Supportive Relationships in Children and Adolescents Facing Political Violence and Mass Disasters
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe identify trends and gaps in the literature on the role of social support in the psychopathology and risky behavior of youths exposed to political violence and mass disasters. We also discuss the implications of recent research ’s findings and suggest directions for future research.Recent FindingsPolitical violence and natural disasters inflict serious blows to adolescents ’ mental and physical health and may have reverberating, negative impacts throughout the nested social systems in which youths develop. However, many adolescents are not adversely affected, suggesting the presence o...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Intrinsic Brain Network Biomarkers of Antidepressant Response: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPoor treatment response is a hallmark of major depressive disorder. To tackle this problem, recent neuroimaging studies have sought to characterize antidepressant response in terms of pretreatment differences in intrinsic functional brain networks. Our aim is to review recent studies that predict antidepressant response using intrinsic network connectivity. We discuss current methodological limitations and directions for future antidepressant biomarker studies.Recent FindingsFunctional connectivity stemming from the subgenual and rostral anterior cingulate has shown particular consistency in predic...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Gene-Environment Interactions in Psychiatry: Recent Evidence and Clinical Implications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe identify the recent evidence for gene-by-environment interaction studies in relation to psychiatric disorders. We focus on the key genotypic data as well as environmental exposures and how they interact to predict psychiatric disorders and psychiatric symptomatology. We direct our focus on the psychiatric outcomes that were focused on by the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium.Recent FindingsMany of the studies focus on candidate gene approaches, with most of the studies drawing upon previous literature to decide the genes of interest. Other studies used a genome-wide approach. While some studies de...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Future of Digital Psychiatry
We examined four major areas that will probably impact on the clinical practice in the next few years: telepsychiatry; social media; mobile applications and internet of things; artificial intelligence; and machine learning.Recent FindingsDevelopments in these four areas will benefit patients throughout the journey of the illness, encompassing early diagnosis, even before the patients present to a clinician; personalized treatment on demand at anytime and anywhere; better prediction on patient outcomes; and even how mental illnesses are diagnosed in the future.SummaryThough the evidence for many technology-based interventio...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Promoting Student Success: How Do We Best Support Child and Youth Survivors of Catastrophic Events?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSchool mental health services have achieved recognition for increased access to care and intervention completion rates. While best practice recommendations include connection of school mental health programming to multi-tiered systems of support that promote early identification and intervention, many schools struggle to operationalize student screening for trauma exposure, trauma symptoms, and service identification. Relatedly, progress monitoring for trauma symptoms, and the effect of trauma on school functioning in the context of catastrophic events, can also be difficult to systematically colle...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Eating Pathology After Bariatric Surgery: an Updated Review of the Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper was to extend the prior literature on eating pathology following bariatric surgery by highlighting themes in data published over the past 3  years and identifying limitations and future directions for research.Recent FindingsChanges in eating pathology after bariatric surgery remain consistent with previous research. Specifically, diagnostic prevalence rates and incidence of related behaviors generally decrease following surgery. However, some research supports that these factors increase and/or remit over time following surgery, and that they subsequently have a negativ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Investigational and Therapeutic Applications of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Schizophrenia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis current review summarizes the investigational and therapeutic applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in schizophrenia.Recent FindingsFairly consistent findings of an impaired cortical excitation-inhibition balance, cortical plasticity, and motor resonance have been reported in schizophrenia. Cortical connectivity impairments have also been demonstrated in motor and prefrontal brain regions. In terms of treatment, the best support is for 1-Hz TMS to the left temporoparietal cortex for the short-term treatment of persistent auditory hallucinations. High-frequency TMS to the left...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Trauma Associated Sleep Disorder: Clinical Developments 5  Years After Discovery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review recent and growing evidence that provides support for a novel parasomnia, trauma associated sleep disorder (TASD). Based on these findings, we further develop the clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) characteristics of TASD. We also address factors that precipitate TASD, develop a differential diagnosis, discuss therapy, and propose future directions for research.Recent FindingsNightmares, classically a REM phenomenon, are prevalent and underreported, even in individuals with trauma exposure. When specifically queried, trauma-related nightmares (TRN) are frequently associated with disrupti...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Changes in Alcohol Use after Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery: Predictors and Mechanisms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review synthesized the literature on predictors and mechanisms of post-bariatric alcohol problems, in order to guide future research on prevention and treatment targets.Recent FindingsConsistent evidence suggests an elevated risk of developing problems with alcohol following bariatric surgery. While there is a paucity of empirical data on predictors of problematic alcohol use after bariatric surgery, being male, a younger age, smoking, regular alcohol consumption, pre-surgical alcohol use disorder, and a lower sense of belonging have predicted alcohol misuse post-operatively. This review synth...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Depression and Suicide After Bariatric Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIndividuals with morbid obesity benefit from bariatric surgery with respect to weight loss and decreases in obesity-related somatic disorders. This paper focuses on psychosocial outcomes and provides a narrative review of recent meta-analyses and controlled studies concerning postoperative depression and suicide.Recent FindingsConsiderable evidence shows short- and medium-term improvement in depressive symptoms after surgery. However, a subgroup of patients exhibits erosion of these improvements or new onset of depression in the long run. Some studies have found an increased risk for suicide among ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Advances in Management of Neuropsychiatric Syndromes in Neurodegenerative Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNeuropsychiatric syndromes (NPS) are common in neurodegenerative disorders (NDD). This review describes the role of NPS in the diagnosis of NDD, criteria for the diagnosis of NPS, management of NPS, and agents in clinical trials for NPS.Recent FindingsNPS play an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of NDD. Consensus diagnostic criteria have evolved for psychosis, depression, agitation, and apathy in NDD. With one exception —pimavanserin is approved for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions in Parkinson’s disease—there are no drugs approved by the FDA for treatment...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Autoimmunity and Neuroinflammation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHere, we propose to review the immuno-inflammatory hypothesis in OCD given the concurrent incidence of autoimmune comorbidities, infectious stigma, and raised levels of inflammatory markers in a significant subset of patients. A better understanding of the immune dysfunction in OCD may allow stratifying the patients in order to design personalized pharmaco/psychotherapeutic strategies.Recent FindingsA persistent low-grade inflammation involving both innate and adaptive immune system with coexisting autoimmune morbidities and stigma of infectious events has been prominently observed in OCD. Hence, s...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Best Practices in Tele-Teaming: Managing Virtual Teams in the Delivery of Care in Telepsychiatry
This article synthesizes these findings along with lessons learned from the field to provide recommendations for psychiatrists involved in team-based telepsychiatry.SummaryProviding this type of care involves mastering the management of virtual teams. Psychiatrists are well positioned to play a distinctive and central leadership role for team-based telepsychiatry. (Source: Current Psychiatry Reports)
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Technology-Based Mental Health Treatment and the Impact on the Therapeutic Alliance
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTelemental health, which is treatment mediated by technology, is an increasingly common method of delivering mental health care. However, its impact on the therapeutic alliance is unclear. This review examines studies of telemental health and its impact on therapeutic alliance.Recent FindingsFindings indicate that a therapeutic alliance can be maintained through a variety of communication technologies, with some caveats. Considerations on maintaining a successful therapeutic alliance include using technology as an adjunct to treatment and ensuring patients and providers have back-up plans for conti...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Management of Late-Life Depression in the Context of Cognitive Impairment: a Review of the Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEvidence regarding the treatment of late-life depression is not necessarily generalizable to persons with a neurocognitive disorder and comorbid depression. Thus, this article reviews recent evidence that pertains to the treatment of depression in older adults with neurocognitive disorders, and synthesizes and critically analyzes this literature to identify methodological issues and gaps for the purpose of future research.Recent FindingsControlled trials and meta-analyses examining depression treatment in neurocognitive disorders, published between 2015 and 2019 (N = 16 reports), can ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Recent Advances in the Early Intervention in Schizophrenia: Future Direction from Preclinical Findings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the potential benefit of early intervention in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia show cognitive impairment for several years preceding the onset of psychosis. The author discusses the recent topics on prevention of schizophrenia.Recent FindingsPreclinical findings suggest that maternal immune activation (MIA) produces cognitive deficits as a prodromal symptom in juvenile offspring in rodents. Treatment with anti-inflammatory compounds, such as D-serine, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (a TrkB agonist), sulforaphane (or its precursor glucorapha...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Depression in Youth Exposed to Disasters, Terrorism and Political Violence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews recent research on the depression in young people following exposure to catastrophic stresses such as disasters, terrorism and political violence.Recent FindingsDepression is one of the commonest outcomes following mass trauma, for all ages including children and adolescents. Recent articles continue to report high prevalence of depression which often continues for years. It is often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, especially PTSD. Post-traumatic depression in children and adolescence affects purpose of life, impairs scholastic achievements, increases suicidality and h...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neuroinflammation and Schizophrenia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere are longstanding, intriguing findings of immune dysfunction in schizophrenia. These findings span peripheral immune markers, especially cytokine abnormalities.Recent FindingsThis review describes recent genetic and immune marker studies and emergent treatment studies.SummaryCollectively, this provides a synthesis and current appraisal of the neuroimmune hypothesis of schizophrenia. (Source: Current Psychiatry Reports)
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches to managing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We examine methods for assessment and evidence for interventions, focusing on recent findings and innovations. Finally, we recommend an algorithm for management of BPSD.Recent FindingsTraining of formal caregivers is the most effective intervention for BPSD; other non-pharmacological interventions are also beneficial. Antidepressants and antipsychotics remain a mainstay of pharmacological treatment for BPSD. There is limited evidence supporting the use of stimulants, co...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Without Wasting a Word: Extreme Improvements in Efficiency and Accuracy Using Computerized Adaptive Testing for Mental Health Disorders (CAT-MH)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review recent literature on the adaptive assessment of complex mental health disorders and provide a detailed comparison of classical test theory and adaptive testing based on multidimensional item response theory.Recent FindingsAdaptive tests for a wide variety of mental health traits (e.g., depression, anxiety, mania, substance misuse, suicidality) are now available in a cloud-based environment. These tests have been validated in a variety of settings against lengthy structured clinical interviews with excellent results and even higher reliability than fixed-length tests. Applications include ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

120th Anniversary of the Kraepelinian Dichotomy of Psychiatric Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEmil Kraepelin, in 1899, proposed a dichotomy of psychiatric disorders into “dementia praecox,” further called schizophrenia, and “manisch-depressives Irresein,” now conceptualized as a bipolar disorder. The purpose of the review is to show both similarities and differences between disorders involved in this dichotomy, speaking for and against the idea.Recent FindingsOn the molecular genetic side, there are data for both a genetic overlap and genetic differences between these two illnesses. Among pharmacological treatment, lithium, valproates, and carbamazepine present evide...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Schizophrenia: an Up-To-Date Review of Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review will aim to summarize the current body of epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic knowledge concerning specific co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) and schizophrenia spectrum disorder.Recent FindingsAlmost 30% of the patients with schizophrenia display OCS, and three main contexts of emergence are identified: prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia, co-occurrence of OCS and schizophrenia and antipsychotics-induced OCS. Recent clinical studies show that patients with SZ and OCS have more severe psychotic and depressive symptoms, higher suicidality and lower social functio...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Disordered Eating, Eating Disorders, and Body Image in Midlife and Older Women
We describe the contributing factors that relate to the unique experience of eating disorders (EDs) at midlife and beyond. We review evidence for several key factors in this observation, specifically the bio-psycho-social and relational components of later life EDs. We present treatment considerations, screening tools for evaluation, and treatment recommendations for this special population suffering with EDs.Recent FindingsEating disorder symptoms and body image preoccupation have been identified in increasing numbers of women over age 50. Reports indicate that women are seeking treatment for chronic, recurrent, or late o...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Continuous Traumatic Stress and the Life Cycle: Exposure to Repeated Political Violence in Israel
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMillions of individuals and families live under continual exposure to threat such as protracted socio-political conflict or community violence facing current and future danger. The construct of continuous traumatic stress (CTS) was suggested as a supplement perspective for the understanding of the specific impact of living under both current and realistic future threat. Yet, the unique parameters, utility, and validity of the construct CTS are underexplored.Recent FindingsCurrently, CTS describes both the exposure and the unique clinical conglomerate of distress. In this paper, we first elaborate o...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Use of Telepsychiatry in Emergency and Crisis Intervention: Current Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review is to evaluate recent literature on the use of telepsychiatry in mental crises or emergency situations.Recent FindingsResults from recent studies which evaluated the implementation of a telepsychiatric consultation model in emergency departments point at a reduction of length of stay and a drop in admissions, increased cost-effectiveness, and improved satisfaction of patients and staff. There was almost no empirical evidence on videoconferencing in crisis intervention within the context of crisis resolution teams or online therapies. No study reporting on telepsychiatry video...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Trust and Rejection Sensitivity in Personality Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review recent empirical investigations about two core processes subtending impairments in interpersonal functioning and, more precisely, cooperative behaviors in personality disorders: Trust toward others and rejection sensitivity. The main contributions are about borderline and narcissistic personality disorders but we report a little evidence about other personality disorders too (i.e., avoidant, antisocial, and paranoid personality disorders).Recent FindingsRegarding borderline personality disorder, a misinterpretation of situations as threatening seems to be relevant for both trust and rejec...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Digital Health Solutions for Indigenous Mental Well-Being
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes digital health solutions being used for Indigenous mental well-being, with emphasis on available evidence and examples reported in the literature. We also describe our own local experience with a rural telemental health service for Indigenous youth and discuss the unique opportunities and challenges.Recent FindingsDigital health solutions can be grouped into three main categories: (1) remote access to specialists, (2) building and supporting local capacity, and (3) patient-directed interventions. Limited evidence exists for the majority of digital solutions specifically in In...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Computer-Assisted Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Mobile Apps for Depression and Anxiety
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe reviewed research on computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy (CCBT) and mobile applications with the goals of assessing the effectiveness of these newer methods of delivering or augmenting treatment and making recommendations on the clinical use of computer tools in psychotherapy of depression and anxiety.Recent FindingsResearch on CCBT has found solid evidence for efficacy when the use of a therapeutic computer program is supported by a clinician or other helping professionals. Lower levels of efficacy or ineffectiveness typically have been found when computer programs are used as stand-al...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

PTSD as a Public Mental Health Priority
This article reviews recent evidence related to public health epidemiology and intervention for traumatic stress and PTSD. Recent evidence is presented regarding incidence of traumatic stress worldwide, as well as most frequent types of traumas, indicators of the public health burden of PTSD, and prevalence, predictors, and correlates of PTSD. Public health perspectives on intervention and treatment are delineated, and innovations in both psychosocial and psychopharmacological interventions are highlighted.Recent FindingsPTSD has been associated with substantial medical and economic burden. Recent public health preventive ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Forensic Competency Assessment with Digital Technologies
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewWe review the application of videoconferencing (VC) to pretrial forensic assessments of competence to stand trial (CST). We summarize the benefits, legal considerations, and reliability of VC evaluations. Based on our experience with VC in forensic settings, we provide illustrations of challenges and recommendations regarding this capability to meet increasing demands for services.Recent FindingsCST evaluations are the most frequent type of forensic mental health assessment within the American legal system. VC can be a reliable method for conducting interviews with most defendants, including th...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychological Interventions for Dementia Caregivers: What We Have Achieved, What We Have Learned
This article provides a focused review of such methods used in evidence-based intervention programs, along with the mechanisms of change associated with these methods. While cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has a strong evidence base, there is also a growing trend to package CBT tec hniques into various psychoeducational programs. These programs, which we call psychoeducation with psychotherapeutic programs, have been consistently found to be effective in reducing caregiver distress and are suited for delivery in group format, even by paraprofessionals, to lower the cost of int ervention. A recent trend is the effective ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Hormonal Contraceptives and Mood: Review of the Literature and Implications for Future Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe examine recent studies that investigate the effects of hormonal contraception on mood in different populations of women, including women in the general population and women with diagnosed psychiatric and gynecologic disorders. We address the mechanisms of several types of hormonal contraceptives and assess how these may affect mood and gynecologic disorders.Recent FindingsThe effects of hormonal contraceptives seem to be most relevant in selected subsets of women, as they may promote improved mental health in particular psychiatric disorders such as PMDD.SummaryCurrently, there is no consistent ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Severity and Symptom Trajectory in Combat-Related PTSD: a Review of the Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCombat-related posttraumatic stress disorder is increasingly recognized as having a variable course in returning veterans. Relatively few studies have identified predictors of illness duration or severity in this population. This review sought to synthesize the existing literature.Recent FindingsThe existing literature remains limited and heterogeneous. However, several studies identified hyperarousal and pre-deployment dissociation as predictive of disease severity, and re-experiencing as predictive of suicidality in veterans with combat-related PTSD. No other pre-, peri-, or posttraumatic psychos...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

From Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to Ecological Momentary Intervention (EMI): Past and Future Directions for Ambulatory Assessment and Interventions in Eating Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAmbulatory assessment methods, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA), have often been used in eating disorders (EDs) to assess the type, frequency, and temporal sequencing of ED symptoms occurring in naturalistic environments. Relatedly, growing research in EDs has explored the utility of ecological momentary interventions (EMIs) to target ED symptoms. The aims of the present review were to (1) synthesize recent literature pertaining to ambulatory assessment/EMA and EMI in EDs, and (2) identify relevant limitations and future directions in these domains.Recent FindingsWith respect to ambu...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A Life Span Perspective on Borderline Personality Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an update of a life span perspective on borderline personality disorder (BPD). We address the life span course of BPD, and discuss possible implications for assessment, treatment, and research.Recent FindingsBPD first manifests itself in adolescence and can be distinguished reliably from normal adolescent development. The course of BPD from adolescence to late life is characterized by a symptomatic switch from affective dysregulation, impulsivity, and suicidality to maladaptive interpersonal functioning and enduring functional impairments, with subsequent remission and relapse. Dimension...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Markers of Risk, Disease Expression, and Resilience to Bipolar Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFamilial predisposition to bipolar disorder is associated with increased risk of affective morbidity in the first-degree relatives of patients. Nevertheless, a substantial proportion of relatives remain free of psychopathology throughout their lifetime. A series of studies reviewed here were designed to test whether resilience in these high-risk individuals is associated with adaptive brain plasticity.Recent FindingsThe findings presented here derive from structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from patients, their resilient first-degree relatives, and healthy individuals...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Digital Delivery of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDigital cognitive behavioral therapy (dCBT) has been available for over a decade. We reviewed the evidence that accumulated over the past 5  years and discuss the implications for introducing dCBT into standard healthcare.Recent FindingsStudies have consistently supported the use of dCBT to treat insomnia. Evidence is now demonstrating large short-term effects and smaller long-term effects up to 1.5  years after treatment across populations with various co-occurring health problems. The effects also extend into a range of psychological well-being factors. Mediators and moderators have bee...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Smartphone-Based Tracking of Sleep in Depression, Anxiety, and Psychotic Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSleep is an important feature in mental illness. Smartphones can be used to assess and monitor sleep, yet there is little prior application of this approach in depressive, anxiety, or psychotic disorders. We review uses of smartphones and wearable devices for sleep research in patients with these conditions.Recent FindingsTo date, most studies consist of pilot evaluations demonstrating feasibility and acceptability of monitoring sleep using smartphones and wearable devices among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Promising findings show early associations between behaviors and sleep parameters...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychophysiological Markers of Fear and Anxiety
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this paper is to provide a current review of the recent literature (2015 –2018) on psychophysiological markers of fear and anxiety.Recent FindingRelative to healthy controls, fear-based disorders are characterised by heightened physiological reactivity to circumscribe threat salient stimuli, whereas anxiety-related disorders are associated with a more blunted pattern of physiological reactivity.SummaryFear and anxiety disorders are marked by abnormal patterns of physiological reactivity, characterised by hyper- and hypo-reactivity in response to stimuli varying in threat salien...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Circadian Rhythms in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Recent Findings and Recommendations for Future Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCircadian rhythms are a topic of growing interest in mental health, particularly in obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, the consistency of this link has not been carefully examined. Thus, the present review integrates findings from the past 5  years in order to determine the strength of such a relationship and identify areas for clarification and extension.Recent FindingsFindings revealed inconsistent evidence for a link between circadian rhythms and OCD. Chronotype is unrelated to OCD symptoms in adolescents but predicts OCD symptoms in adults. Results on delayed sleep timing are equivoca...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Intern Mental Health Interventions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIntern year is a uniquely stressful transition with interns facing higher rates of major depression compared with the general population. While burnout and depression during intern year are well documented, we aimed to examine which interventions have been implemented to prevent these issues and to consider the effectiveness of these interventions.Recent FindingsBased on a review of recent literature, we located very few studies focusing on interventions for resident mental health and even fewer focusing on interns specifically. We found that such studies vary in design with most using online or ap...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cannabis and Psychosis: Are We any Closer to Understanding the Relationship?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper provides an update from the literature on understanding of the relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia. In particular, the paper focuses on the latest findings and remaining areas that require investigation.Recent FindingsThree hypotheses have emerged as potential explanations for the association between cannabis and schizophrenia, namely cannabis can trigger schizophrenia, cannabis is used to mitigate symptoms of schizophrenia, and there are common factors which might account for the association. Biological and genetic factors dominate this field of research; this has been at th...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

HIV, Drug Injection, and Harm Reduction Trends in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Implications for International and Domestic Policy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewScaling up evidence-based HIV prevention strategies like opioid agonist therapies (OAT), syringe services programs (SSPs), and antiretroviral therapy (ART) to mitigate the harms of drug injection is crucial within Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA), the only region globally where HIV incidence and mortality are increasing.Recent FindingsThough the proportion of new HIV cases directly attributable to drug injection has recently declined, it remains a critical driver of HIV, especially to sexual partners. Concurrently, scale-up of OAT, SSPs, and ART has remained low, contributing to a volatile HI...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neurofeedback as a Treatment Intervention in ADHD: Current Evidence and Practice
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCurrent traditional treatments for ADHD present serious limitations in terms of long-term maintenance of symptom remission and side effects. Here, we provide an overview of the rationale and scientific evidence of the efficacy of neurofeedback in regulating the brain functions in ADHD. We also review the institutional and professional regulation of clinical neurofeedback implementations.Recent FindingsBased on meta-analyses and (large multicenter) randomized controlled trials, three standard neurofeedback training protocols, namely theta/beta (TBR), sensori-motor rhythm (SMR), and slow cortical pot...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Use of “Lights” for Bipolar Depression
AbstractPurposeIn this review, we will review the background and diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD); describe the efficacy data and potential circadian and neural mechanisms underlying the effects of bright light for bipolar depression; and discuss the implementation of light therapy in clinical practice.Recent FindingsTo date, morning bright light is the most widely tested form of light therapy for all mood disorders. Clinical trial reports suggest that midday or morning bright light treatment and novel chronotherapeutic interventions are effective for bipolar depression. Mechanisms of response may relate to effects on th...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Innovative Models in Mental Health Delivery Systems: Task Sharing Care with Non-specialist Providers to Close the Mental Health Treatment Gap
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMost people do not have access to adequate mental health care, and lack of skilled human resources is a major factor. We provide a narrative review of approaches to implementing task sharing —engaging non-specialist providers—to deliver mental health care.Recent FindingsThere is strong evidence both for the effectiveness of task sharing as a means of delivering care for a range of conditions across settings and for the effectiveness of non-specialist providers and health workers in delivering elements of culturally adapted psychosocial and psychological interventions for common and seve...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Evaluation and Management of Mental Health Disability in Post-secondary Students
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDue to the interdisciplinary nature of mental health disability in post-secondary educational settings, there is limited information available in the general psychiatric literature. This paper aims to familiarize psychiatrists with issues surrounding mental health disability in post-secondary educational settings. In this manuscript, we review critical aspects of the evaluation and management of post-secondary students who may be entitled to academic accommodations as a result of impairment from psychiatric diagnoses. We discuss common misconceptions about mental health impairment and best practice...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Behavioral Responses in Youth Exposed to Natural Disasters and Political Conflict
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review was to focus solely on youths ’ behavioral responses to natural disasters and political conflicts in order to fully understand their impact and scope.Recent FindingsRecent studies in the field of trauma have shown that theoretical conceptions have moved away from a narrow focus on the individual and towards wider ecological perspectives and from a narrow focus on negative responses to trauma exposure towards positive prosocial responses. Although there is a distinction between youths ’ behavioral responses towards natural disasters vs. towards political conflicts,...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Epilepsy and Anxiety Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe current review aims at providing an overview of relevant aspects of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders (AD) in adults patients with epilepsy (PWE).Recent FindingsFirstly, the appropriate diagnosis of type of anxiety symptoms and AD in PWE will be presented. Anxiety symptoms are often peri-ictal and classified in relation to their temporal occurrence to seizures. Anxiety symptoms are of three types: preictal (preceding a seizure), ictal (presenting as part of the seizure symptoms and signs), and postictal (occurring within 72  h of a seizure). AD are diagnosed in the interictal period a...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Predictors of Transition to Psychosis in Individuals at Clinical High Risk
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCurrent research is examining predictors of the transition to psychosis in youth who are at clinical high risk based on attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS). Determining predictors of the development of psychosis is important for an improved understanding of mechanisms as well as the development of preventative strategies. The purpose is to review the most recent literature identifying predictors of the transition to psychosis in those who are already assessed as being at risk.Recent FindingsMultidomain models, in particular, integrated models of symptoms, social functioning, and cognition variables...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - April 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research