Toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles in the male reproductive system
Drug Metab Rev. 2021 May 14:1-14. doi: 10.1080/03602532.2021.1917597. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe field of nanotechnology has allowed for increasing nanoparticle (NP) exposure to the male reproductive system. Certain NPs have been reported to have adverse consequences on male germ and somatic cells. Germ cells are the bridge between generations and are responsible for the transmission of genetic and epigenetic information to future generations. A number of NPs have negative impacts on male germ and somatic cells which could ultimately affect fertility or the ability to produce healthy offspring. These impacts are related to NP composition, modification, concentration, agglomeration, and route of administration. NPs can induce severe toxic effects on the male reproduction system after passing through the blood-testis barrier and ultimately damaging the spermatozoa. Therefore, understanding the impacts of NPs on reproduction is necessary. This review will provide a comprehensive overview on the current state of knowledge derived from the previous in vivo and in vitro research on effects of NPs on the male reproductive system at the genetic, cellular, and molecular levels.PMID:33989097 | DOI:10.1080/03602532.2021.1917597
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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