Similarity between deviant peers: Developmental trends in influence and selection*
AbstractThe association between an adolescent's own behavior and that of his or her peers remains a key empirical finding in the study of delinquency, and this similarity is often explained in criminology by invoking processes of social influence and homophily. Adolescence is a period of rapid change for both individuals and their surroundings, however, and influence and homophily are often discussed without attending to their development over time. In the current study, I employ longitudinal social network models to estimate social influence and homophily related to alcohol and cigarette use and to determine whether there...
Source: Criminology - February 15, 2020 Category: Criminology Authors: Daniel T. Ragan Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Does contact with the justice system deter or promote future delinquency? Results from a longitudinal study of British adolescent twins
AbstractWhat impact does formal punishment have on antisocial conduct —does it deter or promote it? The findings from a long line of research on the labeling tradition indicate formal punishments have the opposite‐of‐intended consequence of promoting future misbehavior. In another body of work, the results show support for deterrence‐based hypotheses that puni shment deters future misbehavior. So, which is it? We draw on a nationally representative sample of British adolescent twins from the Environmental Risk (E‐Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study to perform a robust test of the deterrence versus labeling question...
Source: Criminology - February 14, 2020 Category: Criminology Authors: Ryan T. Motz, J.C. Barnes, Avshalom Caspi, Louise Arseneault, Francis T. Cullen, Renate Houts, Jasmin Wertz, Terrie E. Moffitt Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Does it matter if those who matter don't mind? Effects of gang versus delinquent peer group membership on labeling processes
AbstractDespite renewed interests in the labeling perspective and the impact of official intervention on individuals ’ future outcomes, scant attention has been given to potential conditioning factors for theorized labeling processes. We argue that, when viewed through a symbolic interactionist lens, variations in the nature of primary social groups, through which individuals filter official labels like arrest, may generate patterns for subsequent self‐concept and delinquency that are contrary to what labeling theory indicates. To test our rationale, we offer a moderated mediation model in which gang membership is ...
Source: Criminology - February 14, 2020 Category: Criminology Authors: Molly Buchanan, Marvin D. Krohn Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
Criminology, Volume 58, Issue 1, Page 1-4, February 2020. (Source: Criminology)
Source: Criminology - February 14, 2020 Category: Criminology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Does it matter if those who matter don't mind? Effects of gang versus delinquent peer group membership on labeling processes
AbstractDespite renewed interests in the labeling perspective and the impact of official intervention on individuals ’ future outcomes, scant attention has been given to potential conditioning factors for theorized labeling processes. We argue that, when viewed through a symbolic interactionist lens, variations in the nature of primary social groups, through which individuals filter official labels like arrest, may generate patterns for subsequent self‐concept and delinquency that are contrary to what labeling theory indicates. To test our rationale, we offer a moderated mediation model in which gang membership is ...
Source: Criminology - December 30, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Molly Buchanan, Marvin D. Krohn Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Does contact with the justice system deter or promote future delinquency? Results from a longitudinal study of British adolescent twins
AbstractWhat impact does formal punishment have on antisocial conduct —does it deter or promote it? The findings from a long line of research on the labeling tradition indicate formal punishments have the opposite‐of‐intended consequence of promoting future misbehavior. In another body of work, the results show support for deterrence‐based hypotheses that puni shment deters future misbehavior. So, which is it? We draw on a nationally representative sample of British adolescent twins from the Environmental Risk (E‐Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study to perform a robust test of the deterrence versus labeling question...
Source: Criminology - December 29, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Ryan T. Motz, J.C. Barnes, Avshalom Caspi, Louise Arseneault, Francis T. Cullen, Renate Houts, Jasmin Wertz, Terrie E. Moffitt Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Retraction statement: Ethnic threat and social control: Examining public support for judicial use  of ethnicity in punishment
AbstractThe above article, published online on 25 May 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted at the request of the authors and by agreement with the journal editors and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The second author, Eric A. Stewart, in the course of responding to concerns raised with the data and analysis, identified a mistake in the way the original data were merged. This, in conjunction with the discovery of other coding and transcription errors, collectively exceeded what the authors believed to be acceptable for a published paper. They therefore voluntarily requested that the paper be ret...
Source: Criminology - December 12, 2019 Category: Criminology Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

Retraction statement: Lynchings, racial threat, and Whites' punitive views toward Blacks
AbstractThe above article, published online on 25 March 2018 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) has been retracted at the request of the authors and by agreement with the journal editors and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The authors were responsive to concerns raised about the original paper and the corrigendum to this article dated 18 August 2019. However, in the course of responding to questions about the data and analysis, they determined that the errors reflected in the paper, including coding mistakes and transcription errors, exceeded what they viewed as acceptable for a published paper. They therefore volunt...
Source: Criminology - December 6, 2019 Category: Criminology Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

Testing hot ‐spots police patrols against no‐treatment controls: Temporal and spatial deterrence effects in the London Underground experiment
AbstractOur understanding of causality and effect size in randomized field experiments is challenged by variations in levels of baseline treatment dosage in control groups across experiments testing similar treatments. The clearest design is to compare treated cases with no ‐treatment controls in a sample that lacks any prior treatment at baseline. We applied that strategy in a randomized test of hot‐spots police patrols on the previously never‐patrolled, track‐level platforms of the London Underground (LU). In a pretest–posttest, control‐group design, we r andomly assigned 57 of the LU's 115 highest crime ...
Source: Criminology - December 4, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Barak Ariel, Lawrence W. Sherman, Mark Newton Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

“Nerve” and violent encounters: An assessment of fearlessness in the face of danger
AbstractThe findings from a large body of research on the ecology of violence indicate that individuals demonstrate a willingness to engage in violence to reduce their risk for violent victimization. Scholars have suggested that a reputation for toughness and aggression acts as an informal signal that deters mistreatment. Anderson (1999), in his street code thesis, in particular, argued that adherence to the street code functions as a signal that reduces violent victimization risk. Other research findings, however, reveal that the street code leads to an increase in victimization risk; moreover, violent offenders are routi...
Source: Criminology - December 3, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Chris Melde, Mark T. Berg, Finn ‐Aage Esbensen Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
Criminology, Volume 57, Issue 4, Page 575-578, November 2019. (Source: Criminology)
Source: Criminology - November 13, 2019 Category: Criminology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Taking sides: Gender and third ‐party partisanship in disputes
AbstractWe examine the role of a norm protecting women in understanding third ‐party partisanship in verbal and violent disputes. Our analyses are based on reports provided by male inmates and men they know who have never been arrested. The results show that third parties are more likely to support female adversaries than male adversaries. The gender effect is stronger when we control for the relational distance between adversaries, which indicates that a privacy norm might inhibit this normative protection. The gender effect is somewhat weaker when we control for the relative physical size of the adversaries, which indi...
Source: Criminology - November 13, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Ethan M. Rogers, Richard B. Felson, Mark T. Berg, Andrew Krajewski Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
Criminology, Volume 57, Issue 4, Page 575-578, November 2019. (Source: Criminology)
Source: Criminology - November 13, 2019 Category: Criminology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Together despite the odds: Explaining racial and ethnic heterogeneity in union dissolution after incarceration
AbstractThe U.S. incarceration rate rose dramatically over the past 45 years, increasing the number of marriages and cohabiting unions disrupted by a jail or prison stay. But as some have pointed out, not all unions dissolve as a result of incarceration, and there seems to be racial –ethnic variation in this tendency, with Blacks displaying higher rates of dissolution than Whites and Hispanics. Yet it is unclear what explains racial–ethnic differences in union dissolution among the incarcerated. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we examine why racial–ethnic differences in...
Source: Criminology - November 11, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Alex O. Widdowson, Wade C. Jacobsen, Sonja E. Siennick, Patricia Y. Warren Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Employer aversion to criminal records: An experimental study of mechanisms
AbstractThe mark of a criminal record is clearly harmful for employment. The reasons for employer aversion, however, are not well established even though legal, policy, and scholarly responses rely on particular explanations. We propose that explanations for aversion often fit under a repetition risk framework in which employers use records as neutral sources of information about prior illegal activity and make decisions to minimize risk of similar future conduct. A second explanation is stigma, in which the records themselves, independent of conduct, trigger stereotypes, status loss, and discrimination. Using an experimen...
Source: Criminology - November 4, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Naomi F. Sugie, Noah D. Zatz, Dallas Augustine Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Evaluating the shared and unique predictors of legal cynicism and police legitimacy from adolescence into early adulthood
AbstractIn different theoretical traditions, negative social conditions, attachments, and interactions shape the way individuals view the law and its agents. Although most researchers acknowledge the conceptual distinction between different legal attitudes such as legal cynicism and police legitimacy, it remains unclear to what extent these attitudes stem from the same social sources. In the current study, therefore, we evaluate the social and individual factors that influence trajectories of legal cynicism and police legitimacy using a diverse community sample of youths in Zurich, Switzerland. Latent growth curve models w...
Source: Criminology - October 28, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Amy Nivette, Manuel Eisner, Denis Ribeaud Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Criminal records and college admissions: A modified experimental audit
AbstractIn this article, we consider the effect of criminal records on college admissions. Nearly 72 percent of colleges require criminal history information during their application processes, which indicates that an applicant's criminal history could be a significant impediment to achieving the benefits associated with higher education. We conducted a modified experimental audit to learn whether and to what extent criminal records affect admissions decisions. Matched same ‐race pairs of tester applications were sent to a national sample of nonelite 4‐year colleges, with both testers applying as either Black or White....
Source: Criminology - October 23, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Robert Stewart, Christopher Uggen Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

School punishment and interpersonal exclusion: Rejection, withdrawal, and separation from friends
AbstractSchool suspension is a common form of punishment in the United States that is disproportionately concentrated among racial minority and disadvantaged youth. In labeling theories, the implication is that such stigmatized sanctions may lead to interpersonal exclusion from normative others and to greater involvement with antisocial peers. I test this implication in the context of rural schools by 1) examining the association between suspension and discontinuity in same ‐grade friendship ties, focusing on three mechanisms implied in labeling theories: rejection, withdrawal, and physical separation; 2) testing the ass...
Source: Criminology - September 13, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Wade C. Jacobsen Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Structural discrimination and social stigma among individuals incarcerated for sexual offenses: Reentry across the rural –urban continuum
AbstractThe stigma associated with a felony conviction can impede the reentry process, and emerging research findings indicate that one's community can amplify or temper the mark of a criminal record. Researchers examining criminal stigma have focused on individuals living in urban areas, overlooking the experiences of persons outside these communities. Using qualitative data collected from a sample of men and women paroled for sexual offenses in Missouri, we contrast how social and structural stigma alter the reentry experiences for participants living in communities along the rural and urban continuum. The results show t...
Source: Criminology - September 6, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Beth M. Huebner, Kimberly R. Kras, Breanne Pleggenkuhle Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

The commemoration of death, organizational memory, and police culture
AbstractPolice scholars document that although there is fragmentation of the so ‐called “monolithic” police culture, historically consistent features of the occupational culture of police exist. By drawing on ethnographic observations in three U.S. police departments, I describe how one consistent feature of police culture—the preoccupation with danger and potential dea th—is maintained by the commemoration of officers killed in the line of duty. Through the use of commemorative cultural artifacts, officers and departments construct an organizational memory that locally reflects and reifies the sa...
Source: Criminology - August 27, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Michael Sierra ‐Arévalo Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Testing a rational choice model of “desistance:” Decomposing changing expectations and changing utilities
AbstractWe argue that a rational choice framework can be used to explain declines in offending from adolescence to young adulthood in two ways. First, subjective expectations of offending can be age graded such that perceptions of rewards decrease and perceptions of risks and costs increase. Second, the marginal (dis)utility of crime may be age graded (e.g., preferences for risks, costs, and rewards). We examine changes in offending from adolescence to young adulthood among a subset of individuals from the Pathways to Desistance Study (N  = 585) and employ a nonlinear decomposition model to partition differences ...
Source: Criminology - August 23, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Kyle J. Thomas, Matt Vogel Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Sexual victimization against transgender women in prison: Consent and coercion in context
AbstractIn this article, we conjoin two long ‐standing lines of inquiry in criminology—the study of prison life and the study of sexual assault—by using original qualitative and quantitative data from 315 transgender women incarcerated in 27 California men's prisons. In so doing, we advance an analysis of the factors and processes that s hape their experience of sexual victimization in prison. The results of qualitative analysis of 198 reported incidents of sexual victimization exhibit a range of types of sexual victimization experienced by transgender women in prison and reveal the centrality of relationship...
Source: Criminology - August 22, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Valerie Jenness, Lori Sexton, Jennifer Sumner Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Lynchings, racial threat, and whites ’ punitive views toward blacks
Criminology, Volume 57, Issue 3, Page 574-574, August 2019. (Source: Criminology)
Source: Criminology - August 18, 2019 Category: Criminology Tags: CORRIGENDUM Source Type: research

Issue Information
Criminology, Volume 57, Issue 3, Page 373-376, August 2019. (Source: Criminology)
Source: Criminology - August 18, 2019 Category: Criminology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Inequalities and crime
AbstractThe study of inequalities undergirds much of criminology. At times, however, we may take the impact of inequalities for granted and miss opportunities to problematize the strong link between inequalities and crime. In this address, I maintain that it is important to step back and recognize that economic, race, ethnic, gender, and other inequalities are at the core of criminology. More explicit consensus about the centrality of the link between inequalities and crime will allow for our field to speak to the major social and political issues of our time and will strengthen the field. In this address, I highlight some...
Source: Criminology - August 18, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Karen Heimer Tags: 2018 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS TO THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY Source Type: research

Lynchings, racial threat, and whites ’ punitive views toward blacks
Criminology, Volume 57, Issue 3, Page 574-574, August 2019. (Source: Criminology)
Source: Criminology - August 18, 2019 Category: Criminology Tags: CORRIGENDUM Source Type: research

Issue Information
Criminology, Volume 57, Issue 3, Page 373-376, August 2019. (Source: Criminology)
Source: Criminology - August 18, 2019 Category: Criminology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Fight or flight: Integral emotions and violent intentions
AbstractThe effect of proximate emotions on risk perceptions is of central importance to criminal decision ‐making theory, but has been understudied. We investigate the role of two integral (situational specific) emotional responses, anger and fear, in a decision‐making context regarding the choice to commit assault. We draw on dual‐process models of information processing and appraisal theory to p ropose a theoretical model in which integral emotions influence decisions and behavior. Using data from an experiment embedded in a survey to a nationwide sample of adults (N = 804), we test the interrelated role...
Source: Criminology - August 8, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Timothy C. Barnum, Starr J. Solomon Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Inequalities and crime
AbstractThe study of inequalities undergirds much of criminology. At times, however, we may take the impact of inequalities for granted and miss opportunities to problematize the strong link between inequalities and crime. In this address, I maintain that it is important to step back and recognize that economic, race, ethnic, gender, and other inequalities are at the core of criminology. More explicit consensus about the centrality of the link between inequalities and crime will allow for our field to speak to the major social and political issues of our time and will strengthen the field. In this address, I highlight some...
Source: Criminology - July 17, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Karen Heimer Tags: 2018 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS TO THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY Source Type: research

Development of impulsivity and risk ‐seeking: Implications for the dimensionality and stability of self‐control*
In this study, we draw on Steinberg's dual systems model, introduced in 2008, to consider this issue further. We examine that model's two key elements of low self‐contr ol—risk‐seeking and impulsivity—to determine whether they are empirically distinguishable from one another and have differing developmental trajectories from childhood to early adulthood. We also consider the consequences of changes in risk‐seeking and impulsivity for within‐individual cha nges in crime. We examine these issues with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) for individuals from 10 to 30 years old....
Source: Criminology - June 11, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Walter Forrest, Carter Hay, Alex O. Widdowson, Michael Rocque Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Taking sides: Gender and third ‐party partisanship in disputes*
AbstractWe examine the role of a norm protecting women in understanding third ‐party partisanship in verbal and violent disputes. Our analyses are based on reports provided by male inmates and men they know who have never been arrested. The results show that third parties are more likely to support female adversaries than male adversaries. The gender effect is stronger when we control for the relational distance between adversaries, which indicates that a privacy norm might inhibit this normative protection. The gender effect is somewhat weaker when we control for the relative physical size of the adversaries, which indi...
Source: Criminology - June 11, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Ethan M. Rogers, Richard B. Felson, Mark T. Berg, Andrew Krajewski Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Development of impulsivity and risk ‐seeking: Implications for the dimensionality and stability of self‐control*
In this study, we draw on Steinberg's dual systems model, introduced in 2008, to consider this issue further. We examine that model's two key elements of low self‐contr ol—risk‐seeking and impulsivity—to determine whether they are empirically distinguishable from one another and have differing developmental trajectories from childhood to early adulthood. We also consider the consequences of changes in risk‐seeking and impulsivity for within‐individual cha nges in crime. We examine these issues with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) for individuals from 10 to 30 years old....
Source: Criminology - June 11, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Walter Forrest, Carter Hay, Alex O. Widdowson, Michael Rocque Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

Consequences of mental and physical health for reentry and recidivism: Toward a health ‐based model of desistance*
AbstractDuring the last few decades, criminologists have identified several adult roles and statuses, including employment, positive family relations, and economic stability, as critical for promoting successful reintegration and desistance. Very few researchers, however, have investigated the conditions that serve to bring about these transitions and successes crucial for behavior change. As a complement to a burgeoning amount of literature on the impact of incarceration on health, we emphasize the reverse: Health has important implications for reentry outcomes and reincarceration. Informed by multiple disciplines, we adv...
Source: Criminology - June 10, 2019 Category: Criminology Authors: Nathan W. Link, Jeffrey T. Ward, Richard Stansfield Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research