Myeloma: next generation immunotherapy.

Myeloma: next generation immunotherapy. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2019 Dec 06;2019(1):266-272 Authors: Cohen AD Abstract The course of multiple myeloma (MM) from initial diagnosis to a relapsed/refractory state is characterized by acquisition of drug resistance as well as progressive immunologic dysfunction. Despite this, however, a number of novel therapies that work in part or solely via immune stimulation are in development for MM, with promising early clinical results. Several new whole-cell or multiepitope vaccine approaches are demonstrating immunologic efficacy in smoldering MM or as posttherapy consolidation, with trials ongoing to see whether this translates into delayed progression or elimination of minimal residual disease. Programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibition in combination with immunomodulatory drugs demonstrated excessive toxicity in randomized trials; however, antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 and other checkpoint molecules continue to be explored in combination with tumor-targeted antibodies and other T cell-directed therapies. B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) has emerged as the next big antigen target, with multiple BCMA-specific antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and T cell-directed bispecific antibodies/bispecific therapeutic engagers (BiTEs) entering the clinic. In initial trials, the ADC GSK2857916 and the BiTE AMG 420 have demonstrated high response rates in relapsed/refractory patients, wit...
Source: Hematology ASH Education Program - Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program Source Type: research

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Authors: Avigan DE PMID: 31851153 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clin Adv Hematol Oncol Source Type: research
(The Mount Sinai Hospital / Mount Sinai School of Medicine) Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have discovered a way to move precision immunotherapy forward by using genomics to inform immunotherapy for multiple myeloma, a blood cancer, according to a study published in Clinical Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, in December.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that somatic mutations in multiple myeloma can be immunogenic and induce neoantigen-specific T-cell activation that is associated with antitumor activity in vitro and clinical response in vivo. Our results provide the foundation for using neoantigen targeting strategies such as peptide vaccines in future trials for patients with multiple myeloma. PMID: 31857430 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
Inokuchi Despite therapeutic advances over the past decades, multiple myeloma (MM) remains a largely incurable disease with poor prognosis in high-risk patients, and thus new treatment strategies are needed to achieve treatment breakthroughs. MM represents various forms of impaired immune surveillance characterized by not only disrupted antibody production but also immune dysfunction of T, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells, although immunotherapeutic interventions such as allogeneic stem-cell transplantation and dendritic cell-based tumor vaccines were reported to prolong survival in limited populations of MM p...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In conclusion, our findings suggest that daratumumab induces not only depletion of autoreactive long-lived plasma cells associated with improvements of neurological sequelae, but also severe side effects requiring clinical studies investigating efficacy and safety of anti-CD38 therapy in a ntibody-driven autoimmune encephalitis.
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Cancer immunotherapies have primarily focused on generating tumoricidal CD8 T cells. However, recent data demonstrate a critical role for CD4 T cells in tumor immunity. CD4 T cells against epitopes derived from mutated tumor-associated neo-antigens (neoAg) conferred protection against tumor growth in animal models of neoAg vaccine therapy. In clinical studies, immunity elicited by neoAg vaccines was associated with improved survival, even though the majority of immune responses were CD4 T cells that did not have cytolytic activity.
Source: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia - Category: Hematology Authors: Source Type: research
This article introduces the main concepts and addresses the most relevant clinical modalities of cellular immunotherapies for hematological malignancies: antigen non-specific T cell therapy, genetically modified T cell receptor (TCR) T cell therapy, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, and CAR-T cell clinical trials in leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Clinical trials have shown encouraging results, but future studies may need to incorporate novel CAR constructs or targets with enhanced safety and efficacy to ensure long-term benefits. PMID: 31338822 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological malignancy. Immunodeficiency results in the incapability of immunity to eradicate both tumor cells and pathogens. Immunotherapies along with antibiotics and other anti-infectious agents are applied as substitutes for immunity in MM. Immunotherapies including monoclonal antibodies, immune checkpoints inhibitors, affinity- enhanced T cells, chimeric antigen receptor T cells and dendritic cell vaccines are revolutionizing MM treatment. By suppressing the pro-inflammatory milieu and pathogens, prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotics represent anti-tumor and anti-infection pr...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
This study has implications in increasing the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy in MM.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion MTDH is pro-oncogenic factor playing multifaceted and diverse roles in cancer progression. Its association and central role in regulating signaling pathways such a MAPK, wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AkT, NF-κβ pathways in various cancers shows that it plays a vital role in metastasis. MTDH contribution to chemo and radiotherapy resistance provides a new direction for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Multiple mechanisms converge to promote expression of MTDH in cancers. Further studies are therefore warranted to determine whether the elevated MTDH expression has prognostic value for development...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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