Does it matter if those who matter don't mind? Effects of gang versus delinquent peer group membership on labeling processes

AbstractDespite renewed interests in the labeling perspective and the impact of official intervention on individuals ’ future outcomes, scant attention has been given to potential conditioning factors for theorized labeling processes. We argue that, when viewed through a symbolic interactionist lens, variations in the nature of primary social groups, through which individuals filter official labels like arrest, may generate patterns for subsequent self‐concept and delinquency that are contrary to what labeling theory indicates. To test our rationale, we offer a moderated mediation model in which gang membership is expected to differentially impact the effect of arrest on future delinquency through an int ermediary mechanism: self‐esteem. We test a gang–nongang dichotomy and then probe further to test whether hypothesized effects are gang specific or occur similarly for nongang youths with highly delinquent peer groups. Analyzed using Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS) data (N = 961), com parisons between gang members and nonaffiliated youths with similarly highly delinquent peer groups revealed no significant differences in conditional indirect effects of arrest on self‐esteem and future delinquency; the two groups were similarly insulated from any negative impact of arrest on sel f‐esteem. For nongang youths with fewer delinquent peers, however, arrest significantly reduced later self‐esteem, which in turn increased their future delinque...
Source: Criminology - Category: Criminology Authors: Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

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AbstractIntroductionMaternal perception of fetal movements has long been considered an indicator of fetal well ‐being. A sudden decrease in the number of fetal movements is suggestive of fetal compromise. We aimed to determine whether the maternal perception of reduced fetal movements (RFM) is associated with placental pathological lesions in a low‐risk term population.Material and methodsOur study was a case ‐control study that was performed in a single university center. Placental histopathology, maternal demographics, labor characteristics, and neonatal outcomes of term, singleton pregnancies with maternal percept...
Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
This study aimed to analyse the features of lymphadenopathy and estimate the role of imaging methods, including computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT (PET/CT), in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in patients with POEMS syndrome. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 23 patients with confirmed POEMS syndrome. All of the patients received chest and abdominal CT scan and/or superficial ultrasound examinations. Four patients underwent PET/CT examinations, and 6 patients received lymph node biopsies. Enlarged lymph nodes (short diameter ≥ 1 cm) were found in 48% (11/23) of patients, but only 1 patie...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research
There's been increased demand for thermal scanning devices since the outbreak began.
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Source Type: news
ConclusionsThese data suggest OXT ‐related modulation of regional activity and neural network strength in patients with cLBP and healthy controls. In patients, distinct regions of the pain matrix may be responsive to modulation by OXT.
Source: European Journal of Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Tribology InternationalAuthor(s): Valter Luiz Jantara Junior, Mayorkinos Papaelias, Hanshan DongAbstractThe aim of this study has been to investigate the rolling contact behaviour of plasma nitrided and duplex treated (plasma nitrided and diamond-like carbon (DLC)) EN40B steel under overloading and intermittent lubricating conditions using the acoustic emission technique (AE). The signal amplitude and energy were monitored and related to cracking and delamination events observed from scanning electron micrographs. AE technique was found to be capable of detecting c...
Source: Tribology International - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: September 2020Source: Materials Today Communications, Volume 24Author(s): V. García-Martínez, M. R.Gude, S. Calvo, M.R. Martínez-Miranda, A. UreñaAbstractThe effect of two types of graphene nanoplatelets on the curing kinetics, gelation and vitrification behaviour of a benzoxazine resin was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and rheological experiments. The results showed that the incorporation of graphene nanoplatelets did not change the autocatalytic nature of curing reaction. However, when benzoxazine was doped with the nanofiller supplied by XG-Scien...
Source: Materials Today Communications - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Materials LettersAuthor(s): M. Sabna, K. Safna, J. Mayandi, S. Zh. Karazhanov, P JayaramAbstractV2-xNi3xO5-δ (V-Ni-O) based multi-cation materials have been prepared by high-temperature solid-state reaction for x between 0.03 and 0.06. The as synthesized V-Ni-O complex ceramic materials were subjected to microstructure profiling and photoluminescence studies. Structural analysis by x-ray diffraction pattern shows preferential growth direction analogous to that of V2O5. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy shows dense lattice a...
Source: Materials Letters - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
This study focuses on the synthesis of lithium aluminate material. The obtained γ-LiAlO2 material for application in radiation dosimetry is reported. γ-LiAlO2 powder was prepared by a sol-gel approach and a solid state reaction method for comparison purpose. The lithium aluminate was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that LiAlO2 powder has a crystalline structure in the gamma- phase form depending strongly on calcined temperature. Both methods produced completely pure γ-LiAlO2 with the average density of 2.615g/cm3 at a relatively low tempe...
Source: Materials Letters - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Materials Chemistry and PhysicsAuthor(s): Amara Nasir, Asif Raza, Mehwish Tahir, Tariq YasinAbstractA novel graphene oxide (GO) grafted polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanohybrid was synthesized via free radical polymerization. An innovative green method has been used to modify the surface of graphene oxide by gamma radiation. GO was gamma irradiated in air at different absorbed doses to enhance the amount of oxidative groups on its surface. The gamma irradiated GO was silanized with vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) and used as base material to graft acrylonitrile (AN) on its s...
Source: Materials Chemistry and Physics - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
In this study, synthesis of BCDs-Ag/MNPs has been investigated by a green and economical technique for water treatment. Leaf extract of the Pistacia atlantica plant has Afterward as a capping and reducing agent for the formation of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of magnetic biochar dots. Characterization of the synthesized nanocatalyst was confirmed by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The BCDs-Ag/MNPs has been successfully developed for effective reduction of methyl orange (MO), methyl red (MR) and methyl blue (MB)...
Source: Materials Chemistry and Physics - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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