Neurodevelopmental Trajectories and Psychiatric Morbidity: Lessons Learned From the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes and is the strongest known single genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. Compared to other rare structural pathogenic genetic variants, 22q11DS is relatively common and one of the most extensively studied. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of current insights regarding associated neurodevelopmental phenotypes and potential implications for 22q11DS and beyond.Recent FindingsWe will first discuss recent findings with respect to neurodevelopmental phenotypic expression associated...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of Mass Shootings on the Mental Health of Children and Adolescents
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo examine mass shootings in youth including mass shooting trends, risk and protective factors for emotional sequelae, mental health, prevention of mass shootings, and the assessment and treatment of survivors.Recent FindingsMany youth are exposed to gun violence, with a smaller subset exposed to mass shootings. While youth have varying responses to mass shootings, possibly due to risk and protective factors as well as level of exposure, the mental health outcomes are significant and include posttraumatic stress, suicide, depression, substance abuse, and anxiety. Efforts at developing effective pre...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mental Health Services Research Targeting the Clinical High-Risk State for Psychosis: Lessons, Future Directions and Integration with Patient Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe summarize the history of the clinical high-risk stage of psychosis (CHR), current research on this stage and recent critiques of the field, and evaluate current CHR guidelines and frameworks.Recent FindingsFollowing its identification and characterization, CHR services have successfully been developed in North America, Europe, Australia and elsewhere. As reflected in guidelines, these services and their orientation largely emerged as an outgrowth of the framework pioneered by early intervention services for first-episode psychosis. We critically discuss what is known so far about the subjective ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Marijuana and Bariatric Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMarijuana use presents a unique challenge to bariatric surgery programs. We review the recent evidence examining marijuana use on outcomes following bariatric surgery.Recent FindingsRecent studies have not demonstrated an increased risk of short-term surgical complications or differences in up to 2-year weight loss following surgery among marijuana users. However, studies have demonstrated increased risks in two areas: pain management and problematic eating behaviors. Additionally, preoperative marijuana use has been linked to increased postoperative marijuana use which may undermine weight loss an...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Role of Disgust in Eating Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn current review, we evaluate the current literature examining the role of disgust in eating disorders (EDs), and provide a theoretical model designed to inform the study and treatment of disgust-based symptoms in EDs.Recent FindingsFindings from this review suggest that aberrant disgust-conditioning processes represent promising but understudied mechanisms that may contribute to the risk and maintenance of core eating disorder (ED) psychopathology. In addition, preliminary evidence supports the use of interventions designed to target aversive disgust cues and disrupt maladaptive disgust-based con...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Impact of the Menstrual Cycle and Underlying Hormones in Anxiety and PTSD: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go From Here?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews the recent literature on menstrual cycle phase effects on outcomes relevant to anxiety and PTSD, discusses potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying these effects, and highlights methodological limitations impeding scientific advancement.Recent FindingsThe menstrual cycle and its underlying hormones impact symptom expression among women with anxiety and PTSD, as well as psychophysiological and biological processes relevant to anxiety and PTSD.SummaryThe most consistent findings are retrospective self-report of premenstrual exacerbation of anxiety symptoms and the protective...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Drug Misuse in the Veterinary Setting: an Under-recognized Avenue
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPrescription drug misuse is a public health concern. Governments are attempting to restrict the incidence of medication diversion by establishing laws to curb drug access from human healthcare providers. Veterinarians, who also prescribe controlled substances and see hundreds of millions of patients annually in the USA, are often overlooked as a source of prescription drug misuse.Recent FindingsEvidence suggests that drug misuse occurs in the veterinary setting, and veterinarians acknowledge this as a common problem. Although analgesics are alleged to be the most common drug class diverted, a recen...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Desistance From Sexual Offending
This article reviews the growing body of knowledge on desistance from sexual offending. Although the cessation of offending is a standard observation in criminology and has been demonstrated by people who commit all manner of crimes, it has only recently been considered relevant for individuals convicted of sexual offences.Recent FindingsDesistance from crime is a natural human process and has been observed even among those people who commit sexual offences. The clearest distinction between sexual and nonsexual offenders is the way they are treated by the criminal justice system. Desistance can occur in different ways, for...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Elderly Bipolar Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWith more individuals reaching older ages, bipolar disorder is no longer a rare illness in the elderly. Despite the growing number of the older individuals with the illness, there are few studies that focus on bipolar disorder in the geriatric population leading to gaps in clinical knowledge and treatment. The aim of this study is therefore to increase understanding by summarizing the available literature on the epidemiology, symptomatology, comorbidities, and treatment recommendations in this cohort, as well as to suggest areas for future clinical and research focus.Recent FindingsThe prevalence o...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Management of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans and Military Service Members: A Review of Pharmacologic and Psychotherapeutic Interventions Since 2016
This article updates the reader about advances in research in PTSD treatment in the past four years as well as the evolving recommendations of clinical practice guidelines.Recent FindingsOne of the most important developments is that trauma-focused therapy (TFT) has emerged as the first-line treatment for PTSD with pharmacologic options often being noted as second-line or adjunctive.SummaryThe quality and quantity of research into the treatment of PTSD continue to grow; however, the pace of research into treatment options lags behind our understanding of the development, course, and prognosis of the disorder. The developme...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

College Student Perspectives of Telemental Health: a Review of the Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the recent literature regarding college student experiences with and attitudes toward telemental health (TMH). We examine their perspectives of the advantages and drawbacks to this form of mental healthcare and their willingness to engage in TMH.Recent FindingsCollege students view TMH as convenient, accessible, easy to use, and helpful. TMH helps to overcome the barrier of stigma associated with seeking mental health treatment. Despite positive reviews, many students find a lack of customization or connection to the provider to be drawbacks to some forms of TMH. Willingness to engage in ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Reward Learning Through the Lens of RDoC: a Review of Theory, Assessment, and Empirical Findings in the Eating Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewReward-related processes may represent important transdiagnostic factors underlying eating pathology. Using the NIMH Research Domain Criteria as a guide, the current article reviews theories, behavioral and self-report assessments, and empirical findings related to reward learning in the eating disorders.Recent FindingsData from behavioral tasks suggest deficits in reinforcement learning, which may become more pronounced with increasing disorder severity and duration. Self-report data strongly implicate positive eating and thinness/restriction expectancies (an element of reward prediction error) in...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Alliance Ruptures and Resolutions in Personality Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an overview of the state of research on alliance ruptures and resolutions in the treatment of personality disorders (PDs). We discuss frequently used instruments to measure alliance ruptures and resolutions. We discuss the effectiveness of rupture resolution processes and highlight possible avenues for research to explore. Innovative assessments with the potential to reveal the link of ruptures and resolutions and mechanisms of psychotherapeutic change are discussed.Recent FindingsThe assessment of alliance rupture and resolutions is heterogeneous. Instruments vary largely with...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - December 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Using Precision Medicine with a Neurodevelopmental Perspective to Study Inflammation and Depression
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo consider various precision medicine approaches to further elucidate the relationship between inflammation and depression and to illustrate how a neurodevelopmental perspective can help in this regard.Recent FindingsInflammation associates most strongly with phenotypes of depression that reflect illness behavior and/or metabolic dysfunction and obesity. A separate body of research has shown that maternal inflammation during pregnancy can alter brain circuitry important for mood regulation and/or reward in the developing fetus. Our research group is finding that maternal CRP levels differentially ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - December 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Preparing for the Behavioral Health Impact of COVID-19 in Michigan
This report summarizes the expected impact of COVID-19 on behavioral health, as well as strategies to address mental health needs during the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath. The state of Michigan in the USA is used to illustrate the complexity of the mental health issues and the critical gaps in the behavioral health infrastructure as they pertain to COVID-19. Scoping review was conducted to identify potential mental health needs and issues during the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath.Recent FindingsThe ramifications of COVID-19 on mental health are extensive, with the potential to negatively impact diverse populatio...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - December 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Silent Epidemic: Causes and Consequences of Medical Learner Burnout
AbstractPurpose of ReviewClinician burnout has significant socioeconomic, health, and quality of life implications. However, there has been little attention directed at medical students and house officers (i.e., medical learners). This review provides pertinent evidence regarding burnout as it relates to medical learners including risk factors and potential interventions. We conclude with recommendations on future research directions and potential approaches to address this epidemic of medical learner burnout.Recent FindingsBurnout is a significant issue among medical learners that is impacted both by interpersonal and env...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Role of Telemental Health, Tele-consultation, and Tele-supervision in Post-disaster and Low-resource Settings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper was to review recent literature and provide recommendations regarding the use of telemental health, with a focus on tele-consultation and tele-supervision in post-disaster and low-resource settings, including the impact of COVID-19.Recent FindingsThe latest research on mental health needs in low-resource settings has identified a high need for mental health services for difficult-to-reach and underserved populations. Research on tele-consultation and tele-supervision was reviewed and found that tele-consultation and tele-supervision to be an effective modality for insuring qu...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ethics and Privacy in Social Media Research for Mental Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an overview of recent research which uses social media data in the context of mental health. It also provides an overview of challenges in relation to consent, privacy, and usage of such data.Recent FindingsA broad range of research has been conducted in recent years, using text-based and visual data from social media platforms, for purposes such as risk detection at the individual level, providing crisis outreach, and developing a better understanding of the lived experience of mental ill-health.SummaryChallenges remain in relation to obtaining truly informed consent for resea...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Special Concerns in Military Families
This article summarizes research literature published in the last 6  years addressing common features and health needs of military families with the goal of improving military cultural competence. This includes recognizing that (a) The military carries its own culture as evidenced by its particular traditions, beliefs, language, and set of guiding principles (Sangh era Optom Educ J Assoc Sch Coll Optom. 42:8–16,2017) and (b) military families —defined in this paper as active duty service members, their spouses, their children, and civilian warfighters in the form of National Guard and Reservists (NG/R)&mda...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sex Differences in the Gut-Brain Axis: Implications for Mental Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this article is to highlight how sex differences in the gut-brain axis may contribute to the discrepancies in incidence of neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders between females and males. We focus on autism spectrum disorder, psychotic disorders, stress and anxiety disorders, depression, Alzheimer ’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease and additionally discuss the comorbidity between inflammatory bowel disorder and mental health disorders.Recent FindingsHuman and animal studies show that sex may modify the relationship between the gut or immune sys...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Understanding Brain Mechanisms of Reactive Aggression
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the current literature on biobehavioral mechanisms involved in reactive aggression in a transdiagnostic approach.Recent FindingsAggressive reactions are closely related to activations in the brain ’s threat circuitry. They occur in response to social threat that is experienced as inescapable, which, in turn, facilitates angry approach rather than fearful avoidance. Provocation-induced aggression is strongly associated with anger and deficits in cognitive control including emotion regulation and inhibitory control. Furthermore, the brain’s reward system plays a particular role ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Personality Disorders in Time of Pandemic
We report evidence on the negative psychological effects of pandemics in people with personality disorders (PDs) and on the role of personality pathology in compliance with mitigation-related behaviors. Considering the paucity of studies, after a description of the main features of PDs, on the basis of the current literature on pandemic and quarantine mental health impact, we trace some clinical hypotheses.Recent FindingsParanoid traits and detachment (cluster A) might lead to worse psychological outcomes. Cluster B patients may show more intense stress-related reactions and react strongly to social distancing, especially ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

ADHD and Exposure to Maltreatment in Children and Youth: a Systematic Review of the Past 10  Years
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe purpose of the current paper was to review and summarize the literature on ADHD and maltreatment over the past 10  years.Recent FindingsThe majority of research on ADHD and exposure to maltreatment focuses on the high rates of comorbidity, including international studies from Asia, South America, North America, and Europe. Longitudinal studies showed that early exposure to maltreatment is a risk factor for ADHD symptoms later in development; however, this finding was not consistent. There were some preliminary studies on the neurological and genetic mechanisms underlying the link betwe...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Does Yoga Have a Role in Schizophrenia Management?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the efficacy of add-on yoga therapy in improving symptoms of schizophrenia and quality of life and examine the possible underlying biological mechanisms of yoga in schizophrenia.Recent FindingsQuality of life, cognitive symptoms, and negative symptoms have been found to improve with add-on yoga therapy in schizophrenia (pooled mean effect size 0.8, 0.6, and 0.4, respectively). Yoga also seems to have a small effect on improving positive symptoms. Less explored areas include adverse effects of yoga itself as well as its effects on antipsychotic-induced complications. Preliminary findings s...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychiatric Comorbidities in Pediatric Epilepsy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPsychiatric comorbidities are close to 5-times higher in children and youth with epilepsy (CYE) compared to general population. With epilepsy being one of the most common neurological disorders in children, we provide a timely review of psychiatric issues in CYE.Recent FindingsA meta-analysis found a pooled prevalence of anxiety in 18.9% and depression in 13.5% of CYE. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is 2.5 to 5.5 times higher in CYE compared to healthy counterparts. Recent evidence highlights that behavioral adverse effects may lead to discontinuation of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs)...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Challenges for Women Entering Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWomen with opioid use disorder (OUD) face unique challenges the moment they enter treatment. This narrative review focused on recent literature regarding sex- and gender-based issues that could affect treatment outcomes in women with OUD.Recent FindingsWomen respond differently to opioids based on hormonal factors, are more likely to present to treatment with mental health conditions, especially depression, and are more likely to have experienced trauma via intimate partner violence compared with men. Women also face stigma when entering OUD treatment, particularly if they have children.SummaryFutu...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Food Insecurity and Eating Disorders: a Review of Emerging Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes emerging evidence for the relationship between food insecurity and eating disorder (ED) pathology, outlines priorities for future research in this area, and comments on considerations for clinical and public health practice.Recent FindingsAmong adults, food insecurity is cross-sectionally associated with higher levels of overall ED pathology, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, binge-eating disorder, and bulimia nervosa. Evidence for similar relationships among adolescents has been less robust; however, compared to studies of adults, there have been substantially fewer stud...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Anxiety Disorders in Older Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAnxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental disorders. Although prevalence estimates are lower in males than females, the  disability associated with anxiety disorders has been increasing in males. This review focuses on recent research studying sex differences in anxiety disorders and associated symptoms in older adults.Recent FindingsFemales are close to three times more likely than males to report most anxiety disorders. Heterogeneity exists in sex-specific lifetime and past-year estimates. Age-appropriate instruments such as the CIDI65+ show higher estimates than previous res...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Perinatal Insomnia and Mental Health: a Review of Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe perinatal period is a time of high risk for insomnia and mental health conditions. The purpose of this review is to critically examine the most recent literature on perinatal insomnia, focusing on unique features of this period which may confer specific risk, associations with depression and anxiety, and emerging work on perinatal insomnia treatment.Recent FindingsA majority of perinatal women experience insomnia, which may persist for years, and is associated with depression and anxiety. Novel risk factors include personality characteristics, nocturnal perinatal-focused rumination, and obesity...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Screening for Adult ADHD
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review paper aims to update readers on the importance of screening for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and to provide a primer on how best to screen and diagnose this condition in an efficient and reliable manner.Recent FindingsThe ASRS Screening Scale was updated in 2017 to reflect the changes made to identify ADHD based on the DSM-5 criteria and to reflect our understanding that adult ADHD is characterized by executive functioning deficits that are not explicitly reflected in the DSM-5 criteria.SummaryThe use of the ASRS Screening Scale improves the clinician &rsquo...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Administration of Exogenous Hormones and the Implications for Cigarette Smoking-Related Behaviors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPreclinical evidence indicates progesterone and estrogen influence drug-taking behaviors, including nicotine/tobacco. However, clinical research on this relationship is less clear. This lack of clarity may be due to measuring naturally occurring endogenous hormones to examine this relationship, which introduces substantial error. Therefore, the goal of this review is to examine the link between the delivery of exogenous hormones and cigarette smoking-related behavior.Recent FindingsExogenous progesterone may have favorable effects on cognition, symptomatology, consumption, and smoking cessation. Ho...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Potential Role of Traditional Medicine in the Management of Schizophrenia
This article presents an overview of recent literature examining the place of traditional methods of mental healthcare in the management of schizophrenia.Recent FindingsPatients with schizophrenia make up a large proportion of people seeking traditional methods of mental healthcare, and a majority of such users perceive traditional medicine treatment as helpful. Adherence rates to traditional treatment methods among users may be well over 80%. Nevertheless, evidence is currently too weak to inform recommendation of traditional methods as standalone treatments for schizophrenia. Collaboration between traditional medicine pr...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sex Effects on Coping, Dissociation, and PTSD in Patients With Non-epileptic Seizures
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSex differences in non-epileptic seizures (NES) are of interest, as the diagnosis is more frequent in women than men (3:1 ratio). This paper reviews clinical findings regarding sex differences in NES through selective literature review and compares coping measures between women and men in our NES clinic.Recent FindingsSome distinguishing clinical features of NES in women and men are reported in the literature. However, we found few sex differences in demographics and coping. In our population, avoidance and dissociation were strongly related to one another and significantly related to co-occurring ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Eating Disordered Behaviors: An Update on What We Do and Do Not Know
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe current report aims to summarize recent advances about the relationship between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and eating disordered (ED) behaviors and highlights meaningful directions for future research.Recent FindingsWhile there is solid evidence indicating a robust cross-sectional association between NSSI and ED behaviors, emerging evidence suggests that the temporal relationship between these behaviors may be bidirectional. Shared functions and risk factors may explain why these behaviors often co-develop. At the same time, little is still known about the psychosocial consequences of como...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Narrative Identity and Personality Disorder: an Empirical and Conceptual Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIdentity is one of the key domains that is disturbed in people manifesting personality disorder (PD). Within the field of personality psychology, there is a robust approach to studying identity focused on narrative identity which has been largely overlooked in studying PD. In this paper, a systematic review was conducted of studies published in the past decade that focused on how individuals manifesting personality pathology craft their narrative identity.Recent FindingsThis review revealed disturbances related to several motivational/affective themes (e.g., negative valence/valence shifts and thwa...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Suicide and Schizophrenia: an Interplay of Factors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe main purpose of this review is to elucidate the interplay of various factors in the relationship between suicide and schizophrenia. Suicide and schizophrenia have been interlinked as a symptom, factor in recovery and prognosis, outcome measure and response to psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Many biomarkers have been identified in relation to the two phenomena.Recent FindingsThe analysis of the papers of the last 5  years (2015–2019) and till date has revealed studies looking at outcomes in relation to suicide, biological markers to determine the protection from and...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Planning for Mental Health Needs During COVID-19
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe ability to effectively prepare for and respond to the psychological fallout from large-scale disasters is a core competency of military mental health providers, as well as civilian emergency response teams. Disaster planning should be situation specific and data driven; vague, broad-spectrum planning can contribute to unprepared mental health teams and underserved patient populations. Herein, we review data on mental health sequelae from the twenty-first century pandemics, including SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19), and offer explanations for observed trends, insights regarding anticipated needs, and recom...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Mental Health in the Young Athlete
In the recently published article “Mental Health in the Young Athlete” the following author name was inadvertently misspelled as Christine L. Master. The correct spelling of the author’s name is: Christina L. Master as shown above. (Source: Current Psychiatry Reports)
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mental Health in the Young Athlete
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of mental health concerns in young athletes, with a focus on common disorders, as well as population-specific risk factors.Recent FindingsAthletes experience similar mental health concerns as non-athlete peers, such as anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation, ADHD, eating disorders, and substance abuse. However, they also experience unique stressors that put them at risk for the development or exacerbation of mental health disorders. Student athletes have to balance academics with rigorous training regimens while focusing on opt...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Screening for Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders in Obstetric Settings
The objective of this review is to describe the extent to which (1) obstetric settings are currently screening for mental health and substance use disorders and social determinants of health (SDoH), and (2) screening is followed by systematic approaches for ensuring an adequate response to positive screens. Additionally, clinical and policy implications of current screening practices and recommendations are discussed.Recent FindingsScreening for perinatal depression in obstetric settings has increased. Despite their prevalence and negative impact, screening for other mental health and substance use disorders and SDoH is mu...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Early Life Stress and the Development of the Infant Gut Microbiota: Implications for Mental Health and Neurocognitive Development
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the state of the literature examining associations between early life stress (ELS), gut microbiota, and neurocognitive development and mental health in animals and humans. We identify gaps in current models and areas for future research.Recent FindingsELS is associated with changes in gut microbiota, which correspond to changes in affective and cognitive functioning in both animals and humans. Some of these ELS-induced psychological changes can be remedied by supplementation with probiotics in early life, suggesting a potential area for intervention for ELS-exposed children. Prenatal stre...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Screening for Trauma in Pediatric Primary Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProvided the high prevalence of trauma exposure in childhood as well as the risk for morbidity, this article examines evidence, a recommended approach, and key implementation factors relevant to screening for trauma in pediatric primary care.Recent FindingsA standardized approach to trauma screening is possible, but previous attempts have relied heavily upon exposure screening and failed to guide an individualized response specific to the impact of trauma on the child and family. Trauma screening tools for pediatric primary care should be brief and inform the care response based on screening for tr...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Major Neuropsychological Impairments in Schizophrenia Patients: Clinical Implications
This article reviews some of the most recent research on cognition in schizophrenia and the clinical implications.Recent FindingsThere have been recent studies related to the genomics of cognition and neural structures involved in cognition. We review recent investigations into the assessment of social cognition and the implications of impaired introspective accuracy. A recent network analysis assessed the relationship of neurocognition and social cognition to functional capacity. We further discuss the role of specific symptoms in functioning, including negative symptoms and symptoms related to autism spectrum disorder. W...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Digital Health Around Clinical High Risk and First-Episode Psychosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to examine relapse definitions and risk factors in psychosis as well as the role of technology in relapse predictions and risk modeling.Recent FindingsThere is currently no standard definition for relapse. Therefore, there is a need for data models that can account for the variety of factors involved in defining relapse. Smartphones have the ability to capture real-time, moment-to-moment assessment symptomology and behaviors via their variety of sensors and have high potential to be used to create prediction and risk modeling.SummaryWhile there is still a need for further research ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mental Health Among Children Older than 10  Years Exposed to the Haiti 2010 Earthquake: a Critical Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is evidence that the exposure to a major natural disaster such as the 2010 earthquake in Haiti may have devastating short- and long-term effects on children ’s mental health and overall development. This review summarizes what has been reported in the past 3 years (2017–2020) regarding emotional, psychological, and behavioral effects of exposure to this particular earthquake on children 10 years and older.Recent FindingsTwenty-six articles were screened, of which twenty-one were selected for final analysis. The main themes addressed in the literature over the 3  yea...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Recent Insights Into Cyberchondria
This article aims to review the conceptualization, theoretical basis and correlates of cyberchondria, as well as its prevention and management.Recent FindingsAlthough there is no consensus, most definitions of cyberchondria emphasize online health research associated with heightened distress or anxiety. The two theoretical models of cyberchondria involve reassurance seeking and specific metacognitive beliefs. Cyberchondria has relationships with health anxiety, problematic Internet use and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, with public health implications pertaining to functional impairment and altered healthcare u...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Healthy Sexuality for Sex Offenders
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review will examine the current, although limited, literature on the development of healthy sexuality for sex offenders, as well as some of the related controversies surrounding sex offender specific therapies.Recent FindingsOver the last decade, the definition of healthy sexuality has remained elusive while the boundary delineating unhealthy sexuality has radically changed. These changes are not reflected in current approaches to sex offender treatment which continue to focus on suppression of offenders ’ sexuality.SummaryOur attention to the management of sexual behaviors has led t...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sex Doll Ownership: An Agenda for Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe topic of sex doll ownership is becoming an increasingly discussed issue from both a social and legal perspective. This review aims to examine the veracity of the existing psychological, sexological, and legal literature in relation to doll ownership.Recent FindingsStrong views exist across the spectrum of potential socio-legal positions on sex doll ownership. However, there is an almost total lack of empirical analyses of the psychological characteristics or behavioral implications of doll ownership. As such, existing arguments appear to represent the philosophical positions of those scholars e...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Co-occurrence, Assessment and Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to give an update on research in the past 5  years regarding the co-occurrence, assessment and treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Recent FindingsRecent findings affirm not only a high prevalence of OCD amongst individuals with ASD (and vice versa) but also notable variability in assessment methods and results. There remain limited validated measures with which to assess OCD in those with ASD, which are often difficult to differentiate. Adapted and function-based CBT programs specifically designed for ASD demonstr...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Modulation of Slow-Wave Sleep: Implications for Psychiatry
The objectives of this review are to examine and integrate existing empirical evidence regarding the impact of slow-wave sleep (SWS) modulation on memory and executive function performance in individuals with psychiatric disorders, and to examine the feasibility of integrating SWS modulation into psychiatric care.Recent FindingsSWS modulation in individuals with psychiatric disorders resulted in changes to SWS across multiple psychiatric disorders, using all stimulation methods. SWS stimulation was associated with improved cognitive performance. SWS modulation using acoustic stimulation resulted in improved cognitive perfo...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research