Premedication Protocols to Prevent Hypersensitivity Reactions to Chemotherapy: a Literature Review
AbstractHypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to chemotherapy may prevent patients from receiving the most effective therapy. This review was undertaken to identify evidence-based preventive premedication strategies that reduce the likelihood of HSR in the first instance and improve the safety of subsequent infusions in patients who have demonstrated HSR to a certain class of chemotherapy. PubMed was searched until October 2021 using the key words: “hypersensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs,” “hypersensitivity to antineoplastic agents,” “taxanes hypersensitivity,” “platinum compound hypersensitivity,” “premedication,” “dexamethasone,” “prednisone,” “hydrocortisone,” “antihistamine,” “diphenhydramine,” “ cetirizine,” “famotidine,” “meperidine,” “aspirin,” “ibuprofen,” and “montelukast.” The search was restricted to articles published in English. A total of 73 abstracts were selected for inclusion in the review. Most premedication regimens have been derived empirically rather t han determined through randomized trials. Based on the available evidence, we provide an update on likely HSR mechanisms and a practical guide for classifying systemic HSR. The evidence indicates that a combination of prevention strategies using newer antihistamines, H2 antagonists, leukotriene rec eptor antagonists, and corticosteroids and other interventions used judiciously reduces the occurrence and severity of HSR and improves safety.