Narcolepsy — clinical spectrum, aetiopathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 19 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0226-9In the past 20 years, understanding of the clinical manifestations, aetiopathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of narcolepsy has greatly advanced. In this Review, Bassetti et al. present these advances, discuss unmet needs and offer future perspectives for the field of narcolepsy. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - July 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Claudio L. A. Bassetti Antoine Adamantidis Denis Burdakov Fang Han Steffen Gay Ulf Kallweit Ramin Khatami Frits Koning Brigitte R. Kornum Gert Jan Lammers Roland S. Liblau Pierre H. Luppi Geert Mayer Thomas Pollm ächer Takeshi Sakurai Federica Sallusto T Source Type: research

Neuroinflammation in frontotemporal dementia
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 19 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0231-zAn altered microglial landscape and ageing-related inflammatory changes contribute to the neurodegeneration associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here, Bright and colleagues discuss the evidence for a pathogenetic role of neuroinflammatory mechanisms in FTD, including links with autoimmunity and gene mutations associated with neuroinflammation. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - July 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Fiona Bright Eryn L. Werry Carol Dobson-Stone Olivier Piguet Lars M. Ittner Glenda M. Halliday John R. Hodges Matthew C. Kiernan Clement T. Loy Michael Kassiou Jillian J. Kril Source Type: research

Inflammatory pathways relate to early Alzheimer disease pathology
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 17 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0242-9Inflammatory pathways relate to early Alzheimer disease pathology (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - July 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ian Fyfe Source Type: research

New models show gut–brain transmission of Parkinson disease pathology
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 16 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0241-xNew models show gut–brain transmission of Parkinson disease pathology (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Heather Wood Source Type: research

Follow-up of active Aβ immunization in Alzheimer disease
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 15 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0239-4A new report presents post-mortem neuropathological follow-up of patients 4 months to 15 years after they received active amyloid-β (Aβ) immunization during its first trial in Alzheimer disease. The study documents effects on plaque clearance, tau pathology, plasma anti-Aβ antibody titres and final cognitive status; variability was seen between patients. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - July 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Thomas Wisniewski Source Type: research

Trials and therapies in secondary progressive MS, simplified
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 08 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0233-xThe FDA approvals of siponimod and cladribine for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis raise questions about the diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis phenotypes and their applicability to clinical trials. A simpler classification for the disease could be the answer. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Navid Manouchehri Olaf St üve Source Type: research

Predicting treatment response in post-TBI cognitive impairment
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 01 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0234-9Predicting treatment response in post-TBI cognitive impairment (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ian Fyfe Source Type: research

Neuroinflammation — a common thread in neurological disorders
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 01 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0227-8Inflammatory processes contribute to neurological disorders, and many therapeutic breakthroughs in neurological disease have been immune-targeted. The choice of neuroinflammation as the theme for the 5th European Academy of Neurology Congress in 2019 and of this Focus issue highlights its importance to neurologists across the discipline. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nils Erik Gilhus G ünther Deuschl Source Type: research

Thrombo-inflammation in acute ischaemic stroke — implications for treatment
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 01 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0221-1Ischaemic stroke causes a neuroinflammatory response, but the functional consequences of this response have been unclear. In this Review, Stoll and Nieswandt consider the roles of T cells, platelets and their interactions in this neuroinflammatory response and how these roles could be exploited therapeutically. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Guido Stoll Bernhard Nieswandt Source Type: research

Does inflammation have a role in migraine?
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 01 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0216-yMigraine is one of the world’s most prevalent diseases, and approximately 2% of the general population experiences chronic migraine. Edvinsson and colleagues argue that inflammation could have an important role in migraine chronification, through a mechanism termed neurogenic neuroinflammation. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lars Edvinsson Kristian Agmund Haanes Karin Warfvinge Source Type: research

Drug reduces excess iron in ultra-rare neurodegenerative disease
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 01 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0235-8Drug reduces excess iron in ultra-rare neurodegenerative disease (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sarah Lempri ère Source Type: research

Neuroinflammatory pathways as treatment targets and biomarkers in epilepsy
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 01 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0217-xIn this Review, Vezzani and colleagues discuss inflammatory pathways that are activated in pharmacoresistant epilepsy and can be modulated to therapeutic effect in animal models. They consider how targeting these pathways could overcome limitations of existing anti-epileptic treatments. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Annamaria Vezzani Silvia Balosso Teresa Ravizza Source Type: research

The pro-remyelination properties of microglia in the central nervous system
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 29 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0184-2In this Review, Lloyd and Miron consider how regulation of microglial activation influences the ability of microglia to promote remyelination in the CNS. They also discuss the potential to exploit the pre-remyelination properties of microglia to treat multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - June 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Amy F. Lloyd Veronique E. Miron Source Type: research

Predicting progression to AD using a deep-learning model
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 28 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0236-7Predicting progression to AD using a deep-learning model (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - June 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rebecca Kelsey Source Type: research

Antibiotic use might increase risk of ALS
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 28 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0238-5Antibiotic use might increase risk of ALS (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - June 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rebecca Kelsey Source Type: research

Different clinical profiles in Huntington disease show distinct patterns of brain alterations
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 28 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0237-6Different clinical profiles in Huntington disease show distinct patterns of brain alterations (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - June 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rebecca Kelsey Source Type: research

Primary fatty amides are potential plasma biomarkers for AD
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 28 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0229-6A new study has found that levels of primary fatty amides in plasma correlate with amyloid-β pathology and other Alzheimer disease (AD)-related phenomena. In addition to identifying potential plasma biomarkers for AD, the findings suggest new avenues for investigation into the early stages of AD. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - June 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Niklas Mattsson Oskar Hansson Source Type: research

Can imaging extend the thrombolytic time window after stroke?
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 24 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0232-yA new trial has demonstrated the benefits of intravenous thrombolysis, guided by perfusion imaging, 4.5–9.0 h after stroke onset and in individuals with wake-up stroke. In addition to extending the time window for thrombolysis after acute ischaemic stroke, these findings could aid the refinement of imaging and thrombolytic protocols. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - June 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Min Lou Source Type: research

Genetic and molecular epidemiology of adult diffuse glioma
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 21 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0220-2In this Review of adult diffuse gliomas, Molinaro et al. discuss the latest epidemiological data and highlight advances from the past decade, including the identification of genetic and other risk factors for glioma included in the 2016 WHO integrated classification system. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - June 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Annette M. Molinaro Jennie W. Taylor John K. Wiencke Margaret R. Wrensch Source Type: research

SILK studies — capturing the turnover of proteins linked to neurodegenerative diseases
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 20 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0222-0Paterson and colleagues describe how stable isotope labelling kinetics (SILK) can be used to determine protein production and clearance rates. They highlight the promise of SILK studies for elucidating the role of pathogenic proteins in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - June 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ross W. Paterson Audrey Gabelle Brendan P. Lucey Nicolas R. Barth élemy Claire A. Leckey Christophe Hirtz Sylvain Lehmann Chihiro Sato Bruce W. Patterson Tim West Kevin Yarasheski Jonathan D. Rohrer Norelle C. Wildburger Jonathan M. Schott Celeste M. Kar Source Type: research

Sequential amyloid-β and tau accumulation foreshadows cognitive decline
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 19 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0230-0Sequential amyloid-β and tau accumulation foreshadows cognitive decline (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - June 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Heather Wood Source Type: research

Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis: a model of medical progress for a fatal disease
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 17 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0210-4In this Review, Adams et al. discuss the latest insights into various aspects of hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis and its management, including its epidemiology, pathogenesis and the latest success with RNA interference and antisense oligonucleotide therapies. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: David Adams Haruki Koike Michel Slama Teresa Coelho Source Type: research

Genetic variant cuts risk of multiple forms of dementia
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 14 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0225-xGenetic variant cuts risk of multiple forms of dementia (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - June 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sarah Lempri ère Source Type: research

Mendelian multiple sclerosis triggers mechanistic rethink
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 12 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0223-zMendelian multiple sclerosis triggers mechanistic rethink (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - June 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ian Fyfe Source Type: research

Prodromal Parkinson disease: do we miss the signs?
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 31 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0215-zPatients present to general practitioners with a variety of symptoms that eventually turn out to be caused by early Parkinson disease. Now, methods to calculate Parkinson disease risk in general practitioner settings are becoming available. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ronald B. Postuma Source Type: research

Global burden of neurological diseases highlights stroke
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 31 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0208-yThe Global Burden of Disease, Injuries and Risk Factors 2016 study has shown that neurological diseases have the highest burden and that this burden is increasing. Stroke is the biggest contributor, highlighting a need to improve resources globally for stroke prevention, management and rehabilitation. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ryuji Kaji Source Type: research

Therapeutic developments for Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 30 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0203-3Verhaart and Aartsma-Rus discuss important advances in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Gene-addition, exon-skipping, stop codon readthrough and genome-editing approaches aim to restore expression of partially functional dystrophin, whereas treatments that target disrupted pathophysiological pathways can improve muscle function. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ingrid E. C. Verhaart Annemieke Aartsma-Rus Source Type: research

Novel insights into autism from single-cell genomics
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 28 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0219-8Novel insights into autism from single-cell genomics (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Heather Wood Source Type: research

Neurogranin in CSF identifies Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 28 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0218-9Neurogranin in CSF identifies Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ian Fyfe Source Type: research

Alzheimer disease and aducanumab: adjusting our approach
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 28 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0205-1In the march towards disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer disease, immunotherapy with antibodies against amyloid-β protein is furthest along in human trials. The news that Biogen’s aducanumab showed no cognitive benefit in phase III trials requires careful analysis of what went wrong and how to position anti-amyloid agents among other therapeutic approaches. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Dennis J. Selkoe Source Type: research

ADAM10 inhibition shows promise in HD
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 24 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0214-0ADAM10 inhibition shows promise in HD (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rebecca Kelsey Source Type: research

Restoration of cellular activity after decapitation
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 24 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0209-xA new study has demonstrated recovery of brain circulation and some cellular function in a decapitated pig model. Although these results are exciting and thought-provoking, they do not challenge the concept or practical implications of brain death, as no evidence of global electrical activity or functional recovery of the brain was presented. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: David M. Greer Ariane Lewis Source Type: research

Abnormal gyrification patterns present before symptoms in C9orf72 expansion carriers
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 24 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0213-1Abnormal gyrification patterns present before symptoms in C9orf72 expansion carriers (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rebecca Kelsey Source Type: research

Phase II trial of evobrutinib in multiple sclerosis
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 24 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0212-2Phase II trial of evobrutinib in multiple sclerosis (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rebecca Kelsey Source Type: research

Antisense oligonucleotide reduces mutant protein in patients with HD
This study is the first to demonstrate antisense-mediated protein suppression in patients with a neurodegenerative disease. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sarah Lempri ère Source Type: research

Breakthrough neuroimmunology trials impress at AAN meeting
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 21 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0206-0Breakthrough neuroimmunology trials impress at AAN meeting (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ian Fyfe Source Type: research

Breakthrough neuroim-munology trials impress at AAN meeting
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 21 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0206-0Breakthrough neuroim-munology trials impress at AAN meeting (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ian Fyfe Source Type: research

Piecing together a consensus on a TDP43-related dementia syndrome
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 20 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0207-zPiecing together a consensus on a TDP43-related dementia syndrome (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Heather Wood Source Type: research

Age-related microglial activation accelerated in AD
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 13 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0204-2Age-related microglial activation accelerated in AD (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sarah Lempri ère Source Type: research

Implementing the 2017 McDonald criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis
Implementing the 2017 McDonald criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, Published online: 13 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0194-0The latest revision of the McDonald criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), released in 2017, was designed to facilitate early diagnosis of MS. Here, a panel of world-renowned MS specialists share their personal experiences of the new criteria. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Frauke Zipp Jiwon Oh Yara Dadalti Fragoso Emmanuelle Waubant Source Type: research

The promise of technology in the future of dementia care
The promise of technology in the future of dementia care, Published online: 09 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0188-yIn the future, robotic devices that augment human care provision could transform dementia services and support. In this Perspectives article, Moyle discusses upcoming challenges in dementia care and suggests guidelines for the development and integration of smart assistive technologies. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wendy Moyle Source Type: research

Long-term benefits of nusinersen in later-onset spinal muscular atrophy
Long-term benefits of nusinersen in later-onset spinal muscular atrophy, Published online: 07 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0202-4Long-term benefits of nusinersen in later-onset spinal muscular atrophy (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ian Fyfe Source Type: research

Remyelinating drug to the rescue in a Williams syndrome model
Remyelinating drug to the rescue in a Williams syndrome model, Published online: 07 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0201-5Remyelinating drug to the rescue in a Williams syndrome model (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Heather Wood Source Type: research

Classifying silent progression in relapsing–remitting MS
Classifying silent progression in relapsing–remitting MSClassifying silent progression in relapsing–remitting MS, Published online: 02 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0199-8A new study suggests that patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis can experience long-term increases in disability in the absence of disease relapses. Monitoring this ‘silent progression’ will require a paradigm shift in the way disease progression is evaluated. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Massimo Filippi Maria A. Rocca Source Type: research

Neuropathological progression of clinical Parkinson disease subtypes
Neuropathological progression of clinical Parkinson disease subtypes, Published online: 02 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0197-xNeuropathological progression of clinical Parkinson disease subtypes (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Eduardo De Pablo-Fern ández Andrew J. Lees Janice L. Holton Thomas T. Warner Source Type: research

Reply to ‘Neuropathological progression of clinical Parkinson disease subtypes’
Reply to ‘Neuropathological progression of clinical Parkinson disease subtypes’Reply to ‘Neuropathological progression of clinical Parkinson disease subtypes’, Published online: 02 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0198-9Reply to ‘Neuropathological progression of clinical Parkinson disease subtypes’ (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - May 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Alberto J. Espay Connie Marras Source Type: research

Frontotemporal dementia risk variant accelerates cognitive decline in Parkinson disease
Frontotemporal dementia risk variant accelerates cognitive decline in Parkinson disease, Published online: 29 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0196-yFrontotemporal dementia risk variant accelerates cognitive decline in Parkinson disease (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - April 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sarah Lempri ère Source Type: research

Mutation-specific amyloid-β processing in iPSC-derived neurons
Mutation-specific amyloid-β processing in iPSC-derived neuronsMutation-specific amyloid-β processing in iPSC-derived neurons, Published online: 29 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0195-zMutation-specific amyloid-β processing in iPSC-derived neurons (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - April 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ian Fyfe Source Type: research

Severe impairment of motor function in congenital Zika syndrome
Severe impairment of motor function in congenital Zika syndrome, Published online: 23 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0191-3Severe impairment of motor function in congenital Zika syndrome (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - April 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ian Fyfe Source Type: research

Metabolite profiling links lipids to migraine
Metabolite profiling links lipids to migraine, Published online: 23 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0192-2Metabolite profiling links lipids to migraine (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - April 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ian Fyfe Source Type: research