The thioredoxin system and cancer therapy: a review

AbstractThioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and NADPH are key members of the Trx system that is involved in redox regulation and antioxidant defense. In recent years, several researchers have provided information about the roles of the Trx system in cancer development and progression. These reports indicated that many tumor cells express high levels of Trx and TrxR, which can be responsible for drug resistance in tumorigenesis. Inhibition of the Trx system may thus contribute to cancer therapy and improving chemotherapeutic agents. There are now a number of effective natural and synthetic inhibitors with chemotherapy applications possessing antitumor activity ranging from oxidative stress induction to apoptosis. In this article, we first described the features and functions of the Trx system and then reviewed briefly its correlations with cancer. Finally, we summarized the present knowledge about the Trx/TrxR inhibitors as anticancer drugs.
Source: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering AspectsAuthor(s): Zhen-Lei Liu, Qing-Yang Jia, Xiao-Dong Li, Shu-Ping Li, Jian Shen, Jun Lin, Dong-Xiang LiAbstractA hollow mesoporous microspheres of hydroxyapatite-Au containing the anticancer agent of methotrexate (hmHAp-Au/MTX) were prepared here. Firstly, biocompatible hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (NPs) with a hollow core and mesoporous shell structure (hmHAp) were synthesized by a template method. Secondly, Au NPs were successfully conjugated onto the surface of hmHAp through the electrostatic attractio...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the feasibility of releasing this peptide into the tumor microenvironment using live attenuated Salmonella enterica, which has proven to be an ally in cancer therapy due to its high affinity for tumor tissue, its ability to activate the innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses, and its potential use as a delivery system of heterologous molecules. Thus, we expressed and released the cell-permeable Bax BH3 peptide from the surface of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 through the MisL autotransporter system. We demonstrated that this recombinant bacterium significantly decreas...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Yicheng Ni Cancer remains a major cause of death globally. Given its relapsing and fatal features, curing cancer seems to be something hardly possible for the majority of patients. In view of the development in cancer therapies, this article summarizes currently available cancer therapeutics and cure potential by cancer type and stage at diagnosis, based on literature and database reviews. Currently common cancer therapeutics include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. However, treatment with curative intent by these methods are mainly eligible for patients with localized diseas...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Wnt signaling has been involved in several pathophysiological states, including carcinogenesis and embryonic development. Wnt signaling is linked to various aspects of MDR including P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein 1 regulation through its canonical and non-canonical pathways. Wnt/β-catenin signaling has also linked to other pathways such as NF-κB and PI3K-Akt involving cancer progression. Accordingly, Wnt/β-catenin signaling can be a potential target for cancer therapy. PMID: 31721699 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
This study evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using patient-reported outcomes in subjects with mucinous appendiceal neoplasms who underwent cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) as part of a randomized trial comparing mitomycin with oxaliplatin.MethodsIn this prospective multicenter study, 121 mucinous appendiceal cancer patients, with evidence of peritoneal dissemination who underwent CRS, were randomized to receive mitomycin (divided 40  mg) or oxaliplatin (200 mg/m2) for HIPEC. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Neurotoxicity (FACT-G/NTX) ques...
Source: Annals of Surgical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionElevated troponin levels predict LV dysfunction in patients receiving cancer therapy. Assessment of troponin levels may qualify as a screening test to identify patients who require referral to cardio ‐oncology units and benefit from preventive strategies. Further evidence is required for both biomarkers.
Source: European Journal of Heart Failure - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Authors: Unni P, Seshaiyer P Abstract Over the last few decades, there have been significant developments in theoretical, experimental, and clinical approaches to understand the dynamics of cancer cells and their interactions with the immune system. These have led to the development of important methods for cancer therapy including virotherapy, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted drug therapy, and many others. Along with this, there have also been some developments on analytical and computational models to help provide insights into clinical observations. This work develops a new mathematical model that combines ...
Source: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine - Category: Statistics Tags: Comput Math Methods Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical SciencesAuthor(s): Xiaoli Zhang, Tian Zhang, Xianbin Ma, Yajun Wang, Yi Lu, Die Jia, Xiaohua Huang, Jiucun Chen, Zhigang Xu, Feiqiu WenAbstractTumor cells show acidic conditions compared with normal cells, which further inspires scientist to build nanocarrier responsive to tumor microenvironment (TME) for enhancing tumor therapeutic efficacy. Here, we report a pH-sensitive and biocompatible polyprodrug based on dextran-doxorubicin (DOX) prodrug (DOXDT) for enhanced chemotherapy. High-density DOX component was covalently decorated on t...
Source: Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: CytotherapyAuthor(s): Yue-Feng Zhang, Jin-Bo Shi, Chao LiAbstractSystemic chemotherapy is a conventional and important strategy for inhibition of cancer progression, but it is usually accompanied by various adverse effects. Targeting drug delivery systems, effective tools to avoid the adverse effects of chemotherapy, have been intensively studied and developed. Recently, the emerging application of exosomes and exosome-mimics (small extracellular vesicles [sEVs]) in targeted drug delivery and therapeutics has been widely appreciated. The sEVs-based delivery system c...
Source: Cytotherapy - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Heart function monitoring is critical during anti-cancer therapy so that we can early identify cardiac abnormalities and actively adopt measures to prevent myocardial injury. PMID: 31702600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
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