Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Outcomes of Coccidioidomycosis, Utah, 2006-2015

We report findings from a recent clinical and epidemiologic study of coccidioidomycosis in Utah. To describe clinical characteristics, we identified all coccidioidomycosis cases in an integrated health system in the state during 2006-2015. For epidemiologic analysis, we used cases reported to the Utah Department of Health during 2009-2015. Mean state incidence was 1.83 cases/100,000 population/year. Washington County, in southwestern Utah, had the highest incidence, 17.2 cases/100,000 population/year. In a generalized linear model with time as a fixed effect, mean annual temperature, population, and new construction were associated with regional variations in incidence. Using these variables in a spatiotemporal model, we estimated the adjusted regional variation by county to predict areas where Coccidioides infections might increase.PMID:34423764 | DOI:10.3201/eid2709.210751
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research

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Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Oct 25:tpmd210188. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0188. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted phlebovirus (Family: Phenuiviridae, Order: Bunyavirales) causing severe neonatal mortality and abortion primarily in domestic ruminants. The susceptibility of young domestic swine to RVFV and this species' role in geographic expansion and establishment of viral endemicity is unclear. Six commercially bred Landrace-cross piglets were inoculated subcutaneously with 105 plaque-forming units of RVFV ZH501 strain and two piglets received a sham inoculum. All animals ...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses the epidemiology, microbiology and pathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of coccidioidomycosis in solid organ transplant recipients.Recent FindingsCoccidioidomycosis is associated with a high mortality in solid organ transplant recipients than in immunocompetent individuals. Within the endemic area, strategies to reduce the incidence and mortality among solid organ transplant recipients include pretransplantation screening and treatment of coccidioidomycosis among donors and recipients, use of universal azole prophylaxis after transplantation, and more aggressive ...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
AbstractRift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis that threatens public health and animal agriculture in the endemic areas causing devastating epizootics characterized by abortion storms and high mortalities, especially in newborn animals. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and investigate risk factors associated with exposure to the virus in camels slaughtered in Maiduguri abattoir, Borno State of Nigeria. Camels presented for slaughtered were sampled and data on age, sex, source or origin, utility, presence of post-mortem lesions, body weights and body condition sco...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by dimorphic fungi Coccidioides spp. endemic to Southwestern United States and Central and South America. A history of residence and travel in these areas is esse...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Case report Source Type: research
This study evaluates the drivers of livestock farmers’ KBM of ADs from a sample of 629 respondents selected using a three-stage sampling procedure in Kenya’s three h otspot counties of Baringo, Kwale, and Kilifi. A multivariate fractional probit model was used to assess the factors influencing the intensity of KBM. Only a quarter of the farmers had any knowledge of ADs while over four-fifths of them could not manage any of the three diseases. Access to informati on (experience and awareness), income, education, religion, and distance to a health facility considerably influenced the intensity of farmers’ K...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
by Sudha Chaturvedi, Tanya R. Victor, Anuradha Marathe, Ketevan Sidamonidze, Kelly L. Crucillo, Vishnu Chaturvedi Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) is a pulmonary and systemic fungal disease with increasing incidence and expanding endemic areas. The differentiation of etiologic agentsCoccidioides immitis andC.posadasii remains problematic in the clinical laboratories as conventional PCR and satellite typing schemes are not facile. Therefore, we developed Cy5- and FAM-labeled TaqMan-probes for duplex real-time PCR assay for rapid differentiation ofC.immitis andC.posadasii from culture and clinical specimens. TheRRA2 gene e...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
by Kaori Terasaki, Birte Kalveram, Kendra N. Johnson, Terry Juelich, Jennifer K. Smith, Lihong Zhang, Alexander N. Freiberg, Shinji Makino Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus with a wide host range including ruminants and humans. RVFV outbreaks have had devastating effects on public health and the livestock industry in African countries. However, there is no approved RVFV vaccine for human use in non-endemic countries and no FDA-approved antiviral drug for RVFV treatment. The RVFV 78kDa protein (P78), which is a membrane glycoprotein, plays a role in virus dissemination in the mosquito host, but ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Michel Pepin Hermann Unger Gerrit Viljoen Diagnostic performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) based on a recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNP) of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) was validated for the detection of the IgG antibody in sheep (n = 3367), goat (n = 2632), and cattle (n = 3819) sera. Validation data sets were dichotomized according to the results of a virus neutralization test in sera obtained from RVF-endemic (Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Senegal, Uganda, and Yemen) and RVF-free countries (France, Poland, and the USA). Cut-off values were defi...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic life-threatening viral infection endemic across sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula; however, there is a growing panic of its spread to non-ende...
Source: Virology Journal - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
, caused by the dimorphic pathogenic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadassi, is endemic to the southwestern United states and Central and South America. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis continues to increase. Coccidioidomycosis is typically a self-limiting influenza-like respiratory illness; however, it can lead to disseminated disease outside of the lungs. Not all nondisseminated cases require therapy, but antifungal therapy is typically beneficial requiring treatment ranging from months to lifelong. Clinical factors related to treatment decisions include severity of symptoms, radiography, coccidioidomyc...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
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