Feature Selection and Dimension Reduction of Social Autism Data.

Feature Selection and Dimension Reduction of Social Autism Data. Pac Symp Biocomput. 2020;25:707-718 Authors: Washington P, Paskov KM, Kalantarian H, Stockham N, Voss C, Kline A, Patnaik R, Chrisman B, Varma M, Tariq Q, Dunlap K, Schwartz J, Haber N, Wall DP Abstract Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neuropsychiatric condition with a highly heterogeneous phenotype. Following the work of Duda et al., which uses a reduced feature set from the Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition (SRS) to distinguish ASD from ADHD, we performed item-level question selection on answers to the SRS to determine whether ASD can be distinguished from non-ASD using a similarly small subset of questions. To explore feature redundancies between the SRS questions, we performed filter, wrapper, and embedded feature selection analyses. To explore the linearity of the SRS-related ASD phenotype, we then compressed the 65-question SRS into low-dimension representations using PCA, t-SNE, and a denoising autoencoder. We measured the performance of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier with the top-ranking questions as input. Classification using only the top-rated question resulted in an AUC of over 92% for SRS-derived diagnoses and an AUC of over 83% for dataset-specific diagnoses. High redundancy of features have implications towards replacing the social behaviors that are targeted in behavioral diagnostics and interventions, where digital quantification of certain fea...
Source: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing - Category: Bioinformatics Tags: Pac Symp Biocomput Source Type: research

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AbstractWhile slow processing speed (PS) is well documented in youth with ADHD, growing evidence suggests that this difficulty affects children with other neuropsychiatric conditions. Clarifying the relationship between slow PS and different forms of psychopathology is important clinically, given the potential impact of PS on academic functioning, and conceptually. In 751 youth, ages 6 –21, consecutively referred for neuropsychiatric evaluation, we examined the association between slow PS (i.e., Wechsler PS Index 
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: April 2020Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Volume 72Author(s): Daniel E. Lidstone, Faria Z. Miah, Brach Poston, Julie F. Beasley, Janet S. DufekAbstractBackgroundPostural control deficits are commonly reported in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, identification of specific postural sway features that differentiate ASD from other neurodevelopmental disorders has not been examined. The current study employs a cross-syndrome approach by comparing postural sway area and direction-specific features of sway magnitude, sway velocity, and sway complexity between children with AS...
Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur results indicate the prevalence of multiple comorbidities varies across the lifespan in DS, and in adults, rates for psychiatric comorbidities show different patterns for males and females relative to expected population rates. Further, most health comorbidities are not associated with poorer cognitive outcomes in DS, apart from autism and epilepsy. It is essential for clinicians to consider such differences to provide appropriate care and treatment for those with DS and to provide prognostic information relating to cognitive outcomes in those with comorbidities.
Source: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Diminished response to name, a potential early marker of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), may also indicate risk for other disorders characterized by attention problems, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using a familial risk design, we examined whether response to name ability at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age differed between three 36-month outcome groups: ASD, ADHD Concerns, or a Comparison group. Persistent differences between the ASD and Comparison groups were evident beginning at 12 months; differences between the ADHD Concerns and Comparison groups were eviden...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research
Abstract Olfactory dysfunction is recognized in neurodevelopmental disorders and may serve as an early indicator of global dysfunction. The present meta-analysis measures olfaction effect sizes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Meta-analysis included 320 ADHD, 346 ASD, and 208 OCD individuals as compared to 910 controls. Olfactory performance deficits were small-to-moderate and heterogeneous (d =  - 0.42, 95% CI =  - 0.59 
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research
Abstract Purpose Previous investigations reveal that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) produce elevated rates of linguistic mazes (i.e., filled pauses, repetitions, revisions, and/or abandoned utterances) in expressive language samples (Redmond, 2004). The current study aimed to better understand maze use of children and adolescents with ADHD with a focus on the specific maze types produced in different language sampling contexts based on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2; Lord et al., 2012). Method Participants included twenty-five 4- to 13-year-olds with a confirmed d...
Source: Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Authors: Tags: J Speech Lang Hear Res Source Type: research
___ Parents pay thousands for ‘brain training’ to help kids with ADHD and autism. But does it work? (NBC News): “…As the number of children diagnosed with ADHD and autism surges in the U.S., according to federal data, and as parents become exasperated with treatments that don’t work or involve medications that carry the risk of side effects, neurotechnology industry analysts predict the demand for programs like these will only grow… Much of the growth in brain training is in apps and games that people use at home or in school, said Alvaro Fernandez, CEO of SharpBrains, a research firm ...
Source: SharpBrains - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience Education & Lifelong Learning Technology adhd autism Brain Balance brain training brain training centers BrainRx Direct-to-Consumer LearningRx Neurotechnology Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, school-aged children with CP very often screened positive for ASD and/or ADHD. The prevalence of ASD and ADHD is most likely underestimated in children with CP. These screening findings require further investigations.
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The FDRs, including parents, offspring, siblings, and twins, of patients with OCD have a higher risk of OCD, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, MDD, ADHD, and ASD. The familial co-aggregation of OCD with OCD and other major psychiatric disorders was existent in a dose-dependent manner. Given the increased risks of psychiatric disorders, medical practitioners should closely monitor the mental health of the FDRs of patients with OCD. PMID: 31907096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
Experts urge early identification and referral for treatment, even if a formal diagnosis has not been confirmed.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Children and Childhood Autism Education (K-12) Families and Family Life Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Anxiety and Stress American Academy of Pediatrics Source Type: news
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