Diseases and Pests of Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera)

Infectious and parasitic diseases plague honey bees similarly to that of other food animal species. A complete understanding of each is necessary for a honey bee veterinarian to establish a strong veterinarian-client-patient relationship and make sound treatment recommendations. Control and management of these diseases is paramount to success of the colony and apiary operation. The following is not meant to be an end-all of information on each of the common honey bee diseases but more so a review and photo-documentation of each. A deeper understanding can be established through various other sources previously published and referenced in this document.
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Source Type: research

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This week's case was generously donated by Monica Jarvis and her lab. They identified the following structures in a stool wet mount. They measure approximately 160 micrometers in length. Identification?
Source: Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites - Category: Parasitology Source Type: blogs
In this study, we investigated the antitheilerial activity of the four anti-cancer HDACi (vorinostat, romidepsin, belinostat, and panobinostat) against the schizont stage of T. annulata parasites. All four HDACi showed potent activity and increased hyperacetylation of the histone-4 protein. However, based on the low host cell cytotoxicity and IC50 values, vorinostat (0.103 μM) and belinostat (0.069 μM) were the most effective showing antiparasitic activity. The parasite-specific activities of the HDACi (vorinostat and belinostat) were evaluated by western blotting using parasite-specific antibodies and in silico anal...
Source: Cancer Control - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and spread by sandflies. The standard therapy for this ailment is the first-line medication of pentavalent antimonial and the second drug line of pentamidine amphotericin B. All are practiced over the years and exhibit adverse toxicity effects. Herbal product-derived medicine is a promising potential source for treating parasitic diseases. Xanthatin, a xanthanolide sesquiterpene lactone, is isolated from Xanthium strumarium L. treats several ailments in many countries. In the present study, we investigated the leishmanicidal activity of the xan...
Source: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Hydatidosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by the larvae of the Echinococcus tapeworm. Although it can affect almost any organ, the involvement of bone tissue is considerably rare (0.5-4%) (Liang et al., 2014, Manenti et al., 2020, Song et al., 2007). This bone disease usually appears in the form of pelvic hydatid cysts, representing around 28% of cases (Zlitni et al., 2001). While the disease can stay dormant for years, symptoms tend to develop over time and can severely impact quality of life, including local pain, pathologic fractures, and even neural deficit (Song et al., 2007, Zlitni et al., 2001).
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Eur J Pharmacol. 2021 Dec 2:174661. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174661. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe bacterial thiopeptide thiostrepton (TS) is used as a veterinary medicine to treat bacterial infections. TS is a protein translation inhibitor, essentially active against Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative bacteria. In procaryotes, TS abrogates binding of GTPase elongation factors to the 70S ribosome, by altering the structure of rRNA-L11 protein complexes. TS exerts also antimalarial effects by disrupting protein synthesis in the apicoplast genome of Plasmodium falciparum. Interestingly, the drug targets both...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
This study evaluates the susceptibility and vector competence of Rhodnius robustus experimentally infected with T. cruzi IV (TcIV). Nymphs were fed on infected mice or an artificial feeder with blood containing culture-derived metacyclic trypomastigotes (CMT) or blood trypomastigotes (BT). The intestinal contents (IC) and excreta of the insects were examined by fresh examination and kDNA-PCR. The rate of metacyclogenesis was also determined by differential counts. Fifth instar nymphs fed with CMT ingested a greater blood volume (mean of 74.5 μL) and a greater amount of parasites (mean of 149,000 CMT/μL), and had high...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Source Type: research
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Dec 1:S1471-4922(21)00279-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.10.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe One Health framework emphasizes the interconnectedness of humans, animals, and the environment but often remains focused on human health. Here we highlight how the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of aquatic parasites are crucial to our understanding of these connected health aspects, especially in the light of environmental changes.PMID:34863638 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.10.007
Source: Trends in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Source Type: research
This study was aimed to profile the transcriptome changes of Toxoplasma after loss of phosphate transporters. For this purpose, phosphate transporter TgPiT and TgPT2 mutants were constructed by using direct knockout or conditional knockdown methods in RH or TATi parasite strain, respectively. The transcriptome changes were captured by RNA-seq analyses.Methods: Transcriptomic profiles of mutants ( Δpit and iKD-PT2+ATc, respectively) and controls (RH and iKD-PT2-ATc,respectively) were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq xten. The sequence reads that passed quality filters were analyzed at ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Toxoplasma gondii Source Type: research
Mosquitoes transmit a variety of diseases. Due to widespread insecticide resistance, new effective pesticides are urgently needed. Entomopathogenic fungi are widely utilized to control pest insects in agricult...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Gastrointestinal nematodes are ubiquitous for both domestic and wild ungulates and have varying consequences for health and fitness. They exist as complex communities of multiple co-infecting species, and we h...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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