Epidemiological and clinical implications of asymptomatic malaria and schistosomiasis co-infections in a rural community in western Kenya

Malaria and schistosomiasis present considerable disease burden in tropical and sub-tropical areas and severity is worsened by co-infections in areas where both diseases are endemic. Although pathogenesis of t...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research

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Malaria is a major international public health problem that affects millions of patients worldwide especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Although many tests have been developed to diagnose malaria infections, we still lack reliable diagnostic biomarkers for the identification of disease severity, especially in endemic areas where the diagnosis of cerebral malaria is very difficult and requires the exclusion of all other possible causes. Previous host and pathogen transcriptomic studies have not yielded homogenous results that can be harnessed into a reliable diagnostic tool. Here we utilized a multi-cohort analysis approach us...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
deu Daniel-Ribeiro Josué da Costa Lima-Junior The Plasmodium vivax Cysteine-Rich Protective Antigen (PvCyRPA) has an important role in erythrocyte invasion and has been considered a target for vivax malaria vaccine development. Nonetheless, its genetic diversity remains uncharted in Brazilian malaria-endemic areas. Therefore, we investigated the pvcyrpa genetic polymorphism in 98 field isolates from the Brazilian Amazon and its impact on the antigenicity of predicted B-cell epitopes. Genetic diversity parameters, population genetic analysis, neutrality test and the median-joining network were analyzed, and the...
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Parasitol Res. 2021 Oct 19. doi: 10.1007/s00436-021-07342-1. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTVisceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease of global importance caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is common in countries where both diseases are endemic. In particular, widely used immunological tests for VL diagnosis have impaired sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) in VL/HIV coinfected patients and there is also cross-reactivity with other endemic diseases, e.g., Chagas disease, malaria, and tuberculosis. To develop new antigens to improve the dia...
Source: Cell Research - Category: Cytology Authors: Source Type: research
Microscopic examination of thick and thin blood films is the gold standard in current guidelines for the diagnosis of malaria, but guidelines do not uniformly agree on which combination of other methods should...
Source: Malaria Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1313:273-291. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-67452-6_12.ABSTRACTMalaria is a pandemic with nearly half of global population at risk, caused by parasite Plasmodium species, particularly P. falciparum with a high morbidity and mortality, especially among children. There is an urgent need for development of population protective vaccines, such as in sub-Saharan low-income countries, where P. falciparum malaria is endemic. After years of endeavour with children and adults for safety and efficacy clinical trials, the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein antigen, is targeted by specific antibodies induced by rec...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
This study evaluated the performance of two commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, RealStar® Malaria PCR (RealStar-genus) and RealStar Malaria Screen&Type PCR (RealStar-species), compared with the reference Nested Multiplex Malaria PCR, for the detection of the main five Plasmodium species affecting humans. A total of 121 samples were evaluated. Values of sensitivity (98.9% and 97.8%) and specificity (100% and 96.7%) of the RealStar-genus and the RealStar-species assays, respectively, were very good. The limit of detection (LoD) for the RealStar-genus assay showed a mean value of 0.28 parasites/&m...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
This study identifies opportunities for interventions that reduce lake water contact, expand treatment eligibility to all at risk, and improve MDA coverage for long-term residents in these settings to control schistosomiasis in persistent transmission hotspots.PMID:34662868 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0391
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
This study evaluated the performance of two commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, RealStar® Malaria PCR (RealStar-genus) and RealStar Malaria Screen&Type PCR (RealStar-species), compared with the reference Nested Multiplex Malaria PCR, for the detection of the main five Plasmodium species affecting humans. A total of 121 samples were evaluated. Values of sensitivity (98.9% and 97.8%) and specificity (100% and 96.7%) of the RealStar-genus and the RealStar-species assays, respectively, were very good. The limit of detection (LoD) for the RealStar-genus assay showed a mean value of 0.28 parasites/&m...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
This study identifies opportunities for interventions that reduce lake water contact, expand treatment eligibility to all at risk, and improve MDA coverage for long-term residents in these settings to control schistosomiasis in persistent transmission hotspots.PMID:34662868 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0391
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
This study evaluated the performance of two commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, RealStar® Malaria PCR (RealStar-genus) and RealStar Malaria Screen&Type PCR (RealStar-species), compared with the reference Nested Multiplex Malaria PCR, for the detection of the main five Plasmodium species affecting humans. A total of 121 samples were evaluated. Values of sensitivity (98.9% and 97.8%) and specificity (100% and 96.7%) of the RealStar-genus and the RealStar-species assays, respectively, were very good. The limit of detection (LoD) for the RealStar-genus assay showed a mean value of 0.28 parasites/&m...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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