When encephalitogenic T cells collaborate with microglia in multiple sclerosis

Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 16 September 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0253-6In this Review, Dong and Yong summarize the mechanisms and consequences of T cell–microglia interactions in multiple sclerosis, discuss therapeutic approaches that affect these interactions and consider the challenges of translating preclinical knowledge in this area to humans.
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research

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Authors: Gay F Abstract Intranasal administration delivers molecules directly to the brain bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Three distinct routes of access have been identified; olfactory, trigeminal and via the paranasal sub-mucosa of the posterior sinuses. Consequently, environmental toxins may access the CNS directly to induce inflammatory and degenerative disease. They may also activate bacterial species of the nasal mucosal microbiome to release both immune-deviating cell wall antigens and transportable neurotoxins with local direct access to the CNS. Evidence is reviewed that toxins of the nasal bacterial m...
Source: Revue Neurologique - Category: Neurology Tags: Rev Neurol (Paris) Source Type: research
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOlder adults currently represent the fastest growing demographic of cannabis users, yet few studies have investigated the effects of cannabis use on cognitive functioning in aging. We conducted a systematic review of the recent literature examining cognitive outcomes associated with cannabis use in older adults, with and without neurocognitive disorders, to clarify the potential neuroprotective benefits or risks of cognitive decline in this population.Recent FindingsWe identified 26 studies examining cognitive outcomes associated with medical and recreational use of cannabis in healthy aging, demen...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
Orexins [orexin-A (OXA) and orexin-B (OXB)] are two isoforms of neuropeptides produced by the hypothalamus. The main biological actions of orexins, focused on the central nervous system, are to control the sleep/wake process, appetite and feeding, energy homeostasis, drug addiction, and cognitive processes. These effects are mediated by two G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subtypes named OX1R and OX2R. In accordance with the synergic and dynamic relationship between the nervous and immune systems, orexins also have neuroprotective and immuno-regulatory (i.e., anti-inflammatory) properties. The present review gathers recen...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2019Source: International Journal of PsychophysiologyAuthor(s): Olga Boukrina, Ekaterina Dobryakova, Veronica Schneider, John DeLuca, Nancy ChiaravallotiAbstractThe modified Story Memory Technique (mSMT) is a memory rehabilitation program that combines training in visualization and context formation to improve learning and memory. Previous studies have shown improvement in learning and memory in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) after undergoing the mSMT, including changes in brain activity related to working memory and word encoding. The current study examined changes i...
Source: International Journal of Psychophysiology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Condition:   Multiple Sclerosis Interventions:   Procedure: neurological examination, Kurtzke EDSS, Barthel scale, ecocolor-Doppler;   Procedure: neurological evaluation, ecocolor-Doppler;   Procedure: medical history, vital signs, ecocolor-Doppler Sponsor:   Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla Completed
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
 Psychiatric medications are the religion and politics of the mental health advocacy world — don’t bring them up unless you want a fight to break out. Luckily, here at Not Crazy, we don’t shy away from confrontation.  In this episode, we cover the good, the bad, and the ugly surrounding medications. Like whether or not you should take them. We tackle side effects like feeling numb and sexual dysfunction and share our personal histories with medication therapy. Listen now! (Transcript Available Below) SUBSCRIBE &REVIEW About The Not Crazy Podcast Hosts Gabe Howard is an award-winning wri...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Antidepressant Antipsychotic General Medications Mental Health and Wellness Not Crazy Podcast Psychology Research Sexuality Stimulants Treatment Source Type: blogs
This study evaluated whether the expression and cellular localization of periostin changes in the spinal cord of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human multiple sclerosis. Western blot analysis revealed that periostin was significantly upregulated in the spinal cord of EAE-induced mice in the effector stage, and did not significantly decrease in the recovery stage of EAE, compared with normal control. Periostin was constitutively detected in the neurons, ependymal cells, vascular endothelial cells, and astrocytes of normal mice. In the paralytic stage of EAE, periostin immunorea...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
(Natural News) Multiple sclerosis is scary enough on its own, especially since it is expensive and painful to treat. But a new study warns that one out of every five patients diagnosed with the disease has a different medical condition that shares the same symptoms. A common cause of disability, multiple sclerosis takes place when...
Source: NaturalNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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