Sex Effects on Coping, Dissociation, and PTSD in Patients With Non-epileptic Seizures
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSex differences in non-epileptic seizures (NES) are of interest, as the diagnosis is more frequent in women than men (3:1 ratio). This paper reviews clinical findings regarding sex differences in NES through selective literature review and compares coping measures between women and men in our NES clinic.Recent FindingsSome distinguishing clinical features of NES in women and men are reported in the literature. However, we found few sex differences in demographics and coping. In our population, avoidance and dissociation were strongly related to one another and significantly related to co-occurring ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Eating Disordered Behaviors: An Update on What We Do and Do Not Know
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe current report aims to summarize recent advances about the relationship between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and eating disordered (ED) behaviors and highlights meaningful directions for future research.Recent FindingsWhile there is solid evidence indicating a robust cross-sectional association between NSSI and ED behaviors, emerging evidence suggests that the temporal relationship between these behaviors may be bidirectional. Shared functions and risk factors may explain why these behaviors often co-develop. At the same time, little is still known about the psychosocial consequences of como...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Narrative Identity and Personality Disorder: an Empirical and Conceptual Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIdentity is one of the key domains that is disturbed in people manifesting personality disorder (PD). Within the field of personality psychology, there is a robust approach to studying identity focused on narrative identity which has been largely overlooked in studying PD. In this paper, a systematic review was conducted of studies published in the past decade that focused on how individuals manifesting personality pathology craft their narrative identity.Recent FindingsThis review revealed disturbances related to several motivational/affective themes (e.g., negative valence/valence shifts and thwa...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Suicide and Schizophrenia: an Interplay of Factors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe main purpose of this review is to elucidate the interplay of various factors in the relationship between suicide and schizophrenia. Suicide and schizophrenia have been interlinked as a symptom, factor in recovery and prognosis, outcome measure and response to psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Many biomarkers have been identified in relation to the two phenomena.Recent FindingsThe analysis of the papers of the last 5  years (2015–2019) and till date has revealed studies looking at outcomes in relation to suicide, biological markers to determine the protection from and...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Planning for Mental Health Needs During COVID-19
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe ability to effectively prepare for and respond to the psychological fallout from large-scale disasters is a core competency of military mental health providers, as well as civilian emergency response teams. Disaster planning should be situation specific and data driven; vague, broad-spectrum planning can contribute to unprepared mental health teams and underserved patient populations. Herein, we review data on mental health sequelae from the twenty-first century pandemics, including SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19), and offer explanations for observed trends, insights regarding anticipated needs, and recom...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Mental Health in the Young Athlete
In the recently published article “Mental Health in the Young Athlete” the following author name was inadvertently misspelled as Christine L. Master. The correct spelling of the author’s name is: Christina L. Master as shown above. (Source: Current Psychiatry Reports)
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mental Health in the Young Athlete
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of mental health concerns in young athletes, with a focus on common disorders, as well as population-specific risk factors.Recent FindingsAthletes experience similar mental health concerns as non-athlete peers, such as anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation, ADHD, eating disorders, and substance abuse. However, they also experience unique stressors that put them at risk for the development or exacerbation of mental health disorders. Student athletes have to balance academics with rigorous training regimens while focusing on opt...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Screening for Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders in Obstetric Settings
The objective of this review is to describe the extent to which (1) obstetric settings are currently screening for mental health and substance use disorders and social determinants of health (SDoH), and (2) screening is followed by systematic approaches for ensuring an adequate response to positive screens. Additionally, clinical and policy implications of current screening practices and recommendations are discussed.Recent FindingsScreening for perinatal depression in obstetric settings has increased. Despite their prevalence and negative impact, screening for other mental health and substance use disorders and SDoH is mu...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Early Life Stress and the Development of the Infant Gut Microbiota: Implications for Mental Health and Neurocognitive Development
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the state of the literature examining associations between early life stress (ELS), gut microbiota, and neurocognitive development and mental health in animals and humans. We identify gaps in current models and areas for future research.Recent FindingsELS is associated with changes in gut microbiota, which correspond to changes in affective and cognitive functioning in both animals and humans. Some of these ELS-induced psychological changes can be remedied by supplementation with probiotics in early life, suggesting a potential area for intervention for ELS-exposed children. Prenatal stre...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Screening for Trauma in Pediatric Primary Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProvided the high prevalence of trauma exposure in childhood as well as the risk for morbidity, this article examines evidence, a recommended approach, and key implementation factors relevant to screening for trauma in pediatric primary care.Recent FindingsA standardized approach to trauma screening is possible, but previous attempts have relied heavily upon exposure screening and failed to guide an individualized response specific to the impact of trauma on the child and family. Trauma screening tools for pediatric primary care should be brief and inform the care response based on screening for tr...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Major Neuropsychological Impairments in Schizophrenia Patients: Clinical Implications
This article reviews some of the most recent research on cognition in schizophrenia and the clinical implications.Recent FindingsThere have been recent studies related to the genomics of cognition and neural structures involved in cognition. We review recent investigations into the assessment of social cognition and the implications of impaired introspective accuracy. A recent network analysis assessed the relationship of neurocognition and social cognition to functional capacity. We further discuss the role of specific symptoms in functioning, including negative symptoms and symptoms related to autism spectrum disorder. W...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Digital Health Around Clinical High Risk and First-Episode Psychosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to examine relapse definitions and risk factors in psychosis as well as the role of technology in relapse predictions and risk modeling.Recent FindingsThere is currently no standard definition for relapse. Therefore, there is a need for data models that can account for the variety of factors involved in defining relapse. Smartphones have the ability to capture real-time, moment-to-moment assessment symptomology and behaviors via their variety of sensors and have high potential to be used to create prediction and risk modeling.SummaryWhile there is still a need for further research ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mental Health Among Children Older than 10  Years Exposed to the Haiti 2010 Earthquake: a Critical Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is evidence that the exposure to a major natural disaster such as the 2010 earthquake in Haiti may have devastating short- and long-term effects on children ’s mental health and overall development. This review summarizes what has been reported in the past 3 years (2017–2020) regarding emotional, psychological, and behavioral effects of exposure to this particular earthquake on children 10 years and older.Recent FindingsTwenty-six articles were screened, of which twenty-one were selected for final analysis. The main themes addressed in the literature over the 3  yea...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Recent Insights Into Cyberchondria
This article aims to review the conceptualization, theoretical basis and correlates of cyberchondria, as well as its prevention and management.Recent FindingsAlthough there is no consensus, most definitions of cyberchondria emphasize online health research associated with heightened distress or anxiety. The two theoretical models of cyberchondria involve reassurance seeking and specific metacognitive beliefs. Cyberchondria has relationships with health anxiety, problematic Internet use and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, with public health implications pertaining to functional impairment and altered healthcare u...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Healthy Sexuality for Sex Offenders
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review will examine the current, although limited, literature on the development of healthy sexuality for sex offenders, as well as some of the related controversies surrounding sex offender specific therapies.Recent FindingsOver the last decade, the definition of healthy sexuality has remained elusive while the boundary delineating unhealthy sexuality has radically changed. These changes are not reflected in current approaches to sex offender treatment which continue to focus on suppression of offenders ’ sexuality.SummaryOur attention to the management of sexual behaviors has led t...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sex Doll Ownership: An Agenda for Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe topic of sex doll ownership is becoming an increasingly discussed issue from both a social and legal perspective. This review aims to examine the veracity of the existing psychological, sexological, and legal literature in relation to doll ownership.Recent FindingsStrong views exist across the spectrum of potential socio-legal positions on sex doll ownership. However, there is an almost total lack of empirical analyses of the psychological characteristics or behavioral implications of doll ownership. As such, existing arguments appear to represent the philosophical positions of those scholars e...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Co-occurrence, Assessment and Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to give an update on research in the past 5  years regarding the co-occurrence, assessment and treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Recent FindingsRecent findings affirm not only a high prevalence of OCD amongst individuals with ASD (and vice versa) but also notable variability in assessment methods and results. There remain limited validated measures with which to assess OCD in those with ASD, which are often difficult to differentiate. Adapted and function-based CBT programs specifically designed for ASD demonstr...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Modulation of Slow-Wave Sleep: Implications for Psychiatry
The objectives of this review are to examine and integrate existing empirical evidence regarding the impact of slow-wave sleep (SWS) modulation on memory and executive function performance in individuals with psychiatric disorders, and to examine the feasibility of integrating SWS modulation into psychiatric care.Recent FindingsSWS modulation in individuals with psychiatric disorders resulted in changes to SWS across multiple psychiatric disorders, using all stimulation methods. SWS stimulation was associated with improved cognitive performance. SWS modulation using acoustic stimulation resulted in improved cognitive perfo...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Men with Sexual Convictions and Denial
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the evidence base for men who categorically deny responsibility for their sexual crimes. Specifically, we consider the characteristics of these individuals and the purpose or function of the denial, whether denial leads to an increased risk of reoffending and the evidence for different treatment options available for deniers.Recent FindingsWhilst there is some evidence that deniers differ from admitters, it appears that categorical denial is a strategy used to reduce negative consequences such as a sense of shame or the fear of losing family support. The common assumption that deniers are...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Role of the Patient-Centered Medical Home in Treating Depression
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses the role of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) in treating depression, focusing on findings from primary care-based studies and their implications for the PCMH.Recent FindingsPharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and collaborative care are evidence-based treatments for depression that can be delivered in primary care and extended to diverse populations. Recent research aligns with the core components of the PCMH model.SummaryThe core components of the PCMH are critical elements of depression treatment. Comprehensive care within the PCMH addresses medical and behavioral health ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Process of Developing a Unit-Based Army Resilience Program
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review military doctrine, military public health data, medical literature, and educational literature with the intent of condensing key precepts into a succinct, pragmatic description of the essential steps for leaders looking to build a resilience program to provide secondary prevention services.Recent FindingsAlthough there continues to be a shortage of high-level evidence in support of specific preventive programs, there are numerous large-scale reviews of prevention and health promotion efforts. When combined with population-specific analyses, several essential concepts emerge as most releva...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Intolerance of Uncertainty and Parental Accommodation: Promising Targets for Personalized Intervention for Youth Anxiety
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAfter reviewing predictors of differential outcomes of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric anxiety, we identify and discuss recent evidence for the role of (a) intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and (b) parental accommodation as meaningful targets for personalized intervention.Recent FindingsFew studies to date have identified promising, theory-driven predictors of differential CBT outcomes. Recent findings suggest that increased IU and high levels of parental accommodation are associated with a poorer response to CBT. Several adaptations of CBT and new interventions targeting either IU o...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Legal and Ethical Challenges in the Psychiatric Treatment of College Students
This article will examine issues of autonomy, privacy, decision-making, and voluntariness of the psychiatric treatment of college students. There is little consensus on balancing the individual student ’s rights with the university’s duties. Conflicts between federal legislation, case law, and ethical recommendations will be explored.Recent FindingsLandmark legal cases assert that universities have a specific duty to protect their students from both violent peers and suicide.SummaryCollege students are vulnerable to a range of psychiatric symptoms but have low rates of adherence to psychiatric treatment. Many i...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Behavioural Treatments for Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Review of the Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBehavioural sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are common and burdensome for both the child and their family. We provide an up-to-date review on behavioural sleep interventions and their core features and conclude with expert recommendations regarding the modification of interventions for children with ASD.Recent FindingsIn the past 3  years, four original research studies (n ≥ 10) have evaluated behavioural sleep interventions for children with ASD (one RCT, three pre-post studies). All four studies reported significant improvements across various sl...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Inter-generational Effects of Technology: Why Millennial Physicians May Be Less at Risk for Burnout Than Baby Boomers
AbstractPurpose of ReviewYounger generations of physicians are using technology more fluently than previous generations. This has significant implications for healthcare as these digital natives become a majority of the population ’s patients, clinicians, and healthcare leaders.Recent FindingsHistorically, healthcare has been slow to adopt new technology. Many physicians have attributed burnout symptoms to technology-related causes like the EMR. This is partly due to policies and practices led by those who were less familiar and comfortable with using new technologies.SummaryYounger physicians will drive technologica...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Affect and Arousal in Insomnia: Through a Lens of Neuroimaging Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPrevious research has struggled with identifying clear-cut, objective counterparts to subjective distress in insomnia. Approaching this discrepancy with a focus on hyperarousal and dysfunctional affective processes, studies examining brain structures and neural networks involved in affect and arousal are reviewed and conclusions for an updated understanding of insomnia are drawn.Recent FindingsRecent studies found that amygdala reactivity, morphometry and adaptation in insomnia are altered, indicating that processing of negative stimuli is intensified and more lasting. Also, patients with insomnia ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Psychological Impact of Epidemic and Pandemic Outbreaks on Healthcare Workers: Rapid Review of the Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe aim to provide quantitative evidence on the psychological impact of epidemic/pandemic outbreaks (i.e., SARS, MERS, COVID-19, ebola, and influenza A) on healthcare workers (HCWs).Recent FindingsForty-four studies are included in this review. Between 11 and 73.4% of HCWs, mainly including physicians, nurses, and auxiliary staff, reported post-traumatic stress symptoms during outbreaks, with symptoms lasting after 1 –3 years in 10–40%. Depressive symptoms are reported in 27.5–50.7%, insomnia symptoms in 34–36.1%, and severe anxiety symptoms in 45%. General psychiatric s...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Children ’s Reactions to Media Coverage of War
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews research on the effects of contact with war media coverage on psychological outcomes in children.Recent FindingsChildren ’s contact with media coverage of war is pervasive and is associated with numerous outcomes and with their parents’ reactions. Younger children are more affected by news stories with visual cues, while older children are more distressed by stories about actual threat.SummaryThere is a strong theoretical basis for developmental influences on children ’s war media reactions, but the potential influence of other child factors (e.g., gender, socio...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

How Personality Disorders Change in Psychotherapy: a Concise Review of Process
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe present review summarizes the current state of the art in psychotherapy processes during treatments for clients with personality disorders. We outline some methodological challenges in the discipline of process research, give a brief historical account on process research, and then focus on specific processes studied from an empirical perspective.Recent FindingsThe current review acknowledges the centrality of the therapeutic relationship, in particular the therapeutic alliance, therapist empathy, and responsiveness in explaining outcome across treatment modalities for personality disorders. Th...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Personality Disorders in the ICD-11: Opportunities and Challenges for Advancing the Diagnosis of Personality Pathology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe International Classification of Diseases-11th edition (ICD-11) is poised to make a dramatic change in the diagnosis of personality disorders by introducing a fully dimensionalized framework. In this paper, the history of this process is reviewed, along with international efforts taken to address some underlying concerns with this transition. Recent studies of this framework are also reviewed.Recent FindingsStudies have concluded that the ICD-11 proposal is supported; however, there are a number of methodological limitations to these studies, including the utilization of measures that are not di...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Children ’s Exposure to Single Incidents of Terrorism: Perspectives Over 25 Years Since the Oklahoma City Bombing
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper traces advances in our knowledge about children ’s exposure and reactions to terrorist events over the last 25 years, beginning with the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, and offers observations about cross-cutting issues including implications for services.Recent FindingsDirect and indirect interpersonal exposures have been examined in community samples and in samples of children selected because of their event experiences. Despite its present exclusion from the stressor criterion for a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, considerable research has documented an association ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Role of Anxiety in Smoking Onset, Severity, and Cessation-Related Outcomes: a Review of Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAnxiety is one of the most common mental health conditions globally and co-occurs with smoking at a markedly high rate. The present review offers a narrative overview of the most recent research on the role of anxiety in smoking onset, maintenance, and cessation-related outcomes. Additionally, given the rise in electronic cigarette use, we review the emerging literature on the influence of anxiety on e-cigarette use.Recent FindingsEvidence across studies varied as to the role of anxiety or anxiety symptoms in smoking behavior. The most consistent findings suggested that those with anxiety are more ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric Correlates of Narcolepsy
This study reviews recent evidence for the association between narcolepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders. We also critically analyze studies that have addressed the neuropsychiatric correlates of patients with narcolepsy, with a discussion of the possible pathophysiological mechanisms linking narcolepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders.Recent FindingsNeuropsychiatric manifestations are common among patients with narcolepsy as narcolepsy and some neuropsychiatric disorders share common clinical features. This may create challenges in making the correct diagnosis, and hence result in a delay in starting appropriate treatment. ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: an Update of Published, Unpublished and Ongoing Studies
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewWe aim to identify the most recent evidence of randomised controlled trials evaluating continued drug treatments in people with a diagnosis of BPD, review the most recent findings, highlight trends in terms of currently ongoing studies and comment on the overall body of evidence.Recent FindingsWe identified seven new RCTs, plus newly available data for an older RCT. Only three of these RCTs have been published in full text, while we found study data posted at trial registry platforms for the others.SummaryThe new findings do not support fluoxetine as a treatment option for suicide and self-harm...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Motivational Interviewing: as Easy as It Looks?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper explores how motivational interviewing (MI) can be useful to practitioners working with people who have sexually abused. Research has found that the most effective practitioners working with these clients are warm, empathic, rewarding, and directive. Putting these characteristics into practice, however, can be challenging for professionals in treatment settings. Despite a wealth of information regarding MI practice generally, its use with people who have sexually abused has received little attention.Recent FindingsMotivational interviewing has been found to be effective in helping people...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ecological Studies of Sleep Disturbances During Suicidal Crises
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSeveral reviews and metanalyses have shown that sleep disturbances, such as insomnia and nightmares, can predict suicidal ideations and behaviors. Common physio-pathological pathways may explain this relationship. However, only in recent years, some research groups have tried to apply this knowledge in the quest for a reliable tool of suicide risk prediction. We aim to describe in this paper the results of studies using ecological or quasi-ecological assessment methods that connect sleep disturbances and suicide risk.Recent FindingsOur review confirms the paucity of studies on this topic. The few s...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Virtual Reality Therapy in Social Anxiety Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an overview of current methods and important aspects to consider when applying virtual worlds in the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD).Recent FindingsDifferent aspects such as dialogs between avatars and patients have been investigated as well as virtual audiences, emotional facial expression, and verbal interaction with avatars. Results of these studies are promising. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) in SAD. Unfortunately, most RCTs into the efficacy of VRET in comparison with exposure in...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Physical and Mental Health Outcomes in Children Exposed to Disasters
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews literature on the influence of disaster exposure on the intersection between physical and mental health in children, including risk and protective factors. We provide an update on recent studies and conclude with recommendations for future research.Recent FindingsThe limited existing research on this topic suggests that disasters can influence short and long-term physical and mental health of children. Although few studies explore both mental and physical health in the same study, studies that assess both show that they co-occur. Pre-existing conditions, severity of disaster expo...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Medical Ethics Issues in Dementia and End of Life
AbstractPurpose of ReviewI review ethical and legal challenges for end of life (EOL) care in dementia. Is access to hospice care for dementia patients impacted by Medicare ’s terminal prognosis requirement? Are dementia-specific advance directives warranted? How does state legislation affect dementia patients’ EOL options? Should dementia patients’ be able to refuse orally ingested food and fluids by advance directive?Recent FindingsThe difficulty of predicting time to death in dementia inhibits access to Medicare hospice benefits. Efforts have been made to create dementia-specific advance directives. Adv...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy of Sexual Addiction
We examined the different definitions of this disorder, related to the pathophysiological mechanisms. We addressed the pharmacological treatment of sexual addiction.Recent FindingsHypersexual behavior can be considered an addictive disorder. Sexual addiction is accompanied by significant psychiatric and addictive comorbidities and is responsible for life impairment. A comprehensive and efficient treatment must be proposed.SummarySelective serotonin reuptake inhibitors seem the first-line pharmacological treatment for sexual addiction. Naltrexone could be another therapeutic option. Psychotherapy and preferentially cognitiv...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treatment Options for Fear of Blushing
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review mechanisms of blushing and fear of blushing from physiological, neuropharmacological and psychological viewpoints, and to evaluate current forms of treatment for blushing-related fear.Recent FindingsBlushing appears to be driven primarily by sympathetic adrenomedullary and neural vasodilator discharge, possibly in association with secondary neurovascular inflammation. Psychological risk factors for fear of blushing include social anxiety, coupled with heightened self-focused attention and inflated beliefs about the likelihood and social costs of blushing. In addition, schemas of emotional...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Culturally Responsive Approaches for Addressing ADHD Within Multi-tiered Systems of Support
We present a primer for psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health professionals on the implementation of culturally responsive practices within a multi-tiered system of support (MTSS) framework when collaborating with schools.Recent FindingsIndividuals with ADHD demonstrate unique behavioral challenges that affect school and home functioning. As a framework to address the needs ofall children with academic and behavioral issues, many public schools have adopted MTSS. Emerging findings on cultural adaptations of evidence-based interventions for ADHD within MTSS are promising.SummaryThrough a comprehensive tiered...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Men With Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Offended Sexually
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review extant and new research focusing on assessment and treatment of men with intellectual disabilities (ID) who have offended sexually. New research findings are applied and integrated with classic assessment and treatment approaches, providing an overview of evidence-based practices.Recent FindingsNew research has explored healthy sexuality among people with intellectual disabilities, including making evidence-based sexual information cognitively accessible for people with ID. Research has begun to include men with ID in studies of actuarial risk assessment and dynamic treatment needs and id...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pharmacogenomics: an Update for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to acquaint child and adolescent psychiatrists with the field of pharmacogenomics (PGX) and review the most up-to-date evidence-based practices to guide the application of this field in clinical care.Recent FindingsDespite much research being done in this area, the field of PGX continues to yield controversial findings. In the adult world, studies have focused on the impact of combinatorial gene panels that guide medication selection by providing reports that estimate the impact of multiple pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic genes, but to date, these have not been directly examined...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder in Young People
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review recent research concerning the diagnosis and treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in young people. We examine evidence for the need to define an appropriate age for detection, and the suitability of current classification methods and treatment.Recent FindingsEvidence supports early detection and intervention for subsyndromal borderline pathology or categorical BPD across an extended developmental period. A range of structured treatments are effective for BPD in young people, although the role of treatment components in successful outcomes is unclear. Substantial evidence sug...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Modeling Psychiatric Disorder Biology with Stem Cells
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the ways in which stem cells are used in psychiatric disease research, including the related advances in gene editing and directed cell differentiation.Recent FindingsThe recent development of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technologies has created new possibilities for the study of  psychiatric disease. iPSCs can be derived from patients or controls and differentiated to an array of neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. Their genomes can be edited as desired, and they can be assessed for a variety of phenotypes. This makes them especially interesting for studying genetic vari ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Identification and Management of Opioid Use Disorder in Primary Care: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe rising prevalence of opioid use disorder (OUD) and related complications in North America coupled with limited numbers of specialists in addiction medicine has led to large gaps in treatment. Primary care providers (PCPs) are ideally suited to diagnose and care for people with OUD and are increasingly being called upon to improve access to care. This review will highlight the recent literature pertaining to the care of patients with OUD by PCPs.Recent FindingsThe prevalence of patients with OUD in primary care practice is increasing, and models of office-based opioid treatment (OBOT) are evolvi...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Evaluating Change in Men Who Have Sexually Offended: Linkages to Risk Assessment and Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe provide a review and synthesis of the sexual offense treatment change literature with implications for dynamic sexual violence risk assessment and management. An argument is presented for the need for a dynamic approach in research and practice, and that for change to be prognostic, such changes need to be risk relevant and to come from credible change agents.Recent FindingsExtant research demonstrates that changes on psychologically meaningful dimensions of risk and need (e.g., sexual deviance; attitudes and cognitions; anger, aggression, and hostility) tend to be associated with reductions in ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Considerations and Current Trends in the Management of the Geriatric Patient on a Consultation –Liaison Service
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide consultation –liaison psychiatrists with an updated resource that can assist in the treatment and management of geriatric patients.Recent FindingsThe current available literature has not shown any differences in efficacy between haloperidol and second-generation antipsychotics in patients with delirium. When considering relative advantages of forms of antipsychotic administration, there is no support for a superior safety profile of oral compared to intramuscular or intravenous administration. A recent meta-analysis of four randomized controlled trials concluded that when melatonin...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A Review of Antidepressant-Associated Hypomania in Those Diagnosed with Unipolar Depression —Risk Factors, Conceptual Models, and Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe nosology and management of antidepressant-associated hypomania (AAH) in the treatment of unipolar depression requires clarification. We sought to review recent studies examining AAH, focusing on risk factors, differing explanatory models, and management strategies.Recent FindingsAAH occurs more frequently in those of female gender, younger age, and with a bipolar disorder (BP) family history. Depressive features (e.g., suicidal ideation, psychotic symptoms) in those with AAH were similar to those with established BPs. Explanatory models for AAH describe it as (i) a transient iatrogenic event, (...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research