Genetic mapping of fitness determinants across the malaria parasite   Plasmodium falciparum life cycle

by Xue Li, Sudhir Kumar, Marina McDew-White, Meseret Haile, Ian H. Cheeseman, Scott Emrich, Katie Button-Simons, Fran çois Nosten, Stefan H. I. Kappe, Michael T. Ferdig, Tim J. C. Anderson, Ashley M. Vaughan Determining the genetic basis of fitness is central to understanding evolution and transmission of microbial pathogens. In human malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum), most experimental work on fitness has focused on asexual blood stage parasites, because this stage can be easily cultured, although the transmission of malaria requires both femaleAnopheles mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts. We explore a powerful approach to identify the genetic determinants of parasite fitness across both invertebrate and vertebrate life-cycle stages ofP.falciparum. This combines experimental genetic crosses using humanized mice, with selective whole genome amplification and pooled sequencing to determine genome-wide allele frequencies and identify genomic regions under selection across multiple lifecycle stages. We applied this approach to genetic crosses between artemisinin resistant (ART-R,kelch13-C580Y) and ART-sensitive (ART-S,kelch13-WT) parasites, recently isolated from Southeast Asian patients. Two striking results emerge: we observed (i) a strong genome-wide skew (>80%) towards alleles from the ART-R parent in the mosquito stage, that dropped to ~50% in the blood stage as selfed ART-R parasites were selected against; and (ii) repeatable allele specific skews in blood ...
Source: PLoS Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research

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A Dalit woman stands outside a dry toilet located in an upper caste villager’s home in Mainpuri, in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Credit: Shai Venkatraman/IPSBy External SourceUNITED NATIONS, Nov 18 2019 (IPS) Ending the practice of defecating in the open, rather than in a toilet, will have “transformational benefits” for some of the world’s most vulnerable people, says the UN’s partner sanitation body, the WSSCC (Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council). Ahead of World Toilet Day, which is marked annually on 19 November, WSSCC’s acting Executive Director, Sue Co...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Development & Aid Global Headlines Health Water & Sanitation Source Type: news
The physiopathology of malaria, one of the most deadly human parasitic diseases worldwide, is complex, as it is a systemic disease involving multiple parasitic stages and hosts and leads to the activation of numerous immune cells and release of inflammatory mediators. While some cytokines increased in the blood of patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum have been extensively studied, others, such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3), have not received much attention. GM-CSF and IL-3 belong to the β common (βc/CD131) chain family of cytokines, which exhibit ple...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Host Response and Inflammation Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to discuss the current knowledge of HIV and tissue parasite co-infection in the context of transmission enhancement, clinical characteristics, treatment, relapse, and clinical outcomes.Recent FindingsThe pathophysiology and clinical sequelae of tissue parasites in people living with HIV (PLWH) have been well described for only a handful of organisms, primarily protozoa such as malaria and leishmaniasis. Available published data indicate that the interactions between HIV and tissue parasites are highly variable depending on the infecting organism and the degree of host ...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionThese results indicate that A. farnesiana pods contain nematocidal compounds and might be promising natural anthelmintic agents against H. contortus. This leguminous plant could be used as a nutraceutical food source for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary method of malaria prevention. However, the widespread resistance to pyrethroids among major malaria vector species represents a significant threat to the ...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
by Awtum M. Brashear, Wanlapa Roobsoong, Faiza A. Siddiqui, Wang Nguitragool, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Margarita M. L ópez-Uribe, Jun Miao, Liwang CuiPlasmodium ovale accounts for a disproportionate number of travel-related malaria cases. This parasite is understudied since there is a reliance on clinical samples. We collected aP.ovale curtisi parasite isolate from a clinical case in western Thailand and performed RNA-seq analysis on the blood stage transcriptomes. Using bothde novo assembly and alignment-based methods, we detected the transcripts for 6628 out of 7280 annotated genes. For those lacking evidence of exp...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
(University of Bern) An international scientific consortium led by the cell biologists Volker Heussler from the University of Bern and Oliver Billker from the Ume å University in Sweden has for the first time systematically investigated the genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium throughout its life cycle in a large-scale experiment. The researchers were able to identify hundreds of targets that are urgently needed in drug and vaccine development to eradicate the disease.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Malaria vector control and research rely heavily on monitoring mosquito populations for the development of resistance to public health insecticides. One standard method for determining resistance in adult mosq...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial properties against malaria parasite in 15 plants mentioned in Indian traditional medicine texts.MethodsIn vitro antiplasmodial activity of methanolic extracts obtained from Indian traditional medicinal plants was evaluated on Plasmodium falciparum of FCK2 and INDO strains using schizont maturation inhibition assay and parasite lactate dehydrogenase inhibition assay.ResultsMethanolic extracts of Adhatoda zeylanica, Embelia ribes, Piper nigrum and Plumbago zeylanica exhibited more than 50% inhibition in both the stains in schizont maturation inhibition a...
Source: Journal of Integrative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research
Parasites genes prepare it for the unexpected, but could be exploited to fight the disease More at https://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=299535&WT.mc_id=USNSF_1 This is a Research News item.
Source: NSF Discoveries - Category: Science Source Type: research
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