Should adult organs be used in pediatric patients?

Sarah Murnaghan, an 11-year-old with end-stage cystic fibrosis who was at the top of the pediatric organ donor list, took her medical battle to the courtroom to be placed at the top of the adult list so she could receive organs more quickly. After a judge ruled in her favor, she twice underwent a double lung transplant in June; she is now fighting pneumonia in her right lung. "Sound Medicine" host....
Source: Sound Medicine - Category: Global & Universal Authors: Source Type: news

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Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients confers a worse clinical outcome with increased rate of declined lung function. Telavancin, an approved lipoglycopeptide used to treat infections due to S. aureus has a dual mode of action causing inhibition of the peptidoglycan synthesis and membrane depolarization. CF-associated MRSA infections remain an important problem with no foreseeable decline in prevalence rates. Although telavancin is currently in clinical use for complicated skin infections and hospital-acquired pneumonia, the activity against CF- as...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Poster Sessions Source Type: research
ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species), represent a group of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria that demonstrate the ability to escape antimicrobial treatments. These organisms are highly responsible for nosocomial and community-acquired infections, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia and S. aureus induced diabetic foot infection. Notably, P. aeruginosa contributes directly to the high mortality rate of cystic fibrosis (CF) chronic lung infections.
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Discussion Normal kidneys regulate water balance to maintain a plasma osmolality of 275-290 mOsm/kg normally. Thirst and arginine vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are the primary regulators of plasma osmolality. ADH is made in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. ADH acts on the kidney’s distal collecting duct to increase water reabsorption. ADH is appropriately released in hypovolemic states, such as dehydration caused by gastroenteritis. ADH has an ~10 minute half-life and therefore can respond to rapid changes in volume status. Sodium balance is regulated by aldosterone (as part...
Source: - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Abstract Ciprofloxacin (CFX) is a fluroquinolone antibiotic used as a first line treatment against infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumonia that are commonly acquired by cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, no inhalation formulation is currently available for ciprofloxacin. Hybrid silica coated silver nanoparticles were prepared using Stöber reaction and the optimum ratio of chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate was used to encapsulate CFX. Particle deposition was assessed in vitro using twin stage impinger while antimicrobial activity was evaluated based on the planktonic gro...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharm Biopharm Source Type: research
Pulmonary infection of cystic fibrosis mice with Staphylococcus aureus requires expression of α-toxin. Biol Chem. 2018 Apr 01;: Authors: Keitsch S, Riethmüller J, Soddemann M, Sehl C, Wilker B, Edwards MJ, Caldwell CC, Fraunholz M, Gulbins E, Becker NKA Abstract Pulmonary infections of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) occur very early in the disease. The molecular details that cause infection-susceptibility of CF patients to and mediate infection with S. aureus are poorly characterized. Therefore, we aimed to identify the role of α-toxin, a major S. ...
Source: Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Tags: Biol Chem Source Type: research
Many different species of gram-negative bacteria are associated with infection in the lung, causing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), and ventilator-associated pneumonias. These airway pathogens must adapt to common host clearance mechanisms that include killing by antimicrobial peptides, antibiotics, oxidative stress, and phagocytosis by leukocytes. Bacterial adaptation to the host is often evident phenotypically, with increased extracellular polysaccharide production characteristic of some biofilm-associated organisms. Given the relatively limited repertoire of bacterial strate...
Source: Journal of Innate Immunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of non-CF bronchiectasis is often delayed because of a failure to recognize the significance of symptoms. Through clinical investigation, including a HRCT scan of the chest, sweat test, studies of immune function, and ciliary function in a child with a prolonged suppurative cough, remains important. In Turkey, the most common causes of non-CF bronchiectasis are PCD and immunodeficiency, related to a high frequency of consanguinity. PMID: 29605210 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Respir Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term macrolide therapy may reduce the frequency of exacerbations and improve quality of life, although supporting evidence is derived mainly from studies of azithromycin, rather than other macrolides, and predominantly among adults rather than children. However, macrolides should be used with caution, as limited data indicate an associated increase in microbial resistance. Macrolides are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death and other serious adverse events in other populations, and available data cannot exclude a similar risk among patients with bronchiectasis. PMID: 29543980 [PubMe...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
Non-cystic fibrosis(CF) bronchiectasis has been recognized in children for the past 200 years. Early childhood pneumonia and underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency, primary ciliary dyskinesia(PCD), and congenital lung pathology should be considered in the etiology. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory, and radiological findings of a large population of patients with non-CF bronchiectasis at a tertiary center.
Source: Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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