Chitin: A "Hidden Figure" in the Fungal Cell Wall.
Chitin: A "Hidden Figure" in the Fungal Cell Wall. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2019 Dec 06;: Authors: Brown HE, Esher SK, Alspaugh JA Abstract Chitin and chitosan are two related polysaccharides that provide important structural stability to fungal cell walls. Often embedded deeply within the cell wall structure, these molecules anchor other components at the cell surface. Chitin-directed organization of the cell wall layers allows the fungal cell to effectively monitor and interact with the external environment. For fungal pathogens, this interaction includes maintaining cellular strategies to avoid excessive detection by the host innate immune system. In turn, mammalian and plant hosts have developed their own strategies to process fungal chitin, resulting in chitin fragments of varying molecular size. The size-dependent differences in the immune activation behaviors of variably sized chitin molecules help to explain how chitin and related chitooligomers can both inhibit and activate host immunity. Moreover, chitin and chitosan have recently been exploited for many biomedical applications, including targeted drug delivery and vaccine development. PMID: 31807896 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSION We identified a population of HCV-specific CD4+ T cells with a follicular T helper cell signature that is maintained after therapy-induced elimination of persistent infection and may constitute an important target population for vaccination efforts to prevent reinfection and immunotherapeutic approaches for persistent viral infections.FUNDING Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the European Union, the Berta-Ottenstein-Programme for Advanced Clinician Scientists, and the ANRS.
[Nation] Tax payers have lost Sh92 million after a new foot-and-mouth disease vaccine that had been manufactured by the veterinary agency expired following a tug-of-war between senior government officials and the corporation over a benchmarking trip.
(University of Michigan) Fully vaccinating children reduces the risk of hospitalization associated with influenza by 54%, according to a study by researchers at the University of Michigan, the Clalit Research Institute, and Ben-Gurion University in Israel.
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Maria Brotons, Laia Bruni
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Mélanie Drolet, Marc Brisson
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Peter Sasieni, Jack Cuzick
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Luís Fernando Parizi, Carolina Konrdörfer Rangel, Gabriela Alves Sabadin, Bianca Fagundes Saggin, Irene Kiio, Marina Amaral Xavier, Renata da Silva Matos, Maria Izabel Camargo-Mathias, Adriana Seixas, Satoru Konnai, Kazuhiko Ohashi, Naftaly Wang'ombe Githaka, Itabajara da Silva VazAbstractRhipicephalus appendiculatus, the brown ear tick, is an important disease vector of livestock in eastern, central and southern Africa. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus acaricide resistance requires the search for alternative methods f...
This study assessed whether the endemic status of this disease was stable or instable, which is important for disease control efforts. For this aim, 4115 sheep blood samples were collected from 81 cities in the seven geographical regions of Turkey. The diagnosis of Babesia ovis was made using microscopic and serological techniques. Thin blood smears were prepared from anticoagulated venous blood. Serum samples were screened for specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Recombinant Babesia ovis secreted antigen 1 (rBoSA1) was used in the ELISA. The ...
One online user labeled her "Public Enemy #1", another commented that the pediatrician should "stop killing our kids with vaccines."
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Dana Miskulin, Daniel E. Weiner, Harold J. Manley