Cell Death Pathways in Ischemic Stroke and Targeted Pharmacotherapy

AbstractIschemic stroke is one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality, affecting millions of people across the globe. Cell injury in the infarct region is an inevitable consequence of focal cerebral ischemia. Subsequent reperfusion exacerbates the harmful effect and increases the infarct volume. These cellular injuries follow either a regulated pathway involving tightly structured signaling cascades and molecularly defined effector mechanisms or a non-regulated pathway, also known as accidental cell death, where the process is biologically uncontrolled. Classical cell death pathways are long established and well reported in several articles that majorly define apoptotic cell death. A recent focus on cell death study also considers investigation on non-classical pathways that are tightly regulated, may or may not involve caspases, but non-apoptotic. Pathological cell death is a cardinal feature of different neurodegenerative diseases. Although ischemia cannot be classified as a neurodegenerative disease, it is a cerebrovascular event where the infarct region exhibits aberrant cell death. Over the past few decades, several therapeutic options have been implicated for ischemic stroke. However, their use has been hampered owing to the number of limitations that they possess. Ischemic penumbral neurons undergo apoptosis and become dysfunctional; however, they are salvageable. Thus, understanding the role of different cell death pathways is crucial to aid in the moder...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of posterior cerebral artery hyperdensity is a rare radiological finding associated with an increased volume of ischaemic stroke. A computed tomography scan of the head in the acute phase is essential to try to clarify its causation. Calcium emboli are an under-diagnosed cause of stroke and occur spontaneously in a large proportion of cases. If calcium embolism is suspected, a study must be conducted in search of a carotid, valvular or aortic arch pathology. Migration of the arterial hyperdensity towards distal is associated with a better prognosis. This case presented good progress in contrast to the...
Source: Revista de Neurologia - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Rev Neurol Source Type: research
We report a case of acute OAO in a young patient with a severe form of Covid-19 infection that was on therapeutic anticoagulation with apixaban for deep venous thrombosis (DVT).
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unprecedented challenges to healthcare organizations worldwide. A steadily rising number of patients requiring intensive care, a large proportion from racial and ethnic minorities, demands creative solutions to provide high-quality care while ensuring healthcare worker safety in the face of limited resources. Boston Medical Center has been particularly affected due to the underserved patient population we care for and the increased risk of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 infection.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio may play a role in predicting cardiovascular events. We aimed to prospectively explore the association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), ischemic stroke, as well as coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Chinese population.
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - Category: Nutrition Authors: Source Type: research
Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a rapid assessment of the hemostatic processes of a patient in emergency settings. There are limited data on TEG as a predictive tool for hemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We investigated whether TEG values on admission could predict hemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractThe interplay between thrombosis and inflammation, termed thrombo-inflammation, causes acute organ damage in diseases such as ischaemic stroke and venous thrombosis. We have recently identified tetraspanin Tspan18 as a novel regulator of thrombo-inflammation. The tetraspanins are a family of 33 membrane proteins in humans that regulate the trafficking, clustering, and membrane diffusion of specific partner proteins. Tspan18 partners with the store-operated Ca2+ entry channel Orai1 on endothelial cells. Orai1 appears to be expressed in all cells and is critical in health and disease. Orai1 mutations cause human immu...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a routine treatment for multiple psychiatric disorders including treatment-refractory mood and psychotic disorders. Although ECT is generally a safe and well-tolerated intervention, rare cerebrovascular and cardiovascular complications have been reported. The hemodynamic changes during the ECT seizure are well-recognized, with an initial parasympathetically mediated decrease in heart rate and blood pressure followed by a sympathetically mediated increase in these parameters. Despite intraoperative or postoperative blood pressure fluctuations, the risk of a hypertensive intracerebral bleed...
Source: The Journal of ECT - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Half of patients hospitalized who have neurological findings for acute stroke could die.
Source: Diagnostic Imaging - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Brain MRI Infectious Diseases & Conditions/COVID-19 Ischemic stroke Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with kidney failure and nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, treatment with apixaban was not associated with a lower incidence of new stroke, transient ischemic attack, or systemic thromboembolism but was associated with a higher incidence of fatal or intracranial bleeding. PMID: 32444398 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Clin J Am Soc Nephrol Source Type: research
Conclusions: RVG-circSCMH1-EVs afford protection by promoting functional recovery in the rodent and the nonhuman primate ischemic stroke models. Our study presents a potentially widely applicable nucleotide drug delivery technology and demonstrates the basic mechanism of how circRNAs can be therapeutically exploited to improve post-stroke outcomes. PMID: 32441115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Circulation - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Circulation Source Type: research
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