Genes, Vol. 11, Pages 205: Maintenance of Yeast Genome Integrity by RecQ Family DNA Helicases

Genes, Vol. 11, Pages 205: Maintenance of Yeast Genome Integrity by RecQ Family DNA Helicases Genes doi: 10.3390/genes11020205 Authors: Gupta Schmidt With roles in DNA repair, recombination, replication and transcription, members of the RecQ DNA helicase family maintain genome integrity from bacteria to mammals. Mutations in human RecQ helicases BLM, WRN and RecQL4 cause incurable disorders characterized by genome instability, increased cancer predisposition and premature adult-onset aging. Yeast cells lacking the RecQ helicase Sgs1 share many of the cellular defects of human cells lacking BLM, including hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents and replication stress, shortened lifespan, genome instability and mitotic hyper-recombination, making them invaluable model systems for elucidating eukaryotic RecQ helicase function. Yeast and human RecQ helicases have common DNA substrates and domain structures and share similar physical interaction partners. Here, we review the major cellular functions of the yeast RecQ helicases Sgs1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rqh1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and provide an outlook on some of the outstanding questions in the field.
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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Progeroid mice with DNA repair deficiencies exhibit an accelerated formation of senescent cells and manifestation of age-related conditions. This class of animal model has been used in research relating to cellular senescence in order to cost-effectively demonstrate that targeted removal of senescent cells is beneficial. However, one still needs to be careful when drawing conclusions based on their peculiar biochemistry. Progeria of this nature is quite unlike normal aging at the detail level. Cells become senescent in response to reaching the Hayflick limit, tissue injury, molecular damage, or a toxic environment. ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
The trial evaluating the first-line treatment of pembrolizumab in patients with microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair deficient unresectable or metastatic colorectal cancer demonstrated improved PFS compared with chemotherapy.
Source: CancerNetwork - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: news
Most patients with advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) develop recurrent disease within 3  years and succumb to the disease within 5 years. Standard treatment for HGSOC is cytoreductive surgery followed by a combination of platinum (carboplatin or cisplatin) and taxol (paclitaxel) chemotherapies. Although initial recurrences are usually platinum-sensitive, patients eventually develop resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. Accordingly, one of the major problems in the treatment of HGSOC and disease recurrence is the development of chemotherapy resistance.
Source: Clinical Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Overview Source Type: research
AbstractOver the past decade, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have proven to be promising agents in a number of solid tumor malignancies. Pembrolizumab and nivolumab are ICIs that target programmed cell death protein  1 and both have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of microsatellite instability-high/DNA mismatch repair deficient (MSI-H/dMMR) colorectal cancer (CRC). In MSI-H/dMMR CRC, these agents were found to have considerable antitumor activity and are now used in the t reatment of this disease. However, MSI-H/dMMR tumors account for only 5% of metastatic CRC and the remain...
Source: BioDrugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
British Journal of Cancer, Published online: 03 April 2020; doi:10.1038/s41416-020-0830-xCorrection: Chromatin structure, transcriptional activity and DNA repair efficiency affect the outcome of chemotherapy in multiple myeloma
Source: British Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
In conclusion, our study suggested the combination of FEN1 knockdown and ATO could induce TNBC cell death by promoting ROS production. FEN1 knockdown can effectively decrease the application concentrations of ATO, thus providing a possibility for the treatment of TNBC with ATO.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Logotheti Double strand break (DSB) repair mechanisms guard genome integrity and their deterioration causes genomic instability. Common and rare fragile sites (CFS and RFS, respectively) are particularly vulnerable to instability, and there is an inverse correlation between fragile site (FS) expression and DSB repair protein levels. Upon DSB repair dysfunction, genes residing at these sites are at greater risk of deregulation compared to genes located at non-FS. In this regard, it remains enigmatic why the incidence of miRNA genes at FS is higher compared to non-FS. Herein, using bioinformatics, we examined whether mi...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Thanh Chung Vu Khee Chee Soo Hung Huynh There is a need to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy (RT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and toxicity of the anti-microtubule agent Vinorelbine as a radiosensitizer in HCC. The radio sensitivity of 16 HCC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models was determined by quantifying the survival fraction following irradiation in vitro, and Vinorelbine radio sensitization was determined by clonogenic assay. Ectopic HCC xenografts were treated with a single dose of 8 Gy irradiation and twice-weekly 3 mg/kg Vino...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Authors: Suozzi K, Turban J, Girardi M Abstract Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is well established as the major environmental risk factor for the development of melanoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Additional risk factors including genetic mutations, other environmental agents, and immune status are important in modulating the effects of UVR. Dermatologists advocate a multi-pronged approach to minimizing UVR exposure including lifestyle modifications, UVR protective clothing, and topically applied sun-protective products, i.e. sunscreen. New Federal Drug Administ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research
ConclusionTo our knowledge, this study represents a comprehensive RNA-Seq analysis of several tumor types, revealing NCAPG as a promising molecular target. NCAPG overexpression may play important roles in carcinogenesis and progression of tumors via regulating tumor-related pathways, thereby broadening the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and highlighting the possibility of developing novel targeted therapeutics.
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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