A simple method using anesthetics to test effects of sleep-inducing substances in mice

Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Journal of Pharmacological SciencesAuthor(s): Hiroki Murai, Hiroto Suzuki, Hirochi Tanji, Tomoki Kimura, Yoshinori IbaAbstractWe investigated the effects of sleep-inducing agents with different mechanisms of action on the loss of the righting reflex induced by isoflurane or a mixture of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol (MMB), followed by atipamezole reversal. Chlorpromazine and brotizolam delayed recovery from both types of anesthesia, whereas the melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon had no effect. The orexin receptor antagonist suvorexant delayed recovery from anesthesia only in the case of MMB, while the sleep-promoting supplement glycine only delayed recovery in the case of isoflurane. These results suggest that the simple comparison method is applicable for testing substances expected to exert sleep-inducing effects.
Source: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Millions of people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) — from veterans to rape survivors — have new hope because of a watershed study showing that the injection of an anesthetic to a bundle of nerves in the neck can relieve their symptoms in a clinically significant way. The treatment is known as the stellate ganglion block, or SGB. Used since 1925 for problems such as pain in the arm and shingles, it is safe and effective. In the newly released, eight-week, U.S. Army-funded clinical trial of 108 active-duty service members with PTSD, the nonprofit research institute RTI International found that patients...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Personal PTSD Research Treatment Hyper Vigilance Neuroscience Neurotransmitter Norepinephrine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder pruning Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, these results indicated that loganin produced beneficial sedative and hypnotic activity, which might be mainly mediated by modification of the serotonergic system and GABAergic neurons. Introduction Insomnia is referred to as continuous difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, which can induce extreme medical and psychiatric disorders (Cao et al., 2016). It was reported that 27 percent of people in the world suffering from insomnia (Doghramji, 2006), and approximately 3–10 percent of people would frequently depend on hypnotics to overcome insomnia by 2050 (Chu et al., 2007). Clinically, b...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Sara AlMarabeh, Mohammed H. Abdulla and Ken D. O'Halloran* Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Renal sensory nerves are important in the regulation of body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and blood pressure. Activation of renal mechanoreceptor afferents triggers a negative feedback reno-renal reflex that leads to the inhibition of sympathetic nervous outflow. Conversely, activation of renal chemoreceptor afferents elicits reflex sympathoexcitation. Dysregulation of reno-renal reflexes by suppression of the inhibitory refle...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusion Currently available pharmacotherapies for PTSD are poorly effective on a substantial proportion of patients. Given this high rate of pharmacological unresponsiveness, further studies are needed to extend the knowledge of the basic mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of this disorder. The findings discussed in this review suggest that DAergic dysfunction, especially genetic-dependent DAergic alteration, plays a prominent role in the pathophysiology of PTSD; as a consequence, drugs targeting the DAergic system might be therapeutically relevant. A better understanding of how and which DAergic dysfunctio...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In this study, we used HUT as the means to provide an all-encompassing assessment of cardiac and/or peripheral autonomic function in normal controls, SCD subjects and non-SCD subjects with chronic anemia. We hypothesized that by identifying different categories of HUT response among these subjects, we would be able to isolate the autonomic phenotypes that might place SCD subjects at increased risk for microvascular occlusion and VOC. We then employed the causal modeling approach, which utilizes signal analysis and system identification techniques, to probe and disentangle the functional mechanisms involved in the cardiovas...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 30689208 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Conclusion: An SGB is an effective method that can be considered in conjunction with other treatments for persistent hiccups. Clinicians should be mindful of the negative effects that persistent hiccups can exert on patients.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
We examined whether patients at increased risk for OSA, assessed by the STOP-BANG (snoring, tired during the day, observed stop breathing during sleep, high blood pressure, body mass index more than 35 kg/m, age more than 50 years, neck circumference more than 40 cm, and male gender) questionnaire, had a higher incidence of new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Because both postoperative atrial fibrillation and OSA increase resource utilization, we secondarily examined whether patients at increased OSA risk had longer duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU...
Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Anesth Analg Source Type: research
This study investigated the effects of CIH on atrial electrophysiology and arrhythmia vulnerability, and evaluated the role of autonomics in CIH promotion of AF. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 8h/day of CIH or normoxia for 7 days. Following exposure, rats were anesthetized for intracardiac electrophysiological studies. Atrial effective refractory periods (AERPs) and AF inducibility were determined using programmed electrical stimulation (PES) and burst pacing in the absence and presence of autonomic receptor agonists and antagonists. Western blot analysis measured atrial protein expression of muscarinic M2,...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol Source Type: research
In this study, we employed this model to test whether the elevation in SNA was mediated by hypoxia, carotid chemoreceptors, or neurotransmission in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In anesthetized, male Sprague–Dawley rats, airway obstruction (20s) increased phrenic nerve activity (PNA), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and lumbar, renal, and splanchnic SNA. The changes in SNA were similar across all three sympathetic nerves. Inactivation of chemoreceptors by hyperoxia (100% O2) or surgical denervation of carotid chemoreceptors attenuated, but did not eliminate, the changes in SNA and ABP produced by airway obstru...
Source: Physiological Reports - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
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