Optimization and Diagnostic Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibody-based Blocking ELISA Formats for Detection of Neutralizing Antibodies to Hendra Virus in Mammalian Sera.

Optimization and Diagnostic Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibody-based Blocking ELISA Formats for Detection of Neutralizing Antibodies to Hendra Virus in Mammalian Sera. J Virol Methods. 2019 Sep 09;:113731 Authors: Di Rubbo A, McNabb L, Klein R, White JR, Colling A, Dimitrov DS, Broder C, Middleton D, Lunt R Abstract Maintenance of Hendra virus (HeV) in pteropid bat populations has been associated with spillover events in horses, humans and dogs. Experimental studies have demonstrated infections for several other species including guinea pigs, cats and ferrets. The criteria of a sensitive and specific serological test that is effective for a range of species, but which does not require use of live virus, has not been satisfactorily addressed by currently available tests. We have evaluated the use of two HeV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in a blocking format enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) to detect serum antibody against a recombinant expressed HeV G protein (sol G) in several animal species. The human mAb m102.4 neutralises both HeV and the closely related Nipah virus (NiV); the mouse mAb 1.2 neutralises only HeV. Given these functional differences, we have investigated both antibodies using a bELISA format. Diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) were optimized using individual thresholds for mAb 1.2 and m102.4. For mAb 1.2 the positive threshold of>33% inhibition yielded DSe and DSp values of 100% (95% CI ...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

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Cedar virus (CedV) is a bat-borne henipavirus related to Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV), zoonotic agents of fatal human disease. CedV receptor-binding protein (G) shares only ∼30% sequence identity with those of NiV and HeV, although they can all use ephrin-B2 as an entry receptor. We demonstrate that...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Nadine Krüger The Ghana virus (GhV) is phylogenetically related to the zoonotic henipaviruses Nipah (NiV) and Hendra virus. Although GhV uses the highly conserved receptor ephrin-B2, the fusogenicity is restricted to cell lines of bat origin. Furthermore, the surface expression of the GhV attachment glycoprotein (G) is reduced compared to NiV and most of this protein is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we generated truncated as well as chimeric GhV G proteins and investigated the influence of the structural domains (cytoplasmic tail, transmembrane domain, ectodomain) of this protein on the intrac...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
by Neeltje van Doremalen, Teresa Lambe, Sarah Sebastian, Trenton Bushmaker, Robert Fischer, Friederike Feldmann, Elaine Haddock, Michael Letko, Victoria A. Avanzato, Ilona Rissanen, Rachel LaCasse, Dana Scott, Thomas A. Bowden, Sarah Gilbert, Vincent Munster Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic re-emerging virus that causes outbreaks in South East Asia. Currently, no approved and licensed vaccine or antivirals exist. Here, we investigated the efficacy of ChAdOx1 NiVB, a simian adenovirus-based vaccine encoding NiV glycoprotein (G) Bangladesh, in Syrian hamsters. Prime-only as well as prime-boost vaccination resulted i...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
A recent outbreak of Nipah virus (NiV) in India has caused 17 deaths among people living in districts of Kerala state. Its zoonotic nature as well as high rate of human-to-human transmission has led researchers worldwide to work high for understanding the different aspects of the NiV. We performed a codon usage analysis based on publicly available nucleotide sequences of NiV and its host adaptation along with other members of genus Henipavirus in ten hosts. NiV genome encodes nine open reading frames; and overall, no significant bias in codon usage was observed. Aromaticity of proteins had no impact on codon usage. An anal...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Nipah virus (NiV) is a recently emerged paramyxovirus that causes acute respiratory illness and fatal encephalitis in a broad spectrum of vertebrates, including humans. Due to its high pathogenicity and mortality rates, NiV requires handling in biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) containment facilities and no effective vaccines or therapeutic agents are currently available. Since current diagnostic tests for detecting serum neutralizing antibodies against NiV mainly employ live viruses, establishment of more safe and robust alternative diagnostic methods is an essential medical requirement. Here, we have developed ...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
ing Bats are known to harbor and transmit many emerging and re-emerging viruses, many of which are extremely pathogenic in humans but do not cause overt pathology in their bat reservoir hosts: henipaviruses (Nipah and Hendra), filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg), and coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV). Direct transmission cycles are often implicated in these outbreaks, with virus shed in bat feces, urine, and saliva. An additional mode of virus transmission between bats and humans requiring further exploration is the spread of disease via arthropod vectors. Despite the shared ecological niches that bats fill with many h...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
This study investigated the presence of Henipa- and related viruses in the Egyptian Rousette bat in South Africa as well as determining potential excretion in urine over time.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: 19.007 Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 34Author(s): Lin-Fa Wang, Danielle E AndersonIn the last two decades, several high impact zoonotic disease outbreaks have been linked to bat-borne viruses. These include SARS coronavirus, Hendra virus and Nipah virus. In addition, it has been suspected that ebolaviruses and MERS coronavirus are also linked to bats. It is being increasingly accepted that bats are potential reservoirs of a large number of known and unknown viruses, many of which could spillover into animal and human populations. However, our knowledge into basic bat biology and immuno...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
ijendra Pal Singh Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are among a group of emerging bat-borne paramyxoviruses that have crossed their species-barrier several times by infecting several hosts with a high fatality rate in human beings. Despite the fatal nature of their infection, a comprehensive study to explore their evolution and adaptation in different hosts is lacking. A study of codon usage patterns in henipaviruses may provide some fruitful insight into their evolutionary processes of synonymous codon usage and host-adapted evolution. Here, we performed a systematic evolutionary and codon usage bias analysis o...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
(Georgia State University) Researchers have identified how a viral protein, which plays a major role in causing deadly Nipah and Hendra virus infections, targets a critical function in human cells to suppress immune responses and promote fatal disease.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
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