, there is currently no rat EVLP model capable of maintaining long-term lung viability. Here, we describe a new rat EVLP model that addresses this need, while enabling the study of lung injury due to cold ischemic time (CIT). The technique involves perfusing and ventilating male Lewis rat donor lungs for 4h before transplanting the left lung into a recipient rat, then evaluating lung function 2h a...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Ohsumi A, Kanou T, Ali A, Guan Z, Hwang DM, Waddell TK, Juvet S, Liu M, Keshavjee S, Cypel M Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

COVID-19 - is the ACE2 just a foe?
PMID: 32233935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Jakovac H Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
CORRIGENDUM. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2020 Apr 01;318(4):L844 Authors: PMID: 32239982 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

The role of MIF in chronic lung diseases: looking beyond inflammation.
Abstract Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been associated with many diseases. Most studies found in literature describe MIF as a proinflammatory cytokine involved in chronic inflammatory conditions, but evidence from last years suggests that many of its key effects are not directly related to inflammation. In fact, MIF is constitutively expressed in most human tissues and in some cases in high levels, which does not reflect the pattern of expression of a classic proinflammatory cytokine. Moreover, MIF is highly expressed during embryonic development and decreases duri...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - March 25, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Florez-Sampedro L, Soto-Gamez A, Poelarends GJ, Melgert BN Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Structural and functional variations in human bronchial epithelial cells cultured in air liquid interface using different growth media.
Abstract The human bronchial epithelium is an important barrier tissue that is damaged or pathologically altered in various acute and chronic respiratory conditions. In order to represent the epithelial component of respiratory disease it is essential to use a physiologically-relevant model of this tissue. The human bronchial epithelium is a highly organized tissue consisting of a number of specialized cell types. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) can be differentiated into a mucociliated tissue in air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures using appropriately supplemented media under optimized growth condi...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - March 25, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Leung C, Wadsworth SJ, Yang SJ, Dorscheid DR Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research