Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect can be Transmitted Through Exosomes Using miRNAs as Effector Molecules.

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect can be Transmitted Through Exosomes Using miRNAs as Effector Molecules. Radiat Res. 2020 Apr 28;: Authors: Du Y, Du S, Liu L, Gan F, Jiang X, Wangrao K, Lyu P, Gong P, Yao Y Abstract The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is a destructive reaction in nonirradiated cells and is one primary factor in determining the efficacy and success of radiation therapy in the field of cancer treatment. Previously reported studies have shown that the RIBE can be mediated by exosomes that carry miRNA components within. Exosomes, which are one type of cell-derived vesicle, exist in different biological conditions and serve as an important additional pathway for signal exchange between cells. In addition, exosome-derived miRNAs are confirmed to play an important role in RIBE, activating the bystander effect and genomic instability after radiotherapy. After investigating the field of RIBE, it is important to understand the mechanisms and consequences of biological effects as well as the role of exosomes and exosomal miRNAs therein, from different sources and under different circumstances, respectively. More discoveries could help to establish early interventions against RIBE while improving the efficacy of radiotherapy. Meanwhile, measures that would alleviate or even inhibit RIBE to some extent may exist in the near future. PMID: 32343639 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Radiation Research - Category: Physics Authors: Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

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Authors: Hussain T, Mattheis S, Lang S Abstract The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas is increasing worldwide. Due to a markedly different response to treatment compared to HPV-negative oropharyngeal carcinomas, determining the ideal therapeutic approach can be challenging. Particularly in never-smokers, HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas respond well to primary radiation therapy; at the same time recent studies indicate comparable survival after primary surgery. For stage I tumors according to TNM‑8, retrospective analyses show very good oncologic outcomes aft...
Source: HNO - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: HNO Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In selected cases, MISS surgeries may be considered as a valid alternative to open surgery. Although the efficacy of PPSF has been well documented in trauma or degenerative spine surgery, there is not sufficient literature about MISS techniques in spinal metastasis and further studies are needed to elucidate the most appropriate patient in which this approach could represent the gold standard of treatment. PMID: 32633339 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
Authors: Vasudevan HN, Yom SS Abstract The addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy (RT) has been established for decades to improve outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Concurrent chemoradiation increases both local control and overall survival but at the cost of significant toxicity, motivating extensive investigations to optimize the balance of clinical efficacy and adverse effects. This review discusses the rationale and seminal studies underlying the concurrent chemoradiation treatment paradigm in HNC, and describes attempts to better tailor systemic therapy beyond standard-of-care cispla...
Source: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Natl Compr Canc Netw Source Type: research
Since its early days in the late 1990s, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (OTC) has developed from being an experimental procedure offered to a select few to being a standard method of fertility preservation that is particularly relevant for young girls and adolescents and women in need of urgent chemotherapy or radiation therapy in whom there is no time for controlled ovarian stimulation and egg harvesting. Although some countries and centers have been very active in developing and offering OTC to patients with cancer or other life-threatening diseases, others have been more reluctant, waiting for sufficient data to emer...
Source: Fertility and Sterility - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Reflections Source Type: research
This article aims to provide an update on literature data related to mandibular osteoradionecrosis (MORN) secondary to the irradiation of the head and neck region.Recent FindingsRadiotherapy (RT) plays a crucial role in the contemporary management of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients and, despite intensity-modulated technique (IMRT), mandibular osteoradionecrosis (MORN) remains a significant RT-related complication. Based on its clinical manifestation, MORN can negatively affect patients ’ quality of life. Preventive interventions should be prioritized.SummaryThis manuscript is expected to represent an opportunity ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
Condition:   Ovarian Cancer Intervention:   Combination Product: 211-astatine MX35 F(ab')2 Sponsors:   Vastra Gotaland Region;   Swedish Cancer Society;   The Swedish Research Council;   Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden Completed
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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Source: Practical Radiation Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
To compare online adaptive radiation therapy (ART) to a clinically implemented plan selection strategy (PS) with respect to dose to the organs at risk (OAR) for rectal cancer.
Source: Radiation Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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