Ultra-High Dose Rate (FLASH) Radiotherapy: Silver Bullet or Fool's Gold?

Radiotherapy is a cornerstone of both curative and palliative cancer care. However, radiotherapy is severely limited by radiation-induced toxicities. If these toxicities could be reduced, a greater dose of radiation could be given therefore facilitating a better tumor response. Initial pre-clinical studies have shown that irradiation at dose rates far exceeding those currently used in clinical contexts reduce radiation-induced toxicities whilst maintaining an equivalent tumor response. This is known as the FLASH effect. To date, a single patient has been subjected to FLASH radiotherapy for the treatment of subcutaneous T-cell lymphoma resulting in complete response and minimal toxicities. The mechanism responsible for reduced tissue toxicity following FLASH radiotherapy is yet to be elucidated, but the most prominent hypothesis so far proposed is that acute oxygen depletion occurs within the irradiated tissue. This review examines the tissue response to FLASH radiotherapy, critically evaluates the evidence supporting hypotheses surrounding the biological basis of the FLASH effect, and considers the potential for FLASH radiotherapy to be translated into clinical contexts.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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AbstractUltraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was used with success in the 1930s and 1940s for a variety of diseases. Despite the success, the lack of understanding of the detailed mechanisms of actions, and the achievements of antibiotics, phased off the use of UBI from the 1950s. The emergence of novel viral infections, from HIV/AIDS to Ebola, from SARS and MERS, and SARS-CoV-2, bring back the attention to this therapeutical opportunity. UBI has a complex virucidal activity, mostly acting on the immune system response. It has effects on lymphocytes (T-cells and B-cells), macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, low-density...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
de Masson Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are non-Hodgkin lymphomas that develop primarily in the skin. They account for almost 80% of primary cutaneous lymphomas. Epidermotropic CTCLs (mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS)) are the most common form of CTCL. The course of the disease ranges from an indolent clinical behavior in early-stage disease to an aggressive evolution in the advanced stages. Advanced-stage disease is defined by the presence of tumors, erythroderma, or significant blood, nodal or visceral involvement. Advanced-stage disease is characterized by frequent disease relapses, re...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
HORSHAM, PA, September 30, 2020 – The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson &Johnson announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved SIMPONI ARIA® (golimumab) for patients 2 years of age and older for the treatment of active pJIA and has extended the PsA indication for this same patient population. “This latest FDA approval of SIMPONI ARIA for pediatric use in active pJIA and active PsA not only brings a new option to young patients living with these diseases but also adds to the growing body of evidence for this treatment,” said Mathai Mammen, M.D., Ph.D., Glob...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
Contributors : Katarina Lopusna ; Pawel Nowialis ; Jana Opavska ; Ajay Abraham ; Alberto Riva ; Rene OpavskySeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing ; Genome binding/occupancy profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiens ; Mus musculusDNA methylation has suppressive effects on gene transcription and it is involved in a variety of physiologic processes, including development and cancer. As we and others demonstrated, Dnmt3b is a tumor suppressor in oncogene-driven lymphoid and myeloid malignancies in mice. Due to numerous activities such as methylation-dependent and independent repr...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Genome binding/occupancy profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Mus musculus Source Type: research
BackgroundExtranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is a rare and extremely malignant tumor. The systemic inflammation score (SIS), which is based on the pretreatment level of lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) and serum albumin (Alb), has been shown to be of prognostic value in a number of cancers. We integrate several other pretreatment serum inflammatory indicators, including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin (Alb) level, to establish a modified systemic inflammatory scoring system to predict clinical outcomes of ENKTL.Method...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract Epigenetic enzymes histone deacetylases (HDACs) are clinically validated anticancer drug targets which have been studied intensively in the past few decades. Although several drugs have been approved in this field, they are still limited to a subset of hematological malignancies (in particular T-cell lymphomas), with therapeutic potential not fully realized and the drug-resistance occurred after a certain period of use. To maximize the therapeutic potential of these classes of anticancer drugs, and to extend their application to solid tumors, numerous combination therapies containing an HDACi and an antic...
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the penis. The new World Health Organization (WHO) classifies it into two types: non-HPV-related and HPV-related. There is a certain proportion of recurrence and metastasis after the first operation on the tumor. Radiotherapy is one of the effective methods to improve prognosis, but there is a risk of secondary primary malignant tumor. Primary NK/T cell lymphoma of the penis is rare, and secondary primary NK/T cell lymphoma of penile stump after radiotherapy for penile cancer has not been reported. Here we report a case of a 75-year-old man who...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Young patients with early stage DLBCL may benefit from complete lymphoma resection prior to immunochemotherapy. PMID: 32926763 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Hamostaseologie - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Cancer Med Source Type: research
In this study, we successfully prepared 50 nm liposomal colloids, which showed a controlled release pattern and excellent pharmacokinetics. The results showed that the particle size of liposomes consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) was larger than that of those consisting of dioleoylglycerophosphoserine (DOPS). In terms of release kinetics of belinostat, the free drug was rapidly released and showed lower area under curve (AUC) exposure for in vivo pharmacokinetics. When liposomal formulations were employed, the release pattern was fitted with Hixson–Crowell models and showed sustained release of beli...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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Source: NIH Funding Opportunities (Notices, PA, RFA) - Category: Research Source Type: funding
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