Correction to: Beyond Burnout: Responding to the COVID-19 Pandemic Challenges to Self-care
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-021-01257-5 (Source: Current Psychiatry Reports)
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Issues in Working with Transgender Individuals Who Sexually Harm
AbstractPurpose of ReviewI review the recent literature related to the assessment, treatment, and management of transgender individuals who sexually harm.Recent FindingsThere are no empirical research studies directly focused on the care of this group of individuals that have only recently been identified as an important sub-population among people who sexually harm. Related empirical research and other important professional literature do exist to inform clinicians regarding treatment guidelines for transgender mental healthcare.SummaryResearch is needed to determine how best to assess sexual violence recidivism risk and ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Use of Ecological Momentary Assessment to Study Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEcological momentary assessment (EMA) is a recently introduced approach to patient evaluation that consists of asking patients questions in real time and in their usual habitat. This method seeks to contribute to suicide prevention by providing psychiatrists with detailed information about suicidal thoughts and behavior, how these fluctuate over short periods of time, and the short-term risk factors presented by patients. We conducted a systematic review of published research using EMA to study suicidal thoughts and behavior.Recent FindingsSeveral systematic reviews of EMA in mental health have bee...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychiatric Evaluation and Management in Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize current key recommendations in the evaluation and management of mental health disorders associated with spinal cord injuries (SCI) among pediatric patients, based on a review of recent evidence-based literature and clinical experience.Recent FindingsAnticipating potential mental health risks among youth with SCI and implementing early multidisciplinary management improves physical and mental health outcomes. When caregivers of youth with SCI model healthy coping strategies, it promotes healthy coping strategies in patients themselves. Peer mentor programs can be instrumental in patient...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

New Developments in the Use of Atypical Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: a Systematic Review of Recent Randomized Controlled Trials
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtypical antipsychotics are increasingly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). This systematic review provides an overview of recently published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics in BD.Recent FindingsSeveral studies supported efficacy of quetiapine monotherapy in acute bipolar I (BDI) and bipolar II (BDII) depression. Moreover, quetiapine adjunctive therapy showed superior efficacy to placebo in treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Cariprazine 1.5  mg was effective in treating bipolar I depression. Aripiprazole 400 mg IM...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Digital Clinics and Mobile Technology Implementation for Mental Health Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInterest in digital mental health, especially smartphone apps, has expanded in light of limited access to mental health services and the need for remote care during COVID-19. Digital clinics, in which apps are blended into routine care, offer a potential solution to common implementation challenges including low user engagement and lack of clinical integration of apps.Recent FindingsWhile the number of mental health apps available in commercial marketplaces continues to rise, there are few examples of successful implementation of these apps into care settings. We review one example of a digital cli...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dissociation in Borderline Personality Disorder: Recent Experimental, Neurobiological Studies, and Implications for Future Research and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review article is to give an overview over recent experimental neurobiological research on dissociation in borderline personality disorder (BPD), in order to inform clinicians and to stimulate further research. First, we introduce basic definitions and models that conceptualize dissociation from a transdiagnostic perspective. Then, we discuss recent findings in BPD.Recent FindingsStress-related dissociation is a key symptom of BPD, closely linked to other core domains of the disorder (emotion dysregulation, identity disturbances, and interpersonal disturbances). The understanding of...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Affective Symptoms, and Neuroactive Steroids: a Focus on Allopregnanolone
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an overview of existing studies on alterations in gonadal and neuroactive steroids (NASs) and mood symptoms among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Recent FindingsRecent studies have demonstrated a previously underappreciated association between PCOS and comorbid depression and anxiety. However, most studies on affective symptoms among women with PCOS have been cross-sectional, limiting our knowledge about fluctuations in symptoms over the menstrual cycle and reproductive lifespan for women with PCOS, as well as the potential interplay between NAS alterations and mood symptoms....
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Biopsychosocial Model Social Anxiety and Substance Use Revised
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review data published in the past 5  years to evaluate the utility of our biopsychosocial model of social anxiety’s relation to substance misuse to evaluate the model’s utility and update it.Recent FindingsData support the utility of our revised model —e.g., socially anxious persons report using substances to manage subjective anxiety, despite evidence that some substances may not have a direct effect on physiological responding. Other factors with promise include social influence, cognitive processes (e.g., post-event processing), and avoidanc e. Data highlight the import...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Beyond Baby Siblings —Expanding the Definition of “High-Risk Infants” in Autism Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMuch of our understanding of early development in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comes from studies of children with a family history of autism. We reviewed the current literature on neurodevelopmental profiles and autism prevalence from other high-risk infant groups to expose gaps and inform next steps. We focused on infants with early medical risk (e.g., preterm birth) and genetic risk (tuberous sclerosis complex [TSC]).Recent FindingsAbout 7% of very preterm infants are later diagnosed with ASD. Prospective studies of early development outside of familial-risk infants are rare; how...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Telepsychiatry and Medical Students: a Promising Mental Health Treatment for Medical Student Use Both Personally and Professionally
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review recent findings on the use of telepsychiatry while investigating medical students ’ perceptions and willingness to use it for their mental health needs. We explore the impact of COVID-19 on medical school curriculums. We also investigate current education in medical schools surrounding telemedicine.Recent FindingsMedical students experience symptoms of anxiety at a greater rate than the general population. Major barriers to help-seeking behaviors are the refusal to seek treatment due to fear of incurring negative views from supervising faculty, time constraints, and the cost of coun...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Providing Affirmative Care to Transgender and Gender Diverse Youth: Disparities, Interventions, and Outcomes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews the evolving body of research on the mental health of transgender and gender diverse (TGD) youth. Minority stress experiences in families, schools, and the community impact the health and well-being of this population due to experiences of stigma, discrimination, and rejection. Poor healthcare access and outcomes may be compounded in youth with intersectional identities.Recent FindingsThere is increasing evidence that gender-affirming interventions improve mental health outcomes for TGD youth. TGD youth report worse mental health outcomes in invalidating school and family environ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Social and Nonsocial Reward Anticipation in Typical Development and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Current Status and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhile there has been sustained interest in understanding the role of reward processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), researchers are just beginning to focus on the anticipation phase of reward processing in this population. This review aimed to briefly summarize recent advancements in functional imaging studies of anticipatory social and nonsocial reward processing in individuals with and without ASD and provide suggestions for avenues of future research.Recent FindingsReward salience and activation of the complex network of brain regions supporting reward anticipation vary across development ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Emerging Circadian Phenotype of Borderline Personality Disorder: Mechanisms, Opportunities and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the recent evidence suggesting that circadian rhythm disturbance is a common unaddressed feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD); amelioration of which may confer substantial clinical benefit. We assess chronobiological BPD studies from a mechanistic and translational perspective and highlight opportunities for the future development of this hypothesis.Recent FindingsThe emerging circadian phenotype of BPD is characterised by a preponderance of comorbid circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders, phase delayed and misaligned rest-activity patterns and attenuated amplitudes of usually ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Aggressive Behavior and Psychiatric Inpatients: a Narrative Review of the Literature with a Focus on the European Experience
We examined the main factors associated with aggressive behaviors in the hospital setting, with a special focus on the European experience.Recent FindingsA number of variables, including individual, historical, and contextual variables, are significant risk factors for aggression among hospitalized people. Drug abuse can be considered a trans-dimensional variable which deserves particular attention.SummaryAlthough mental health disorders represent a significant component in the risk of aggression, there are many factors including drug abuse, past history of physically aggressive behavior, childhood abuse, social and cultur...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Evolutionarily Mismatched Impact of Urbanization on Insomnia Symptoms: a Short Review of the Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFor the most part of human existence, individuals have been living a rural lifestyle in a rural setting. However, such sleep-conducive conditions have largely been transformed dramatically by urbanization within a relatively short span of time in recent history, and the resulting evolved mechanisms-environment mismatch is theorized to bring about an increased risk for insomnia symptoms. This brief review of the recent literature is designed to evaluate the veracity of this proposition.Recent FindingsThe majority of recent findings have suggested that most proposed evolutionarily mismatched urban fa...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Telemental Health and the Management of Psychosis
We present the contextual factors which make this approach to clinical care compelling, and review existing evidence about feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness.Recent FindingsThe use of telehealth with individuals that suffer from serious mental illness and psychosis has been demonstrated to be feasible and acceptable, with effectiveness that is comparable to in-person clinical care. Telehealth holds the additional promises of expanding access, connecting patients, families, and the general public to behavioral health resources, and reducing overall health care costs.SummaryWe provide two case examples which demon...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Delivering Imagery Rescripting via Telehealth: Clinical Concerns, Benefits, and Recommendations
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewDelivery of psychological therapies via telehealth has increased with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therapists may be hesitant in moving to telehealth when delivering therapies targeting memories of traumatic experiences. This paper collates the clinical experiences of clinicians and clients who have delivered or received imagery rescripting, respectively, via telehealth across a range of clinical presentations, and describes key clinical considerations and recommendations.Recent FindingsIt is important to consider perceived and real safety; practical and technological issues; therape...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric Complications of COVID-19
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe the presentation, etiologies, and suggested management of post-acute COVID-19 neuropsychiatric symptoms.Recent FindingsOver 30% of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 may exhibit cognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety that persist for months after discharge. These symptoms are even more common in patients who required intensive care for severe effects of the virus. In addition to the pandemic-related psychological stress, multiple biological mechanisms have been proposed to understand the neuropsychiatric symptoms observed with COVID-19. Given limited research regarding effective...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Effects of Mass Shootings on the Mental Health of Children and Adolescents
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-021-01241-z (Source: Current Psychiatry Reports)
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Social Determinants of Health: the Impact of Racism on Early Childhood Mental Health
This article reviews research from the past 5 years focusing on the impact of racism on infant and early childhood mental health and socioemotional development.Recent FindingsLongitudinal studies provide evidence that very young children are highly influenced by exposure to multiple and interconnecting levels of racism and discrimination. These forms of exposure (structural and personally mediated, which can be further divided into direct and indirect exposure) are particularly nefarious to young children ’s socioemotional development and have implications for adolescent and adult mental health with lasting sequelae....
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Understanding the Connection Between the Gut –Brain Axis and Stress/Anxiety Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the association of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and anxiety disorder or stress.Recent FindingThe microbiota –gut–brain axis mechanism encompasses a bidirectional relationship between the brain and gastrointestinal organs. Dysregulation of the microbiota–gut–brain axis has been actively revealed in the context of various psychiatric diseases such as neurodevelopmental disorders, schizophrenia, anxi ety disorders, and depression.SummaryWe suggest that onset of anxiety disorders may be correlated with activation of a microbiota –gut–brain mechanism involv...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Beyond Burnout: Responding to the COVID-19 Pandemic Challenges to Self-care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper is a review of the self-care challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical and emotional health and well-being of healthcare providers. New self-care practices are presented.Recent FindingsGlobally, thousands of health care practitioners and staff have been infected; many have died. Research studies reveal that this pandemic has threatened the health of healthcare staff, their families, and communities in many unique ways, such as fear of infecting family (lack of safety at home), moral injury, witnessing the suffering of the “innocent,” coping with a problem too big to...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

How Does COVID-19 Affect the Neurobiology of Suicide?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review was to analyze COVID-19 effect on the biological features of suicidal vulnerability and its interaction with suicide-related biological pathways. We carried out a narrative review of international publications on the interactions of COVID-19 with the biological bases of suicide.Recent FindingsWe hypothesize that SARS-CoV-2 interacts with multiple biological processes that underlie suicidal behavior, such as the renin-angiotensin system, nicotinic receptors, and central and systemic inflammation. Social distancing measures may also worsen subjective or objective social disconn...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Anxiety Disorders and Parkinson ’s Disease: Clinical and Therapeutic Issues
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper seeks to describe anxiety ’s different symptomatologic presentations in Parkinson’s disease (PD), its longitudinal course and predictors, as well as its motor and non-motor correlates. It also reviews the available screening tools and different treatment modalities.Recent FindingsIn PD, longitudinal predictors of anxiety are mostly non-motor non-dopaminergic symptoms. The longitudinal course of anxiety is mainly a stable one. The Parkinson Anxiety Scale and the Geriatric Anxiety Scale are the 2 recommended screening tools.SummaryA third of PD patients suffer from an anxiety d...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cannabis Legalization and College Mental Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo assess how the changing landscape of marijuana use affects the developing brain and mental health of college students.Recent FindingsLegalization of cannabis may facilitate use in the college population, with 38% of college students, whose brains are still maturing, regularly using marijuana products. Earlier and increased use, higher potency, pre-existing issues, and genetic predispositions increase negative outcomes by precipitating or worsening mental illness and ultimately impacting academic success.SummaryIn the USA, the sharpest increase in cannabis users following legalization has been in...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

COVID Stress Syndrome: Clinical and Nosological Considerations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the current state of knowledge on the newly proposed COVID Stress Syndrome.Recent FindingsThe syndrome consists of five inter-correlated elements: (a) fear of SARSCoV2 infection and fear of coming into contact with objects or surfaces contaminated with the coronavirus; (b) fear of socio-economic impacts of the pandemic; (c) fear of foreigners for fear that they are infected; (d) pandemic-related compulsive checking and reassurance-seeking; and (e) pandemic-related traumatic stress symptoms. A severe form of the syndrome, characterized by clinically significant distress and impairment in f...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Increasing Cybercrime Since the Pandemic: Concerns for Psychiatry
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSince the pandemic, the daily activities of many people occur at home. People connect to the Internet for work, school, shopping, entertainment, and doctor visits, including psychiatrists. Concurrently, cybercrime has surged worldwide. This narrative review examines the changing use of technology, societal impacts of the pandemic, how cybercrime is evolving, individual vulnerabilities to cybercrime, and special concerns for those with mental illness.Recent FindingsHuman factors are a central component of cybersecurity as individual behaviors, personality traits, online activities, and attitudes to ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sensation-Seeking and Impulsivity in Athletes with Sport-Related Concussion
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSport-related concussion (SRC) is a significant public health problem. Understanding the behavioral and personal factors that influence risk and incidence of SRC is critically important for appropriate care and management. Sensation-seeking and impulsivity have been posited to be two such factors that may be significantly associated with SRC. We performed a focused review of recent evidence of the relationships between sensation-seeking and impulsivity in athletes with SRC.Recent FindingsWhile the research is relatively limited, extant findings demonstrate a significant relationship between sensati...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Antepartum Depression and Preterm Birth: Pathophysiology, Epidemiology, and Disparities due to structural racism
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInformed by the evidence of links between physiology of stress and parturition, we review recent epidemiologic evidence (2015 –2020) of antenatal depression as a risk factor for preterm birth (PTB). We also explain racial/ethnic disparities in depression and preterm birth as a consequence of structural racism.Recent FindingsEpidemiologic evidence is consistent in linking antepartum depression with an elevated risk of PTB. Antidepressant usage has been linked with an elevated risk of PTB. However, recent evidence suggests that severity of depression is the underlying driver of the elevated ris...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neurodevelopmental Trajectories and Psychiatric Morbidity: Lessons Learned From the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes and is the strongest known single genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. Compared to other rare structural pathogenic genetic variants, 22q11DS is relatively common and one of the most extensively studied. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of current insights regarding associated neurodevelopmental phenotypes and potential implications for 22q11DS and beyond.Recent FindingsWe will first discuss recent findings with respect to neurodevelopmental phenotypic expression associated...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of Mass Shootings on the Mental Health of Children and Adolescents
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo examine mass shootings in youth including mass shooting trends, risk and protective factors for emotional sequelae, mental health, prevention of mass shootings, and the assessment and treatment of survivors.Recent FindingsMany youth are exposed to gun violence, with a smaller subset exposed to mass shootings. While youth have varying responses to mass shootings, possibly due to risk and protective factors as well as level of exposure, the mental health outcomes are significant and include posttraumatic stress, suicide, depression, substance abuse, and anxiety. Efforts at developing effective pre...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mental Health Services Research Targeting the Clinical High-Risk State for Psychosis: Lessons, Future Directions and Integration with Patient Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe summarize the history of the clinical high-risk stage of psychosis (CHR), current research on this stage and recent critiques of the field, and evaluate current CHR guidelines and frameworks.Recent FindingsFollowing its identification and characterization, CHR services have successfully been developed in North America, Europe, Australia and elsewhere. As reflected in guidelines, these services and their orientation largely emerged as an outgrowth of the framework pioneered by early intervention services for first-episode psychosis. We critically discuss what is known so far about the subjective ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Marijuana and Bariatric Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMarijuana use presents a unique challenge to bariatric surgery programs. We review the recent evidence examining marijuana use on outcomes following bariatric surgery.Recent FindingsRecent studies have not demonstrated an increased risk of short-term surgical complications or differences in up to 2-year weight loss following surgery among marijuana users. However, studies have demonstrated increased risks in two areas: pain management and problematic eating behaviors. Additionally, preoperative marijuana use has been linked to increased postoperative marijuana use which may undermine weight loss an...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Role of Disgust in Eating Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn current review, we evaluate the current literature examining the role of disgust in eating disorders (EDs), and provide a theoretical model designed to inform the study and treatment of disgust-based symptoms in EDs.Recent FindingsFindings from this review suggest that aberrant disgust-conditioning processes represent promising but understudied mechanisms that may contribute to the risk and maintenance of core eating disorder (ED) psychopathology. In addition, preliminary evidence supports the use of interventions designed to target aversive disgust cues and disrupt maladaptive disgust-based con...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Impact of the Menstrual Cycle and Underlying Hormones in Anxiety and PTSD: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go From Here?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews the recent literature on menstrual cycle phase effects on outcomes relevant to anxiety and PTSD, discusses potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying these effects, and highlights methodological limitations impeding scientific advancement.Recent FindingsThe menstrual cycle and its underlying hormones impact symptom expression among women with anxiety and PTSD, as well as psychophysiological and biological processes relevant to anxiety and PTSD.SummaryThe most consistent findings are retrospective self-report of premenstrual exacerbation of anxiety symptoms and the protective...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Drug Misuse in the Veterinary Setting: an Under-recognized Avenue
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPrescription drug misuse is a public health concern. Governments are attempting to restrict the incidence of medication diversion by establishing laws to curb drug access from human healthcare providers. Veterinarians, who also prescribe controlled substances and see hundreds of millions of patients annually in the USA, are often overlooked as a source of prescription drug misuse.Recent FindingsEvidence suggests that drug misuse occurs in the veterinary setting, and veterinarians acknowledge this as a common problem. Although analgesics are alleged to be the most common drug class diverted, a recen...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Desistance From Sexual Offending
This article reviews the growing body of knowledge on desistance from sexual offending. Although the cessation of offending is a standard observation in criminology and has been demonstrated by people who commit all manner of crimes, it has only recently been considered relevant for individuals convicted of sexual offences.Recent FindingsDesistance from crime is a natural human process and has been observed even among those people who commit sexual offences. The clearest distinction between sexual and nonsexual offenders is the way they are treated by the criminal justice system. Desistance can occur in different ways, for...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Elderly Bipolar Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWith more individuals reaching older ages, bipolar disorder is no longer a rare illness in the elderly. Despite the growing number of the older individuals with the illness, there are few studies that focus on bipolar disorder in the geriatric population leading to gaps in clinical knowledge and treatment. The aim of this study is therefore to increase understanding by summarizing the available literature on the epidemiology, symptomatology, comorbidities, and treatment recommendations in this cohort, as well as to suggest areas for future clinical and research focus.Recent FindingsThe prevalence o...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Management of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans and Military Service Members: A Review of Pharmacologic and Psychotherapeutic Interventions Since 2016
This article updates the reader about advances in research in PTSD treatment in the past four years as well as the evolving recommendations of clinical practice guidelines.Recent FindingsOne of the most important developments is that trauma-focused therapy (TFT) has emerged as the first-line treatment for PTSD with pharmacologic options often being noted as second-line or adjunctive.SummaryThe quality and quantity of research into the treatment of PTSD continue to grow; however, the pace of research into treatment options lags behind our understanding of the development, course, and prognosis of the disorder. The developme...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

College Student Perspectives of Telemental Health: a Review of the Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the recent literature regarding college student experiences with and attitudes toward telemental health (TMH). We examine their perspectives of the advantages and drawbacks to this form of mental healthcare and their willingness to engage in TMH.Recent FindingsCollege students view TMH as convenient, accessible, easy to use, and helpful. TMH helps to overcome the barrier of stigma associated with seeking mental health treatment. Despite positive reviews, many students find a lack of customization or connection to the provider to be drawbacks to some forms of TMH. Willingness to engage in ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Reward Learning Through the Lens of RDoC: a Review of Theory, Assessment, and Empirical Findings in the Eating Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewReward-related processes may represent important transdiagnostic factors underlying eating pathology. Using the NIMH Research Domain Criteria as a guide, the current article reviews theories, behavioral and self-report assessments, and empirical findings related to reward learning in the eating disorders.Recent FindingsData from behavioral tasks suggest deficits in reinforcement learning, which may become more pronounced with increasing disorder severity and duration. Self-report data strongly implicate positive eating and thinness/restriction expectancies (an element of reward prediction error) in...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Alliance Ruptures and Resolutions in Personality Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an overview of the state of research on alliance ruptures and resolutions in the treatment of personality disorders (PDs). We discuss frequently used instruments to measure alliance ruptures and resolutions. We discuss the effectiveness of rupture resolution processes and highlight possible avenues for research to explore. Innovative assessments with the potential to reveal the link of ruptures and resolutions and mechanisms of psychotherapeutic change are discussed.Recent FindingsThe assessment of alliance rupture and resolutions is heterogeneous. Instruments vary largely with...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - December 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Using Precision Medicine with a Neurodevelopmental Perspective to Study Inflammation and Depression
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo consider various precision medicine approaches to further elucidate the relationship between inflammation and depression and to illustrate how a neurodevelopmental perspective can help in this regard.Recent FindingsInflammation associates most strongly with phenotypes of depression that reflect illness behavior and/or metabolic dysfunction and obesity. A separate body of research has shown that maternal inflammation during pregnancy can alter brain circuitry important for mood regulation and/or reward in the developing fetus. Our research group is finding that maternal CRP levels differentially ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - December 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Preparing for the Behavioral Health Impact of COVID-19 in Michigan
This report summarizes the expected impact of COVID-19 on behavioral health, as well as strategies to address mental health needs during the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath. The state of Michigan in the USA is used to illustrate the complexity of the mental health issues and the critical gaps in the behavioral health infrastructure as they pertain to COVID-19. Scoping review was conducted to identify potential mental health needs and issues during the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath.Recent FindingsThe ramifications of COVID-19 on mental health are extensive, with the potential to negatively impact diverse populatio...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - December 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Silent Epidemic: Causes and Consequences of Medical Learner Burnout
AbstractPurpose of ReviewClinician burnout has significant socioeconomic, health, and quality of life implications. However, there has been little attention directed at medical students and house officers (i.e., medical learners). This review provides pertinent evidence regarding burnout as it relates to medical learners including risk factors and potential interventions. We conclude with recommendations on future research directions and potential approaches to address this epidemic of medical learner burnout.Recent FindingsBurnout is a significant issue among medical learners that is impacted both by interpersonal and env...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Role of Telemental Health, Tele-consultation, and Tele-supervision in Post-disaster and Low-resource Settings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper was to review recent literature and provide recommendations regarding the use of telemental health, with a focus on tele-consultation and tele-supervision in post-disaster and low-resource settings, including the impact of COVID-19.Recent FindingsThe latest research on mental health needs in low-resource settings has identified a high need for mental health services for difficult-to-reach and underserved populations. Research on tele-consultation and tele-supervision was reviewed and found that tele-consultation and tele-supervision to be an effective modality for insuring qu...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ethics and Privacy in Social Media Research for Mental Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an overview of recent research which uses social media data in the context of mental health. It also provides an overview of challenges in relation to consent, privacy, and usage of such data.Recent FindingsA broad range of research has been conducted in recent years, using text-based and visual data from social media platforms, for purposes such as risk detection at the individual level, providing crisis outreach, and developing a better understanding of the lived experience of mental ill-health.SummaryChallenges remain in relation to obtaining truly informed consent for resea...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Special Concerns in Military Families
This article summarizes research literature published in the last 6  years addressing common features and health needs of military families with the goal of improving military cultural competence. This includes recognizing that (a) The military carries its own culture as evidenced by its particular traditions, beliefs, language, and set of guiding principles (Sangh era Optom Educ J Assoc Sch Coll Optom. 42:8–16,2017) and (b) military families —defined in this paper as active duty service members, their spouses, their children, and civilian warfighters in the form of National Guard and Reservists (NG/R)&mda...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sex Differences in the Gut-Brain Axis: Implications for Mental Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this article is to highlight how sex differences in the gut-brain axis may contribute to the discrepancies in incidence of neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders between females and males. We focus on autism spectrum disorder, psychotic disorders, stress and anxiety disorders, depression, Alzheimer ’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease and additionally discuss the comorbidity between inflammatory bowel disorder and mental health disorders.Recent FindingsHuman and animal studies show that sex may modify the relationship between the gut or immune sys...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research