Marrow Adipocytes: Origin, Structure, and Function.

Marrow Adipocytes: Origin, Structure, and Function. Annu Rev Physiol. 2019 Nov 08;: Authors: de Paula FJA, Rosen CJ Abstract The skeleton harbors an array of lineage cells that have an essential role in whole body homeostasis. Adipocytes start the colonization of marrow space early in postnatal life, expanding progressively and influencing other components of the bone marrow through paracrine signaling. In this unique, closed, and hypoxic environment close to the endosteal surface and adjacent to the microvascular space the marrow adipocyte can store or provide energy, secrete adipokines, and target neighboring bone cells. Adipocyte progenitors can also migrate from the bone marrow to populate white adipose tissue, a process that accelerates during weight gain. The marrow adipocyte also has an endocrine role in whole body homeostasis through its varied secretome that targets distant adipose depots, skeletal muscle, and the nervous system. Further insights into the biology of this unique and versatile cell will undoubtedly lead to novel therapeutic approaches to metabolic and age-related disorders such as osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physiology, Volume 82 is February 10, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates. PMID: 31702948 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Annual Review of Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Annu Rev Physiol Source Type: research

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In this study, the relationship among the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in type  2 diabetes mellitus patients was explored, and the GNRI predictive value was evaluated.Materials and MethodsWe enrolled 225 men and 192 women with type  2 diabetes mellitus. Their general condition, and laboratory and BMD data were collected. Spearman’s partial correlation analysis adjusting for age, body mass index and albumin was used for exploring the association among the GNRI, BMD and bone metabolism markers. Statistical analyses, including multivariate regression anal...
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Conclusion: In some cases, bone remodeling markers are useful for improving the assessment of the state of bone tissue in early stages of diabetes, while alterations in bone microarchitecture may not always be captured by bone mineral density measurements. PMID: 31933638 [PubMed]
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research
ConclusionThe prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in patients with T2DM is high. Female gender, increasing age, normal BMI, low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and pioglitazone use further increase the risk of osteoporosis.
Source: International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Authors: Duan CC, Ma C, Tang HQ Abstract Objectives: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) has been disclosed to be associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increased risks of losing bone mass and progression of osteoporosis (OP). Osteoprotegerin (OPG), as a decoy receptor, has been demonstrated to play a critical role in bone metabolism homeostasis and vascular atherosclerotic diseases. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the associations between OPG levels and T1D.Methods: Related literatures were searched and identified from the database of the Cochrane Library database, PubMed a...
Source: Immunological Investigations - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunol Invest Source Type: research
We showed that deletion of the tacrolimus ‐binding protein, necessary for tacrolimus to inhibit calcineurin, completely prevented the effects on divalent ion metabolism. This was associated with protection of transport proteins in the distal convoluted tubule. AbstractCalcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are immunosuppressive drugs used to prevent graft rejection after organ transplant. Common side effects include renal magnesium wasting and hypomagnesemia, which may contribute to new ‐onset diabetes mellitus, and hypercalciuria, which may contribute to post‐transplant osteoporosis. Previous work suggested that CNIs reduce ...
Source: Physiological Reports - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Physicians often overlook exercise as a treatment or prophylactic measure for many common diseases and ailments. It can be used to treat comorbidities including obesity, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, cancer, and low back pain. Education on the general physical activity guidelines as well as easy exercise prescription methods can improve the ability of physicians to prescribe exercise as a therapeutic option. In addition, identifying barriers to compliance with exercise and ways to overcome these barriers is also necessary in order to use ther...
Source: Medical Clinics of North America - Category: Primary Care Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Dihydromyricetin (DMY or DHM), also known as ampelopsin, is the main natural flavonol compound extracted from the plant Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand. -Mazz) W.T. Wang. In recent years, accumulating studies have been conducted to explore the extensive biological functions of DMY, including antitumor, anti-inflammation, organ-protective, and metabolic regulation effects. DMY acts as a potential preventive or therapeutic agent in treating multiple diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and osteoporosis. This review article summarizes the preventive and therap...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundData on the prevalence and type of endocrine disorders in β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI) patients are scarce. This multicenter study was designed to determine the prevalence of endocrine complications and the associated risk factors in a large group of β-TI patients.MethodsIn this cross-sectional multicenter study, 726 β-TI patients, aged 2.5–80 years, registered at 12 thalassemic centers, from nine countries, were enrolled during 2017. In a subgroup of 522 patients (mean age 30.8 ± 12.1; range: 2.5–80 years) from Qatar, Iran, Oman, Cyprus, and Jordan ...
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
AbstractIntroductionLow body weight and hypoalbuminemia were independently associated with osteoporosis, the relationship among Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and osteoporosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) was explored and the GNRI predictive value was evaluated.Materials and MethodsWe enrolled 225 men and 192 women suffered from T2DM. Their general condition, laboratory, and BMD data were collected. Spearman ’s partial correlation analysis adjusting for age, BMI and albumin was used for exploring the association among GNRI, BMD and bone metabolism markers. Statistical analys...
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
We present the case of a 59-year-old woman with third-grade obesity and severe comorbidities including osteoporosis, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, night eating following bariatric biliary-intestinal bypass surgery, severe fibromyalgia, poly-arthrosis, lumbar disc herniation in L5S1, sleep disorders and sleep apnea syndrome, and emotional disorders with anxiety and depression, who suffered from chronic pain unresponsive to a combination of multiple analgesics. After a period of metabolic and nutritional rehabilitation, analgesic treatment with tapentadol prolonged release (PR) was started and gradually incr...
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
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