Practical and effective diagnosis of animal anthrax in endemic low-resource settings

by Olubunmi R. Aminu, Tiziana Lembo, Ruth N. Zadoks, Roman Biek, Suzanna Lewis, Ireen Kiwelu, Blandina T. Mmbaga, Deogratius Mshanga, Gabriel Shirima, Matt Denwood, Taya L. Forde Anthrax threatens human and animal health, and people’s livelihoods in many rural communities in Africa and Asia. In these areas, anthrax surveillance is challenged by a lack of tools for on-site detection. Furthermore, cultural practices and infrastructure may affect sample availability and qua lity. Practical yet accurate diagnostic solutions are greatly needed to quantify anthrax impacts. We validated microscopic and molecular methods for the detection ofBacillus anthracis in field-collected blood smears and identified alternative samples suitable for anthrax confirmation in the absence of blood smears. We investigated livestock mortalities suspected to be caused by anthrax in northern Tanzania. Field-prepared blood smears (n = 152) were tested by microscopy using four staining techniques as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by Bayesian latent class analysis. Median sensitivity (91%, CI95% [84 –96%]) and specificity (99%, CI95% [96 –100%]) of microscopy using azure B were comparable to those of the recommended standard, polychrome methylene blue, PMB (92%, CI95% [84 –97%] and 98%, CI95% [95 –100%], respectively), but azure B is more available and convenient. Other commonly-used stains performed poorly. Blood smears could be obtained for
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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Anthrax is an endemic disease that persists in the rural regions of China. The global genetic population structure of B.anthracis has also been defined by the canonical single-nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP) an...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
This study highlights the phylogenetic structure of NCP B. anthracis strains with distinctive SNP branches important for forensic tracing and novel SNP discovery purposes. The sequenced strains will serve as a means to further trace the dissemination of B. anthracis outbreaks in NCP, South Africa, and on the continent, as well as for forensic tracking on a global scale. PMID: 31866402 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Conclusions: Rainfall induced cycling of pH and calcium in soils plays a plausible role in amplifying spore load and persistence in endemic anthrax zones. Observed evidence of B. anthracis favoring soil alkalinity and high soil calcium levels in the environment were linked to physiological conditions that promote bacterial growth, survival, toxin secretion and spore formation; illustrating the utility of bringing laboratory-based (controlled) microbiology experiments into the fold of zoonotic disease ecology.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The most anthrax-endemic regions of Russia are Siberia and North Caucasus. Previously, genotyping of Russian B.anthracis iso...
Source: BMC Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
In conclusion, MaF2 is a promising multi-antigen vaccine candidate against anthrax and plague that warrants further investigation.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Discussion Dengue is an important arboviral infection that affects about 40% of the world population. It is found mainly in topical and subtropical areas of the world mainly in developing countries but it range is spreading including the United States. A review of common arboviruses can be found here. It is a flaviavirus with 4 distinct serotypes named DENV-1 through DENV-4 and is spread by A. aegypti a day biting mosquito. Infection with one serotype confers immunity to that serotype but not the others. It does offer some protection for cross-infection but this only lasts a few months. Incubation period is 3-14 days with ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Conclusions Nucleoside hydrolases are vital enzymes for the replication of Leishmania, conserved phylogenetic marker of the genus and strong-specific immunogens. We demonstrated that NH36 is an excellent target for chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis. Searching for the most immunogenic fraction of promastigotes of Leishmania we described the FML antigen of L. (L.) donovani, that has as its main component, the NH36 Nucleoside hydrolase. We developed second–generation vaccines with the FML and the NH36 native antigens, and with the NH36 recombinant protein. In addition, we obtained a third generation vaccine based ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are the most significant arthropods of medical importance because of the burden of diseases, such as malaria, encephalitis and filariasis, which are caused by pathogens and parasites they transmit to humans. In 2007, the most recently published checklist of Iranian mosquitoes included 64 species representing seven genera. Public databases were searched to the end of August 2018 for publications concerning the diseases in Iran caused by mosquito-borne pathogens. Pertinent information was extracted and analyzed, and the checklist of Iranian mosquitoes was updated. Six arbovir...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Conclusions: In rural areas that lack medical facilities with diagnostic tools, in the presence of black eschar, rapid diagnosis and treatment of CA is essential. The administration of a broad-spectrum antibiotic is recommended as the first line treatment of suspected CA.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
[Update of knowledge on Neglected Diseases in Haiti: Mansonelliasis, Tungiasis, Leprosy, and Anthrax]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2018;111(1):17-23 Authors: Raccurt CP, Boncy J, Jean-Baptiste RMA, Honoré R, Andrecy LL, Dély P, Mondésir L, Chatelier M, Existe A, Adrien P Abstract Haiti, like most limited-resources countries in the world, faces numerous neglected infectious diseases. They represent a real public health issue with lethal consequences especially in children. We are reviewing here the available literature on four neglected infectious diseases, mansonelliasis, tungi...
Source: Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique - Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: Bull Soc Pathol Exot Source Type: research
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