Origin of the avian predentary and evidence of a unique form of cranial kinesis in Cretaceous ornithuromorphs Evolution

The avian predentary is a small skeletal structure located rostral to the paired dentaries found only in Mesozoic ornithuromorphs. The evolution and function of this enigmatic element is unknown. Skeletal tissues forming the predentary and the lower jaws in the basal ornithuromorph Yanornis martini are identified using computed-tomography, scanning electron...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

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AbstractBirds can use different types of gaits to move on the ground: they either walk, hop, or run. Although velocity can easily explain a preference for running, it remains unclear what drives a bird species to favor hopping over walking. As many hopping birds are relatively small and arboreal, we wanted to test the link between size, arboreality, and hopping ability. First, we carried out ancestral character state reconstructions of size range, hopping ability, and habitat traits on over 1000 species of birds. We found that both hopping ability and arboreality were derived and significantly correlated traits in avian ev...
Source: Systematic Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Concomitant influenza and cryptococcal infections are rare. Herein, we describe an unusual case of an avian influenza A (H7N9) infection with several severe mixed bacterial infections and systemic super-infection with Cryptococcus neoformans presenting as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and bloodstream infection in a previously immunocompetent man during hospitalization. A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of hyperpyrexia, dyspnoea, cough, and phlegm with blood. A chest computed tomography scan revealed multiple ground-glass opacities and consolidation in both lungs with right pleural effusion...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that patients with ornithosis and HP have important differences in their clinical, biological, and radiological presentation. PMID: 30473450 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Rev Mal Respir Source Type: research
Abstract Although most birds encounter large pressure variations during flight, motion of the middle ear components as a result of changing ambient pressure are not well known or described. In the present study, motion of the columella footplate and tympanic membrane (extrastapedius) in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) under quasi-static pressure conditions are provided. Micro-CT scans were made of cadaveric heads of chickens under positive (0.25 kPa, 0.5 kPa, 1 kPa, and 1.5 kPa) and negative (-0.25 kPa, -0.5 kPa, -1 kPa, and -1.5 kPa) middle ear pressure. Both extrastape...
Source: Hearing Research - Category: Audiology Authors: Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research
ConclusionIn patients with confirmed influenza A H7N9 infection whose condition worsens again, especially with new infiltration or lung ground-glass infiltration, one should suspect infection by other pathogens such asMycoplasma pneumoniae.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations. We test the hypothesis...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - Category: Anatomy Authors: Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Conclusions Researchers can learn from the design of the AID and use our CAD models as a starting point for fabricating devices for multiple small-animal imaging needs.
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Methods - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Medullary bone, a non-structural osseous tissue, serves as a temporary storage site for calcium that is needed for eggshell production in a number of avian species. Previous research focusing primarily on domesticated species belonging to the Anseriformes, Galliformes, and Columbiformes has indicated that rising estrogen levels are a key signal stimulating medullary bone formation; Passeriformes (which constitute over half of extant bird species and are generally small) have received little attention. In the current study, we examined the influence of estrogen on medullary bone and cortical bone in two sp...
Source: General and Comparative Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Gen Comp Endocrinol Source Type: research
Authors: Huang JB, Li HY, Liu JF, Lan CQ, Lin QH, Chen SX, Zhang HY, Wang XH, Lin X, Pan JG, Weng H Abstract To date, data regarding the pulmonary histopathology of human H7N9 disease are scarce. We herein describe a patient with a severe case of avian influenza A (H7N9). A chest computerized tomography (CT) scan showed diffuse ground-glass opacities and consolidation throughout the lungs. A resection of pulmonary bullae in the right middle lobe was performed by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) based on the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supportive technique on the 23(rd) day after the onset of sy...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that intensive selection for growth rate in both chickens and ducks has resulted in leg morphology changes, which are likely to influence gait. Ducks represent an interesting compromise of adaptation for efficient locomotion in two media-on land and in water. Some aspects of bone morphology in the duck, such as lateral curvature of the tibiotarsus, may result from adaptation to swimming, which potentially imposes limitations on terrestrial locomotion. PMID: 26576729 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Genet Sel Evol - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Genet Sel Evol Source Type: research
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