Targeting Chemokine —Glycosaminoglycan Interactions to Inhibit Inflammation

Leukocyte migration into tissues depends on the activity of chemokines that form concentration gradients to guide leukocytes to a specific site. Interaction of chemokines with their specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on leukocytes induces leukocyte adhesion to the endothelial cells, followed by extravasation of the leukocytes and subsequent directed migration along the chemotactic gradient. Interaction of chemokines with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is crucial for extravasation in vivo. Chemokines need to interact with GAGs on endothelial cells and in the extracellular matrix in tissues in order to be presented on the endothelium of blood vessels and to create a concentration gradient. Local chemokine retention establishes a chemokine gradient and prevents diffusion and degradation. During the last two decades, research aiming at reducing chemokine activity mainly focused on the identification of inhibitors of the interaction between chemokines and their cognate GPCRs. This approach only resulted in limited success. However, an alternative strategy, targeting chemokine-GAG interactions, may be a promising approach to inhibit chemokine activity and inflammation. On this line, proteins derived from viruses and parasites that bind chemokines or GAGs may have the potential to interfere with chemokine-GAG interactions. Alternatively, chemokine mimetics, including truncated chemokines and mutant chemokines, can compete with chemokines for binding to GAGs. Such truncated or m...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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This week's case is from Idzi Potters and theInstitute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp. Warning - it's a tough one! The patient is a young woman with recent travel to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. While there, she worked with primates, and developed a short episode of fever, rash and diarrhea. Upon return to Belgium, a check-up was done, including a stool parasite exam. Apart fromGiardia duodenalis andTrichuris trichiura, the following structures were found (measuring about 50 to 55 µm in length). What is your differential diagnosis?
Source: Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites - Category: Parasitology Source Type: blogs
This study aims to review, in chronological order, the stool examination techniques and discuss their advantages, limitations, and perspectives, and to provide professionals and specialists in this field with data that lays a foundation for critical analysis on the use of such procedures. The concentration procedures that constitute the main techniques applied in routine research and in parasitological kits are a) spontaneous sedimentation; b) centrifugation-sedimentation with formalin-ethyl acetate; and c) flotation with zinc sulfate solution. While selecting a technique, one should consider the purpose of its application...
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: August 2020Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, Volume 12Author(s): Tamaki Shimose, Hirotaka Katahira, Minoru Kanaiwa
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2020Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and WildlifeAuthor(s): Guillermo Salgado-Maldonado, Juan Manuel Caspeta-Mandujano, Emilio Martínez-Ramírez, Jesús Montoya-Mendoza, Edgar F. Mendoza-Franco
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
ACS NanoDOI: 10.1021/acsnano.0c01893
Source: ACS Nano - Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Source Type: research
Mouse sex chromosomes are enriched for co-amplified gene families, present in tens to hundreds of copies. Co-amplification of Slx/Slxl1 on the X chromosome and Sly on the Y chromosome are involved in dose-dependent meiotic drive, however the role of other co-amplified genes remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the co-amplified gene family on the X chromosome, Srsx, along with two additional partial gene annotations, is actually part of a larger transcription unit, which we name Laidx. Laidx is harbored in a 229 kb amplicon that represents the ancestral state as compared to a 525 kb Y-amplicon containing the ...
Source: G3: Genes Genomes Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Genetics of Sex Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to investigate the phytochemical profile of the extracts of the heartwood of A. lakoocha and their pro-oxidant activity in vitro. The heartwood was ground, extracted, and then chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses were carried out; oxyresveratrol was identified as the major component in the extracts. The pro-oxidant activity was investigated using DNA-nick, reactive oxygen species and reducing assays. The results showed that oxyresveratrol induced DNA damage dose-dependently in the presence of copper (II) ions. It was also found to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-depend...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Communication Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2020Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Simona Panelli, Sara Epis, Lucia Cococcioni, Matteo Perini, Moira Paroni, Claudio Bandi, Lorenzo Drago, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Contributors : Kumiko Nakada-Tsukui ; Konomi Marumo ; Tomoyoshi NozakiSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Entamoeba histolyticaTo know the role of lysosomal hydrolase receptors in virulecne of enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, eleven cysteine protease binding protein family (CPBF) proteins were specifically silenced and examined the effect on virulence-related phenotypes. Among them, CPBF2 gene silence caused defect in Matrigel invasion. To clarify transcriptomic difference in CPBF2 gene silenceing strain, RNA-seq analysis was conducted.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Entamoeba histolytica Source Type: research
Abstract Currently, IgG is the only class of antibodies employed for cancer therapy. However, harnessing the unique biological properties of a different class ( e.g., IgE) could engender potent effector cell activation, and unleash previously untapped immune mechanisms against cancer. IgE antibodies are best known for pathogenic roles in allergic diseases and for protective effector functions against parasitic infestation, often mediated by IgE Fc receptor-expressing macrophages. Notably, IgE possess a very high affinity for cognate Fc receptors expressed by tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). This paper reviews ...
Source: Trends in Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Trends Mol Med Source Type: research
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