Children ’s Reactions to Media Coverage of War
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews research on the effects of contact with war media coverage on psychological outcomes in children.Recent FindingsChildren ’s contact with media coverage of war is pervasive and is associated with numerous outcomes and with their parents’ reactions. Younger children are more affected by news stories with visual cues, while older children are more distressed by stories about actual threat.SummaryThere is a strong theoretical basis for developmental influences on children ’s war media reactions, but the potential influence of other child factors (e.g., gender, socio...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

How Personality Disorders Change in Psychotherapy: a Concise Review of Process
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe present review summarizes the current state of the art in psychotherapy processes during treatments for clients with personality disorders. We outline some methodological challenges in the discipline of process research, give a brief historical account on process research, and then focus on specific processes studied from an empirical perspective.Recent FindingsThe current review acknowledges the centrality of the therapeutic relationship, in particular the therapeutic alliance, therapist empathy, and responsiveness in explaining outcome across treatment modalities for personality disorders. Th...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Personality Disorders in the ICD-11: Opportunities and Challenges for Advancing the Diagnosis of Personality Pathology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe International Classification of Diseases-11th edition (ICD-11) is poised to make a dramatic change in the diagnosis of personality disorders by introducing a fully dimensionalized framework. In this paper, the history of this process is reviewed, along with international efforts taken to address some underlying concerns with this transition. Recent studies of this framework are also reviewed.Recent FindingsStudies have concluded that the ICD-11 proposal is supported; however, there are a number of methodological limitations to these studies, including the utilization of measures that are not di...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Children ’s Exposure to Single Incidents of Terrorism: Perspectives Over 25 Years Since the Oklahoma City Bombing
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper traces advances in our knowledge about children ’s exposure and reactions to terrorist events over the last 25 years, beginning with the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, and offers observations about cross-cutting issues including implications for services.Recent FindingsDirect and indirect interpersonal exposures have been examined in community samples and in samples of children selected because of their event experiences. Despite its present exclusion from the stressor criterion for a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, considerable research has documented an association ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Role of Anxiety in Smoking Onset, Severity, and Cessation-Related Outcomes: a Review of Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAnxiety is one of the most common mental health conditions globally and co-occurs with smoking at a markedly high rate. The present review offers a narrative overview of the most recent research on the role of anxiety in smoking onset, maintenance, and cessation-related outcomes. Additionally, given the rise in electronic cigarette use, we review the emerging literature on the influence of anxiety on e-cigarette use.Recent FindingsEvidence across studies varied as to the role of anxiety or anxiety symptoms in smoking behavior. The most consistent findings suggested that those with anxiety are more ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric Correlates of Narcolepsy
This study reviews recent evidence for the association between narcolepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders. We also critically analyze studies that have addressed the neuropsychiatric correlates of patients with narcolepsy, with a discussion of the possible pathophysiological mechanisms linking narcolepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders.Recent FindingsNeuropsychiatric manifestations are common among patients with narcolepsy as narcolepsy and some neuropsychiatric disorders share common clinical features. This may create challenges in making the correct diagnosis, and hence result in a delay in starting appropriate treatment. ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: an Update of Published, Unpublished and Ongoing Studies
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewWe aim to identify the most recent evidence of randomised controlled trials evaluating continued drug treatments in people with a diagnosis of BPD, review the most recent findings, highlight trends in terms of currently ongoing studies and comment on the overall body of evidence.Recent FindingsWe identified seven new RCTs, plus newly available data for an older RCT. Only three of these RCTs have been published in full text, while we found study data posted at trial registry platforms for the others.SummaryThe new findings do not support fluoxetine as a treatment option for suicide and self-harm...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Motivational Interviewing: as Easy as It Looks?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper explores how motivational interviewing (MI) can be useful to practitioners working with people who have sexually abused. Research has found that the most effective practitioners working with these clients are warm, empathic, rewarding, and directive. Putting these characteristics into practice, however, can be challenging for professionals in treatment settings. Despite a wealth of information regarding MI practice generally, its use with people who have sexually abused has received little attention.Recent FindingsMotivational interviewing has been found to be effective in helping people...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ecological Studies of Sleep Disturbances During Suicidal Crises
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSeveral reviews and metanalyses have shown that sleep disturbances, such as insomnia and nightmares, can predict suicidal ideations and behaviors. Common physio-pathological pathways may explain this relationship. However, only in recent years, some research groups have tried to apply this knowledge in the quest for a reliable tool of suicide risk prediction. We aim to describe in this paper the results of studies using ecological or quasi-ecological assessment methods that connect sleep disturbances and suicide risk.Recent FindingsOur review confirms the paucity of studies on this topic. The few s...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Virtual Reality Therapy in Social Anxiety Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an overview of current methods and important aspects to consider when applying virtual worlds in the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD).Recent FindingsDifferent aspects such as dialogs between avatars and patients have been investigated as well as virtual audiences, emotional facial expression, and verbal interaction with avatars. Results of these studies are promising. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) in SAD. Unfortunately, most RCTs into the efficacy of VRET in comparison with exposure in...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Physical and Mental Health Outcomes in Children Exposed to Disasters
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews literature on the influence of disaster exposure on the intersection between physical and mental health in children, including risk and protective factors. We provide an update on recent studies and conclude with recommendations for future research.Recent FindingsThe limited existing research on this topic suggests that disasters can influence short and long-term physical and mental health of children. Although few studies explore both mental and physical health in the same study, studies that assess both show that they co-occur. Pre-existing conditions, severity of disaster expo...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Medical Ethics Issues in Dementia and End of Life
AbstractPurpose of ReviewI review ethical and legal challenges for end of life (EOL) care in dementia. Is access to hospice care for dementia patients impacted by Medicare ’s terminal prognosis requirement? Are dementia-specific advance directives warranted? How does state legislation affect dementia patients’ EOL options? Should dementia patients’ be able to refuse orally ingested food and fluids by advance directive?Recent FindingsThe difficulty of predicting time to death in dementia inhibits access to Medicare hospice benefits. Efforts have been made to create dementia-specific advance directives. Adv...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy of Sexual Addiction
We examined the different definitions of this disorder, related to the pathophysiological mechanisms. We addressed the pharmacological treatment of sexual addiction.Recent FindingsHypersexual behavior can be considered an addictive disorder. Sexual addiction is accompanied by significant psychiatric and addictive comorbidities and is responsible for life impairment. A comprehensive and efficient treatment must be proposed.SummarySelective serotonin reuptake inhibitors seem the first-line pharmacological treatment for sexual addiction. Naltrexone could be another therapeutic option. Psychotherapy and preferentially cognitiv...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treatment Options for Fear of Blushing
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review mechanisms of blushing and fear of blushing from physiological, neuropharmacological and psychological viewpoints, and to evaluate current forms of treatment for blushing-related fear.Recent FindingsBlushing appears to be driven primarily by sympathetic adrenomedullary and neural vasodilator discharge, possibly in association with secondary neurovascular inflammation. Psychological risk factors for fear of blushing include social anxiety, coupled with heightened self-focused attention and inflated beliefs about the likelihood and social costs of blushing. In addition, schemas of emotional...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Culturally Responsive Approaches for Addressing ADHD Within Multi-tiered Systems of Support
We present a primer for psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health professionals on the implementation of culturally responsive practices within a multi-tiered system of support (MTSS) framework when collaborating with schools.Recent FindingsIndividuals with ADHD demonstrate unique behavioral challenges that affect school and home functioning. As a framework to address the needs ofall children with academic and behavioral issues, many public schools have adopted MTSS. Emerging findings on cultural adaptations of evidence-based interventions for ADHD within MTSS are promising.SummaryThrough a comprehensive tiered...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Men With Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Offended Sexually
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review extant and new research focusing on assessment and treatment of men with intellectual disabilities (ID) who have offended sexually. New research findings are applied and integrated with classic assessment and treatment approaches, providing an overview of evidence-based practices.Recent FindingsNew research has explored healthy sexuality among people with intellectual disabilities, including making evidence-based sexual information cognitively accessible for people with ID. Research has begun to include men with ID in studies of actuarial risk assessment and dynamic treatment needs and id...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pharmacogenomics: an Update for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to acquaint child and adolescent psychiatrists with the field of pharmacogenomics (PGX) and review the most up-to-date evidence-based practices to guide the application of this field in clinical care.Recent FindingsDespite much research being done in this area, the field of PGX continues to yield controversial findings. In the adult world, studies have focused on the impact of combinatorial gene panels that guide medication selection by providing reports that estimate the impact of multiple pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic genes, but to date, these have not been directly examined...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder in Young People
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review recent research concerning the diagnosis and treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in young people. We examine evidence for the need to define an appropriate age for detection, and the suitability of current classification methods and treatment.Recent FindingsEvidence supports early detection and intervention for subsyndromal borderline pathology or categorical BPD across an extended developmental period. A range of structured treatments are effective for BPD in young people, although the role of treatment components in successful outcomes is unclear. Substantial evidence sug...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Modeling Psychiatric Disorder Biology with Stem Cells
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the ways in which stem cells are used in psychiatric disease research, including the related advances in gene editing and directed cell differentiation.Recent FindingsThe recent development of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technologies has created new possibilities for the study of  psychiatric disease. iPSCs can be derived from patients or controls and differentiated to an array of neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. Their genomes can be edited as desired, and they can be assessed for a variety of phenotypes. This makes them especially interesting for studying genetic vari ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Identification and Management of Opioid Use Disorder in Primary Care: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe rising prevalence of opioid use disorder (OUD) and related complications in North America coupled with limited numbers of specialists in addiction medicine has led to large gaps in treatment. Primary care providers (PCPs) are ideally suited to diagnose and care for people with OUD and are increasingly being called upon to improve access to care. This review will highlight the recent literature pertaining to the care of patients with OUD by PCPs.Recent FindingsThe prevalence of patients with OUD in primary care practice is increasing, and models of office-based opioid treatment (OBOT) are evolvi...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Evaluating Change in Men Who Have Sexually Offended: Linkages to Risk Assessment and Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe provide a review and synthesis of the sexual offense treatment change literature with implications for dynamic sexual violence risk assessment and management. An argument is presented for the need for a dynamic approach in research and practice, and that for change to be prognostic, such changes need to be risk relevant and to come from credible change agents.Recent FindingsExtant research demonstrates that changes on psychologically meaningful dimensions of risk and need (e.g., sexual deviance; attitudes and cognitions; anger, aggression, and hostility) tend to be associated with reductions in ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Considerations and Current Trends in the Management of the Geriatric Patient on a Consultation –Liaison Service
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide consultation –liaison psychiatrists with an updated resource that can assist in the treatment and management of geriatric patients.Recent FindingsThe current available literature has not shown any differences in efficacy between haloperidol and second-generation antipsychotics in patients with delirium. When considering relative advantages of forms of antipsychotic administration, there is no support for a superior safety profile of oral compared to intramuscular or intravenous administration. A recent meta-analysis of four randomized controlled trials concluded that when melatonin...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A Review of Antidepressant-Associated Hypomania in Those Diagnosed with Unipolar Depression —Risk Factors, Conceptual Models, and Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe nosology and management of antidepressant-associated hypomania (AAH) in the treatment of unipolar depression requires clarification. We sought to review recent studies examining AAH, focusing on risk factors, differing explanatory models, and management strategies.Recent FindingsAAH occurs more frequently in those of female gender, younger age, and with a bipolar disorder (BP) family history. Depressive features (e.g., suicidal ideation, psychotic symptoms) in those with AAH were similar to those with established BPs. Explanatory models for AAH describe it as (i) a transient iatrogenic event, (...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Gender- and Sex-Based Contributors to Sex Differences in PTSD
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSex differences in PTSD are well-established with a 2:1 sex ratio favouring women. Less well-established is the basis of such differences. The purpose of this review is to explore recent research examining potential gender- and sex-based contributors to sex differences in PTSD.Recent FindingsWe identified 19 studies published since 2015. Masculinity is inconclusively associated with PTSD, but masculine ideals and masculine gender role stress are positively associated with PTSD. Among the sex-related factors, testosterone, oestradiol, progesterone, and ALLO/5 α-progesterone ratio are believed ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Genetics of ADHD: What Should the Clinician Know?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows high heritability in formal genetic studies. In our review article, we provide an overview on common and rare genetic risk variants for ADHD and their link to clinical practice.Recent findingsThe formal heritability of ADHD is about 80% and therefore higher than most other psychiatric diseases. However, recent studies estimate the proportion of heritability based on singlenucleotide variants (SNPs) at 22%. It is a matter of debate which genetic mechanisms explain this huge difference. While frequent variants in first mega-analyses of genome-wide...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Imagery Rescripting for Anxiety Disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Recent Advances and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review describes imagery rescripting (ImRs) and its clinical application to anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Variations in ImRs delivery, clinical evidence, and theories of potential mechanisms of change are also reviewed. Finally, we propose a future research agenda.Recent FindingsThere is some evidence that ImRs affects memory processes and schemas. ImRs is associated with reductions in cognitive-affective, physiological and behavioural symptoms of social anxiety disorder and reductions in OCD-related distress and OCD symptoms. ImRs for other anxiety disorders has n...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Shame in Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStudies on the relations between shame and anxiety and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) are reviewed, with a focus on recent work.Recent FindingsMedium-sized positive correlations have been consistently found across anxiety disorders and OCRDs, suggesting that this relation is transdiagnostic. Most studies focused on shame-proneness and found similar relations across multiple types (e.g. internal, external) and domains (e.g. bodily, characterological, behavioural) of shame, with little variation between clinical and non-clinical populations and different age categories. However, m...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treatment of Mixed Features in Bipolar Disorder: an Updated View
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMixed presentations in bipolar disorder have long posed clinical and nosological challenges. The DSM-5 mixed features specifier was developed to provide a more flexible and clinically relevant definition of mixed presentations compared with narrowly defined DSM-IV mixed episodes. However, there is little guidance on treating such presentations. Here, we summarize the evidence for biological treatments of DSM-5 and similarly defined mixed features (MFs).Recent FindingsThe literature on treating MFs is almost exclusively based on post hoc analyses. Within this limited evidence base is preliminary pos...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Personality Disorders in Older Adults: a Review of Epidemiology, Assessment, and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of the paper is reviewing recent literature on the epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of personality disorders (PDs) among older adults ( ≥ 60 years).Recent FindingsSince 2015, 12 primary empirical studies have been published addressing PDs in older adults; 3 addressing epidemiological aspects, 6 on assessment, 2 exploring both epidemiology and assessment, and 1 examining treatment. PD research in older adults is steadily growing and is predominantly focused on assessment. The studies showed that PDs were rather prevalent ranging from 10.6 –14.5% in community-dwell...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Services for Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Systems Perspective
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review original research about services for adults on the autism spectrum published from January 2013 through December 2018. The main aim is to characterize the topical and methodological aspects of research about services. We review research on services related to employment, living in the community, and social participation. We compare our results with those from a similar review published in 2012 to assess progress and identify where new directions in research about services for adults with autism are needed.Recent FindingsWe found the evidence base about services for adults on the autism spe...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Interpersonal Synchrony in Autism
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review evidence for the presence, quality, and correlates of interpersonal synchrony in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across four domains: motor, conversational, physiological, and neural. We also propose cognitive and neural mechanisms for the disruption of interpersonal synchrony and investigate synchrony as a mechanism of intervention in ASD.Recent FindingsAcross domains, synchrony is present but reduced or atypical in individuals with ASD during interactions with individuals with typical development (TD). Atypical synchrony may reflect the contribution of both intrapersonal mechanisms, such...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Apps for Depression: Are They Ready to Work?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the latest evidence about mobile phone applications for the management of depression.Recent FindingsDepression apps are very heterogeneous, given the absence of standards for their development, description, and evaluation. Randomized clinical trials show the effectiveness of some of these applications in reducing depressive symptoms. Attrition is an important issue whose evaluation is limited by the frequent use of incentives in the studies.SummaryThe number of mobile applications for depression far exceeds the number of studies evaluating their efficacy and feasibility. Despite the li...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Child Pornography and Online Sexual Solicitation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights recent literature regarding online sexual offending, including the prevalence, characteristics, a brief review of recent typology literature, victimization risk factors, risk factors of being a “crossover” offender, rates and risk factors for recidivism, and a discussion of prevention efforts.Recent FindingsOnline sexual offenders are overwhelmingly White men with relationship problems who were rarely previously arrested for felonies. They score lower on measures of antisocial behavior, compared to offenders who commit contact sexual offenses against children. Ind...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Toward Actionable Practice Parameters for “Dual Diagnosis”: Principles of Assessment and Management for Co-Occurring Psychiatric and Intellectual/Developmental Disability
This article summarizes the findings for three of the most common and impairing clusters of psychiatric symptoms that co-occur with IDD—aggression, depression, and addictions.Recent FindingsIndividuals with IDD are at high risk for the development of psychiatric symptoms (PS), which often manifest uniquely in IDD and for which evidence for effective intervention is steadily accruing.SummaryInterventions that are commonly implemented in the IDD service sector (e.g., functional communication training and positive behavioral support planning) are capable of mitigating severe behavioral impairment, yet rarely invoked whe...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Remote Telepsychiatry Workforce: a Solution to Psychiatry ’s Workforce Issues
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a remote workforce may increase access to care while reducing physician burnout. We review workforce issues and organizational and individual obstacles for implementing a telepsychiatry workforce including administrative, logistical, and clinical considerations and offer resources for how to overcome barriers that may arise in implementing a remote workforce.Recent FindingsThere is an increasingly unmet demand for mental health services and a shortage in psychiatrists. Burnout may be a key factor contributing to psychiatrists working less, pursuing le...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Bipolar Disorder and Suicide: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBipolar disorder has the highest rate of suicide of all psychiatric conditions and is approximately 20 –30 times that of the general population. The purpose of this review is to discuss findings relevant to bipolar disorder and suicide.Recent FindingsRisk factors include male gender, living alone, divorced, no children, Caucasian, younger age (  75 years), unemployment, and a personal history of suicide attempt and family history of suicide attempt or suicide completion, as well as predominant depressive polarity. Suicide is associated with the depressed or mixed subtypes, not man...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Interventions for Youth Suicide Risk
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review and discuss recent advances in evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for youth suicide risk.Recent FindingsThere is a growing body of research on the effectiveness of interventions targeting suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescents. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Adolescent has shown effectiveness across two independent randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Several other interventions have shown effectiveness in only  one trial and are in need of replication. New interventions are also being developed that incorporate developments in technology and adaptive intervention designs....
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mental Health Consequences of Shift Work: An Updated Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewApproximately 25% of employed individuals engage in shift work, which can substantially alter opportunities for restorative sleep. Being tired on the job can lead to safety risks in professions such as healthcare, first responders, manufacturing, and numerous others. In addition to the physical stress and health consequences of shift work, recent evidence links shift work to poor mental health outcomes. The current review examines the literature from 2016 onward, emphasizing the impact of shift work on mental health.Recent FindingsShift work is associated with considerable impacts on sleep, depress...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Genetic Intersections of Language and Neuropsychiatric Conditions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo better understand the shared basis of language and mental health, this review examines the behavioral and neurobiological features of aberrant language in five major neuropsychiatric conditions. Special attention is paid to genes implicated in both language and neuropsychiatric disorders, as they reveal biological domains likely to underpin the processes controlling both.Recent FindingsAbnormal language and communication are common manifestations of neuropsychiatric conditions, and children with impaired language are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders than their peers.SummaryMajor them...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Consanguinity and Autism
AbstractPurpose of ReviewConsanguinity can increase the risk for autosomal recessive conditions, along with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Rarely outside of the genetics community is this discussed. Understanding its impact on the development of ASD and increasing awareness for physicians is important.Recent FindingsASD is a polygenic multifactorial disorder associated with morbidity and burden of care. Studies have confirmed its heritability, suspecting to an autosomal recessive transmission. Consanguinity increases the risk for uncovering recessive disorder and its role as an independent contributor for the development ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cognitive Genomics: Recent Advances and Current Challenges
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review recent progress in uncovering the complex genetic architecture of cognition, arising primarily from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We explore the genetic correlations between cognitive performance and neuropsychiatric disorders, the genetic and environmental factors associated with age-related cognitive decline, and speculate about the future role of genomics in the understanding of cognitive processes.Recent FindingsImprovements in genomic methods, and the increasing availability of large datasets via consortia cooperation, have led to a greater understanding of the role played ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Perinatal Depression in Low-Income Women: A Literature Review and Innovative Screening Approach
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews literature on perinatal depression prevalence, consequences, and screening among low-income women and women of color. We introduce the Warm Connections program ’s innovative perinatal depression screening protocol and explore perinatal depression patterns among WIC participants.Recent FindingsPerinatal depression negatively impacts maternal and child outcomes. Research shows mixed findings of perinatal depression prevalence rates among low-income women and women of color. The Warm Connections program supports the ability of WIC staff to administer the EPDS to WIC participan...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Coercive Sexual Sadism: a Systematic Qualitative Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCoercive sexual sadism can be distinguished from consensual BDSM (bondage discipline/dominance submission/sadism masochism) role-play and from everyday sadism, a personality trait. The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic qualitative review of the pertinent literature on coercive sexual sadism from the last three years.Recent FindingsClinical assessment of sexual sadism can be made more objective through behavioral checklists based on crime scene actions. The latent structure of sexual sadism is likely dimensional, placing the disorder at the upper end of a continuum of sexually aggress...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - December 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Tactile Sensory Phenotypes in Autism: Current Understanding and Future Directions for Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to summarize the current body of behavioral, physiological, and molecular knowledge concerning tactile sensitivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a focus on recent studies utilizing rodent models.Recent FindingsMice with mutations in the ASD-related genes, Shank3, Fmr1, UBE3A, and Mecp2, display tactile abnormalities. Some of these abnormalities appear to be caused by mutation-related changes in the PNS, as opposed to changes in the processing of touch stimuli in the CNS, as previously thought. There is also growing evidence suggesting that peripheral mechanisms may contri...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - December 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Innovations in the Treatment of Perinatal Depression: the Role of Yoga and Physical Activity Interventions During Pregnancy and Postpartum
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review evidence for physical activity and yoga as interventions for depressed pregnant and postpartum women.Recent FindingsResults from existing trials have generally indicated that physical activity and yoga interventions are acceptable to women during the perinatal period, and that these interventions can be effective in reducing depression. However, some studies have not found significant differences between intervention and control conditions. In addition, symptom improvements were not always maintained.SummaryThe available research on physical activity and yoga as interventions for perinata...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - December 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Suicide Has Many Faces, So Does Ketamine: a Narrative Review on Ketamine ’s Antisuicidal Actions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSuicidal behaviours are a challenge for a medical system and public health, partly due to the current lack of evidence-based, effective, rapid tools for suicidal crisis management. Ketamine and its enantiomer esketamine have raised hopes regarding this issue in the recent years. However, their efficacy in suicidal behaviours and mechanisms for it remain a topic of debate.Recent FindingsSubanesthetic ketamine doses rapidly, albeit transiently decrease suicidal ideation, with effects emerging within an hour and persisting up to a week. Current evidence points to various and not necessarily exclusive ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - December 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Precision Medicine and Suicide: an Opportunity for Digital Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA better understanding of suicide phenomena is needed, and precision medicine is a promising approach toward this aim. In this manuscript, we review recent advances in the field, with particular focus on the role of digital health.Recent FindingsTechnological advances such as smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment and passive collection of information from sensors provide a detailed description of suicidal behavior and thoughts. Further, we review more traditional approaches in the field of genetics.SummaryWe first highlight the need for precision medicine in suicidology. Then, in light o...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Bipolar Disorder in the Menopausal Transition
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review recent data on bipolar disorder in menopausal-aged women, particularly in women undergoing the menopausal transition (MT). We discuss evidence on the severity of symptoms in bipolar women during the MT. Moreover, we address two factors in bipolar disorder and menopausal research: standardized menopausal staging and women ’s conceptualization of their menopausal and bipolar symptoms.Recent FindingsWhile there are few studies within the last 5  years on bipolar women undergoing the MT, new evidence suggest that mood symptoms in women worsen with progression through the MT. Consis...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychological Treatment of Depression in Primary Care: Recent Developments
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe give an overview of recent developments on psychological treatments of depression in primary care.Recent FindingsIn recent years, it has become clear that psychotherapies can effectively be delivered through e-health applications. Furthermore, several studies in low and middle income countries have shown that lay health counselors can effectively deliver psychological therapies. Behavioral activation, a relatively simple form of therapy, has been found to be as effective as cognitive behavior therapy. Treatment of subthreshold depression has been found to not only reduce depressive symptoms but ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Differential Diagnosis of Bipolar II Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDifferentiating bipolar (BP) disorders (in particular BP II) from borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a common diagnostic dilemma. We sought to critically examine recent studies that considered clinical differences between BP II and BPD, which might advance their delineation.Recent FindingsRecent studies focused on differentiating biological parameters —genetics, epigenetics, diurnal rhythms, structural and functional neuroimaging—with indicative differences not yet sufficient to guide diagnosis. Key differentiating factors include family history, developmental antecedents, illness...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research