Why do patients die after status epilepticus?

Publication date: Available online 8 November 2019Source: Epilepsy &BehaviorAuthor(s): Sara HockerAbstractThe epidemiology of status epilepticus (SE) and predictors of outcome in particular have been well described with consistent findings around the world. Understanding of the actual causes of death in patients hospitalized with SE is limited. The following is a summary of published information about causes of death in patients hospitalized with SE and a reconciling of conflicting studies examining the influence of continuous intravenous anesthetic drugs on the mortality of SE. A recently published paper was presented at the Colloquium and is summarized here, along with new data addressing an audience question about withdrawal of care in SE. In the spirit of the conference, we end with a call to arms and invitation for collaborators.Proceedings of the 7th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus and Acute Seizures.
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 8 September 2020Source: SeizureAuthor(s): Asumi Orihara, Keiko Hara, Shoko Hara, Kazuhide Shimizu, Motoki Inaji, Satoka Hashimoto, Taketoshi Maehara
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Anticonvulsant drugs are used to treat a wide range of non-epileptic conditions, including chronic, neuropathic pain. We obtained a phenoxyalkylaminoalkanol derivative, KM-416 which had previously demonstrated a significant anticonvulsant activity and had also been shown to bind to 5-HT1A, α2-receptors and SERT and not to exhibit mutagenic properties. As KM-416 is a promising compound in our search for drug candidates, in the present study we further assessed its pharmacological profile (analgesic, local anesthetic, and antidepressant-like activities) accompanied with patch-clamp studies. Considerin...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract PURPOSE: Established tonic-clonic status epilepticus (SE) does not stop in one-third of patients when treated with an intravenous (IV) benzodiazepine bolus followed by a loading dose of a second antiseizure medication (ASM). These patients have refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and a high risk of morbidity and death. For patients with convulsive refractory status epilepticus (CRSE), we sought to determine the strength of evidence for 8 parenteral ASMs used as third-line treatment in stopping clinical CRSE. METHODS: A structured literature search (MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL) was performed to i...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research
  From lobotomies to pharmaceutical advertising to forced treatment, let’s discuss some of the more taboo topics in the history of psychiatry. While some of these approaches are obviously terrible (especially in hindsight) others are in the gray area. Should pharmaceutical companies be able to advertise directly to the patient? Is it OK to force psychiatric treatment in certain cases? What do you think? Tune in to today’s Not Crazy episode for a great discussion on the more controversial topics in the field of psychiatry. (Transcript Available Below) Please Subscribe to Our Show: And We Love Written Re...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: General Not Crazy Podcast Psychiatry Treatment Source Type: blogs
Abstract Ketogenic diet therapy (KDT) is an effective treatment modality for children with drug-resistant epilepsy and certain other metabolic and neurologic disorders. With a resurgence of interest in KDT, pediatric anesthesiologists are increasingly encountering children on KDT for a variety of surgical and medical procedures. Maintenance of ketosis is critical throughout the perioperative period, and if not managed appropriately, these patients are at an increased risk of seizures. This review article provides an overview of the clinical indications, contraindications, proposed anticonvulsant mechanisms, initia...
Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Anesth Analg Source Type: research
CONCLUSION Neuromonitoring with the techniques currently used will neither help our understanding of the altered neonatal pathophysiology, nor enable early detection of deviation from the norm. The modalities lack specificity and are not related to clinical (long-term) outcome or prognosis. Accordingly, we were unable to draw up a monitoring guideline.
Source: European Journal of Anaesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Paediatric anaesthesia Source Type: research
This report describes a distinctive phenotype of FARS2-linked, juvenile onset refractory epilepsy, caused by a hemizygous mutation in a compound heterozygous state (p.V197M and exon 2 microdeletion). A 17-year- old woman with normal development presented with a super refractory focal motor status epilepticus. Only an emergency life-saving surgery aborted her status after all therapeutic interventions, including anesthesia, failed to control her seizures. Pathological and biochemical activities on muscle biopsy showed mitochondrial proliferation with enhanced isolated activities of complexes II and IV, suggestive of a compe...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Abstract PURPOSE: Although phenytoin is one of the most commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), it has potential serious side effects and drug interactions. Levetiracetam is a relatively newer AED with favorable pharmacokinetics and could be an effective and safer option for the treatment of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety profile of intravenous levetiracetam and phenytoin as second-line treatment agents in children with CSE and acute repetitive seizures (ARS). METHOD: Two hundred seventy-seven patients aged between 1 month and 18 years who received intra...
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high fat, adequate protein, and very low carbohydrate medical diet which is a well-established intervention for treatment-resistant epilepsy in children [1] and adults [2]. There are now an expanding number of case series that describe KD effectiveness in super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE), defined as a seizure that continues after at least 24 h of continuous anesthetic infusion [3], and which is associated with high neurologic morbidity [4,5] and mortality [6].
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Latha S, Selvamani P, Prabha T Abstract Natural products have a unique place in the healthcare industry. The genus Commiphora emerged as a potential medicinal with huge benefits as evidenced through its use in various traditional and modern systems of medicine. Therefore, we aimed to prepare a concise review on the pharmacological activities and the indigenous uses of various plant species belonging to the genus Commiphora along with the structural information of various active botanical ingredients present in these plants based on the published literatures and scientific reports. To collect the various pu...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Cardiology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem Source Type: research
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