The impact of genetic adaptation on chimpanzee subspecies differentiation

by Joshua M. Schmidt, Marc de Manuel, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Sergi Castellano, Aida M. Andr és Chimpanzees, humans’ closest relatives, are in danger of extinction. Aside from direct human impacts such as hunting and habitat destruction, a key threat is transmissible disease. As humans continue to encroach upon their habitats, which shrink in size and grow in density, the risk of inter-pop ulation and cross-species viral transmission increases, a point dramatically made in the reverse with the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. Inhabiting central Africa, the four subspecies of chimpanzees differ in demographic history and geographical range, and are likely differentially adapted to their parti cular local environments. To quantitatively explore s genetic adaptation, we investigated the genic enrichment for SNPs highly differentiated between chimpanzee subspecies. Previous analyses of such patterns in human populations exhibited limited evidence of adaptation. In contrast, chimpanzees show evidence of recent positive selection, with differences among subspecies. Specifically, we observe strong evidence of recent selection in eastern chimpanzees, with highly differentiated SNPs being uniquely enriched in genic sites in a way that is expected under recent adaptation but not under neutr al evolution or background selection. These sites are enriched for genes involved in immune responses to pathogens, and for genes inferred to differentiate the immune response to infection by si...
Source: PLoS Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research

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By Margarite Nathe, Principal Editor/Writer, IntraHealth International Midwives and nurses —like Sellyvine (left) at the women's hospital in Nakuru, Kenya —make up 50% of the health workforce worldwide. They're in the spotlight during 2020 and will play a crucial role in whether their countries can achieve their most ambitious health targets by 2030. Photo by Georgina Goodwin for IntraHealth International.February 14, 2020Every year, we look at the top global health issues coming our way in the next 12 months. But global health is a long game and it’s a brand-new decade, so this year, we’re look...
Source: IntraHealth International - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Family Planning & Reproductive Health HIV AIDS Infectious Diseases Maternal, Newborn, Child Health Mental Health Noncommunicable Diseases Digital Health Policy Advocacy Gender Equality Nursing Midwifery Youth Midwives N Source Type: news
“Everyone knows that pestilences have a way of recurring in the world,” observes Albert Camus in his novel The Plague. “Yet somehow we find it hard to believe in ones that crash down on our heads from a blue sky. There have been as many plagues as wars in history; yet plagues and wars always take people by surprise.” Camus was imagining a fictional outbreak of plague in 1948 in Oran, a port city in northwest Algeria. But at a time when the world is reeling from a very real microbial emergency sparked by the emergence of a novel coronavirus in Wuhan, central China, his observations are as pertinent a...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized 2019-nCoV health ideas Source Type: news
As 10-year-old Connor and a friend played one recent day at recess, they were approached by a group of boys wanting to play a game — testing the boys for coronavirus. Connor, who is half-Chinese, and his friend, also Chinese, played along at first, but Connor’s mother Nadia Alam tells TIME that they quickly became uncomfortable and that the other boys wouldn’t stop, she says. “In this instance, I honestly don’t think the kids who targeted my son acted out of malice,” Alam said in an emailed statement to TIME. “They were acting out the fear and ignorance around them. My son was upse...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized 2019-nCoV onetime Source Type: news
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Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized China Infectious Disease onetime overnight Source Type: news
Authors: Perry GJ Abstract At the remove of 2019, it is hard for many to imagine the sense of apocalypse that was palpable throughout the gay community during the 1980s and much of the 1990s. My professional career was launched at the height of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic, and at the time, saving lives through librarianship was my mission. This Janet Doe Lecture presents my personal story of activism and advocacy as a lens through which to consider the larger story of activism around social justice issues for the Medical Library Association, by groups such as the Relevant Issues Section, ...
Source: Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA - Category: Databases & Libraries Tags: J Med Libr Assoc Source Type: research
AbstractIn 2019, the requisite biomedical and behavioral interventions to eliminate new HIV infections exist. “Ending the HIV Epidemic” now becomes primarily a challenge of will and implementation. This review maps the extent to which implementation research (IR) has been integrated into HIV research by reviewing the recent funding portfolio of the NIH. We searched NIH RePORTER for HIV and IR-related re search projects funded from January 2013 to March 2018. The 4629 unique studies identified were screened using machine learning and manual methods. 216 abstracts met the eligibility criteria of HIV and IR. Key s...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract In recent years, there have been numerous calls by researchers to adopt multi-disciplinary and international perspectives to address the HIV pandemic. Meaningful and prudent public health policy should be based on sound empirical data and research. Henceforth, our study aims to contribute to the current literature by conducting a comprehensive global mapping and determine the landscapes of HIV/AIDS research covering the years between 1983 and 2017. Bibliometric and content analysis was used to describe trends in research productivity, usages, research collaborations, and clusters of research topics. Explo...
Source: AIDS Reviews - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research
[SAnews.gov.za] Deputy President David Mabuza has conceded that while government has made significant inroads in the fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic, more needs to be done to curb the scourge.
Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Credit: WHO/ F. Tanggol. By Ifeanyi NsoforABUJA, Nov 30 2019 (IPS) Three years ago, I led an evaluation of an HIV project that focused on increasing access to quality care and supporting services for people living with HIV in Nigeria. It also aimed to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination. The project achieved these goals by strengthening support groups, using homebased care services for sick persons and providing Savings and Loans Association membership to improve the livelihoods of persons living with HIV. These outcomes point to the power of community in managing HIV. The first of December is celebrate...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Development & Aid Global Headlines Health HIV/AIDS Source Type: news
Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is the causative agent responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. More than 60 million infections and 25 million deaths have occurred since AIDS was first identified in the early 1980s. Advances in available therapeutics, in particular combination antiretroviral therapy, have significantly improved the treatment of HIV infection and have facilitated the shift from high mortality and morbidity to that of a manageable chronic disease. Unfortunately, none of the currently available drugs are curative of HIV. To deal with the rapid emerg...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research
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