Importance of assessing cytogenetic and molecular risk factors in acute myeloid leukemia therapy.
We present our experience during 5 years, in which we treated 245 patients with AML, of which we could genetically characterize 48 cases (26 females, 22 males) with a median age of 52 years. Cytogenetic analysis was performed by GTG banding on cultures of marrow cells treated with colcemid. Molecular analysis used RT-PCR performed on ABI 9700 platform in order to identify the following fusion genes: E2A-PBX1, TEL-AML1, AML1-ETO, PML-RARα, MLL-AF4, CBFC-MYH11, BCR-ABL, SIL-TAL, and MLL-AF9as well as mutations in Flt3, NPM1, WT1 genes. Fourteen patients were older than 60 years. In 12 we performed cytogenetic analysis showing 5 cases with complex karyotype, 2 normal karyotypes, 1 case of del(21), del (9), 11q- and t(3;15) respectively as well as 2 unevaluable karyotypes. These anomalies were associated with a high incidence of secondary AMLs (10/14) and with a low remission (CR) rate (5/14). Out of the 35 patients younger than 60 years, 25 were evaluated by cytogenetics showing a high incidence of favorable cytogenetic changes: 6 anomalies of chromosome 16 (5 inv (16) and 1 t (16; 16)), 3 t (15; 17), 3 cases of t (8; 21) of which 2 with additional abnormalities, 7 normal karyotypes and 1 case of 7q-, -y,-3 and respectively -8 associated with +18. In 25 cases molecular analysis was performed showing alterations in 21 patients: 6 cases with AML/ETO, 3 PML/RAR, 7 Flt3 mutations (2 associated with NPM1 mutation) as well as 1 case of isolated mutation of NPM1 and respectively ...
Authors: Vučićević Boras V, Vidović Juras D, Aurer I, Bašić-Kinda S, Mikulić M Abstract A 40-year-old female patient was admitted to the Department of Oral Medicine due to oral ulcerations. Oral ulcerations were present on vestibular mucosa above teeth 21, 22, 25 and 26 and were 1 cm in diameter, and also around teeth 45 and 46. The patient had prolonged neutropenia due to therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome that progressed to therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia. Initially, the patient was successfully treated with polychemotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Unfortunately, many toxic complicatio...
High-resolution genome-wide SNP-arrays detect large chromosomal aberrations including copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CNLOH), which is not captured in conventional cytogenetics.
We previously demonstrated poor outcomes of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with antecedent myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) (Gupta et al, BBMT, 2019; abstract 140). In particular, we did not find any difference in outcomes of patients who received transplant “in remission” defined as blood and bone marrow blasts
BMT CTN 0901 enrolled patients with MDS (N=54) or AML (N=218) (median age of 55 years) who had
The WHO 2016 AML-MRC designation applies to AML patients (pts) with a history of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasm, a MDS-related cytogenetic abnormality, or multilineage dysplasia in>50% of ≥2 cell lineages in the absence of NPM1 or biallelic CEBPA mutations. AML-MRC pts typically have a poor prognosis after induction chemotherapy. CPX-351 (Vyxeos®; daunorubicin and cytarabine liposome for injection), a dual-drug liposomal encapsulation of cytarabine [C] and daunorubicin [D] at a sy nergistic ratio, is approved by the FDA and EMA for the treatment of adults with newly diagnosed th...
Acute myeloid leukemia bearing a RUNX1 gene mutation (RUNX1+ AML) has been proposed as a provisional entity in the 2016 WHO classification. Clinically, it has been associated with inferior response rates and outcome after conventional chemotherapy. Accordingly, RUNX1+ AML is allocated in the unfavorable prognostic category of the 2017 European Leukemia Net classification. Following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT), RUNX1 was an unfavorable factor in one study in MDS/secondary AML, while data in de novo AML are scarce.
In QuANTUM-R, the once-daily, oral, highly potent and selective FLT3 inhibitor Q improved clinical benefit vs SC (median overall survival [mOS], 6.2 vs 4.7 mo [HR, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.58-0.98); P = .02]) in R/R FLT3-ITD AML (NCT02039726). Before randomization, 25% (Q) and 23% (SC) of pts had 1 prior HSCT.
Relapse of leukemic cells that do not express the antigen targeted by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is still a risk. As is the potential for targeting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that share the same antigen expression, off-tumor on-target toxicity. Further, CAR T cells that bind different epitopes of the same antigen can have different tumor-killing efficacies. Therefore, we screen murine single chain variable fragment (scFv) based for indirect affinity to identify a CAR that targets Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), while minimizing toxicities.
For patients with refractory or high-risk hematologic malignancies, like acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (Allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative approach. Morbidities and mortality associated with current conditioning regimens limit the use of this curative procedure. As a result, many eligible patients do not consider transplant and 2/3 of those transplanted are only able to tolerate a reduced intensity conditioning regimen, which is associated with increased relapse rates (Scott, J Clin Onc 2017).
Relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) following an allogeneic stem cell transplant has a bleak prognosis with no standard for treatment identified. Current literature suggests combining hypomethylating agents (HMA) with a donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) as salvage therapy to reduce disease burden and induce a graft versus leukemia (GVL) effect. At our institution, this salvage therapy option is being used for this population, peaking interest in our experience to date.