Co-occurrence, Assessment and Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to give an update on research in the past 5  years regarding the co-occurrence, assessment and treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Recent FindingsRecent findings affirm not only a high prevalence of OCD amongst individuals with ASD (and vice versa) but also notable variability in assessment methods and results. There remain limited validated measures with which to assess OCD in those with ASD, which are often difficult to differentiate. Adapted and function-based CBT programs specifically designed for ASD demonstrate promising results, but additional randomised controlled trials are needed.SummaryThough some exciting progress has been made in the area of treatment of OCD in ASD, progress remains hampered by inconsistent measurement of OCD in ASD. Future priorities include development of brief, valid assessment tools and determining the efficacy and effectiveness of newly developed and adapted treatment programs.
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of reviewRepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive neuromodulation approach to psychiatric treatment that is FDA approved for the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Standard TMS appears to exert biological effects by inducing current in the cortex more shallowly than deep TMS (dTMS); it may be that this modality of treatment differs from standard TMS. Given the potential difference in the manner in which dTMS stimulates the targeted brain regions, it is reasonable to review and summarize the various off-label and experimental app...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Antidepressants are prescribed for the treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, however there is still controversy about whether they should be used in this population. This meta-review aimed to assess the effects of antidepressants for the acute treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (ADs), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), enuresis, major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents. Efficacy was measured as response to treatment (either as mean overall change...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Abstract Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is associated with repetitive and self-injurious behaviors (RBs, SIB). Evaluating children with CdLS, this study: (1) characterizes the spectrum of RBs; (2) characterizes the impact and severity of RBs including SIB; (3) describes how age and adaptive functioning relate to RBs including SIB. Fifty children (5-17 years) with CdLS were assessed with Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for PDD; Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC); Vineland Adaptive Behaviors Scales (VABS). All children had ≥ 1 type of RB; 44% had some form of SIB. 64...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research
PURPOSE The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the formulation and psychological treatment of a complex case whereby a combination of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has resulted in violent and aggressive behaviou...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Violence and Weapons Issues Source Type: news
We examined this association by exploring the gap between cognitive understanding of social behavior and socially adaptive behavior, and its impact on social anxiety symptoms, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and depressive symptoms, among 53 university students with autism (without intellectual disability). A higher cognition-social adaptation discrepancy was associated with more social anxiety, but this effect was moderated by autistic trait (AT) levels; a greater gap was associated with more avoidance symptoms of social anxiety only among students with high AT. Cognitive flexibility and prosocial behavior may mitigat...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research
Abstract Neuropsychiatric disorders often manifest with abnormal control of motor behavior. Common symptoms include restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior (RRBs). Cortico-basal ganglia circuits have been implicated in the etiology of RBBs. However, there is a vast range of behaviors encompassed in RRBs, from simple explosive motor tics to rather complex ritualized compulsions. In this review, we highlight how recent findings about the function of specific basal ganglia circuits can begin to shed light into defined motor symptoms associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. We discuss recent studies using ge...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Genet Dev Source Type: research
American Journal of Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
Source: American Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest robust but subtle differences across different age groups among ADHD, ASD, and OCD. ADHD-specific intracranial volume and hippocampal differences in children and adolescents, and ASD-specific cortical thickness differences in the frontal cortex in adults, support previous work emphasizing structural brain differences in these disorders. PMID: 32539527 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Am J Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The identified core regions may serve as a basis for building markers for ASD and OCD diagnoses, as well as measures of symptom severity. These findings may inform future development of machine-learning models for psychiatric disorders and may improve the accuracy and speed of clinical assessments. PMID: 32539526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Am J Psychiatry Source Type: research
The advent and application of high-throughput sequencing is revolutionizing our understanding of the molecular neurobiology of diverse psychiatric disorders. Whole-genome sequencing, which targets the coding regions of the genome, and whole-exome sequencing are being applied to study multiple psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Tourette ’s disorder, among others [(1–3);]. These studies have demonstrated a role for ultrarare, deleterious, frequently de novo variation in each disorder, and h...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
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