Ambulatory Assessment Methods to Examine Momentary State-Based Predictors of Opioid Use Behaviors

AbstractPurpose of ReviewAddiction scientists have begun using ambulatory assessment methods —including ecological momentary assessment (EMA), experience sampling, and daily diaries—to collect real-time or near-real-time reports of participants’ internal states in their natural environments. The goal of this short review is to synthesize EMA findings from our research group, which has studied several hundred outpatients during treatment for opioid-use disorder (OUD). (We cite pertinent findings from other groups, but have not tried to be comprehensive.) One of our main goals in using EMA is to examine momentary changes in internal states that proximally predict, or concurrently mark, events such as lapses to opioid use.Recent FindingsWe summarize findings evaluating several classes of momentary markers or predictors (craving, stress, negative and positive moods, and physical pain/discomfort) of lapses and other states/behaviors. Craving and some negatively valenced mood states are concurrently and prospectively associated with lapses to opioid use during treatment. Craving is also concurrently and prospectively associated with momentary changes in stress and mood. Convincing evidence has not yet emerged for stress as a robust redictor of lapse to opioid use; it appears to be contributory, but neither necessary nor sufficient.SummaryAmbulatory assessment can capture changes in internal states and drug-related behaviors in situ and at high temporal resolution....
Source: Current Addiction Reports - Category: Addiction Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Waking at night to smoke is likely the result of both nicotine dependence and psychological distress. Given that cotinine levels were not associated with waking at night, the mechanisms of how nicotine dependence may affect waking at night need further investigation.PMID:34666564 | DOI:10.1080/15402002.2021.1992408
Source: Behavioral Sleep Medicine - Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions: An ACS reportedly supports hospitalists and medical staff to best care for hospitalized patients with OUD. Notably, care provided to patients with OUD may not be uniform depending on various physician-level factors. Future work to address the concerns reported by study participants may include education for OUD treatment, early involvement of the ACS, and incorporation of buprenorphine prescribing algorithms to standardize care.PMID:34666634 | DOI:10.1080/08897077.2021.1975873
Source: Pain Physician - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsAggression has a negative impact on nurses' health and work performance. Healthcare organizations should take into account the self-protection strategies identified by professionals and support them to prevent violence.Key messagesViolence at work compromises nurses' health and work performance in psychiatric settings.Safer work settings could improve nurses' job satisfaction and the quality of patient care.
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Conditions:   Chronic Neck Pain;   Exercise Addiction Interventions:   Other: Classical Physiotherapy Program + Cervical Stabilization Exercises;   Other: Classical Physiotherapy Program + Oculomotor Exercises;   Other: Classical Physiotherapy Program Sponsors:   Eastern Mediterranean University;   Hacettepe University Active, not recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Pharmacol Rev. 2021 Oct;73(4):98-126. doi: 10.1124/pharmrev.120.000046.ABSTRACTPain prevalence among adults in the United States has increased 25% over the past two decades, resulting in high health-care costs and impacts to patient quality of life. In the last 30 years, our understanding of pain circuits and (intra)cellular mechanisms has grown exponentially, but this understanding has not yet resulted in improved therapies. Options for pain management are limited. Many analgesics have poor efficacy and are accompanied by severe side effects such as addiction, resulting in a devastating opioid abuse and overdose epidemic....
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
This article discusses the effects and prehospital areas of application of both substances in the light of the existing literature. We provide a narrative overview of the current study situation and report on a recently performed prehospital application study of methoxyflurane (Penthrop®) from Austria.The need for pressurized gas cylinders for the use of N2O represents a certain limitation in prehospital use. Furthermore, in certain injuries such as of the inner ear or a pneumothorax N2O should not be used and the risk of diffusion hypoxemia has to be addressed. Users should be particularly careful and limit the use in...
Source: Der Anaesthesist - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Source Type: research
Genes, Vol. 12, Pages 1641: Evaluation of the Association of COMT Rs4680 Polymorphism with Swimmers’ Competitive Performance Genes doi: 10.3390/genes12101641 Authors: Piotr Zmijewski Agata Leońska-Duniec Aleksander Stuła Marek Sawczuk Swimmers’ competitive performance is a result of complicated interactions between physiological, biochemical, physical and psychological factors, all of which are strongly affected by water. Recently, great attention has been paid to the role of genetic factors such as the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) influencing motivation, emotions, stress tolerance, ...
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to report on one institution's use of single bolus micro-dose intrathecal morphine as part of a rapid recovery pathway during posterior spinal fusion (PSF) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and its comparison to patients whose pain was controlled with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Summary of Background Data. Narcotic substance addiction has risen across all patient populations, including pediatrics. Narcotics have been historically used in complex spine surgeries as a measure of pain control, predominantly provided as PCA and additional take-home medication. Methods. ...
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: CLINICAL CASE SERIES Source Type: research
Hospital staff members looked the other way while Ricardo Cruciani addicted vulnerable women to pain medications and assaulted them, according to a new lawsuit.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: your-feed-science Ethics and Official Misconduct Gynecology and Gynecologists Sexual Harassment Sex Crimes Hospitals Suits and Litigation (Civil) Assaults Colleges and Universities Psychology and Psychologists Drug Abuse and Traffic Source Type: news
This study aims to identify the analgesic potential of quinoline derived α-trifluoromethylated alcohols (QTA) and their mechanism of action. We synthesized and characterized several compounds of QTAs and screened them for antiepileptic and analgesic activity using zebrafish larvae in high thorough-put behavior analyses system. Toxicity and behavioral screening of 9 compounds identified 4 candidates ( C2 , C3 , C7 and C9 ) with antiepileptic properties that induces specific and reversible reduction in photomotor activity. Importantly, C2 and C3 relieves the thermal pain response in zebrafish larvae indicating analgesi...
Source: ChemMedChem - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
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