Atopic dermatitis endotypes based on allergen sensitization, reactivity to Staphylococcus aureus antigens, and underlying systemic inflammation

Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In PracticeAuthor(s): Alexandra Leonard, Jingya Wang, Li Yu, Hao Liu, Yeriel Estrada, Lydia Greenlees, Roderick McPhee, Alexey Ruzin, Emma Guttman-Yassky, Michael D. HowellAbstractBackgroundAtopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease with significant local and systemic inflammation and barrier disruption. AD is associated with increased risk of allergen sensitization and skin colonization by Staphylococcus aureus. The heterogeneity of AD is unknown, and its complexity suggests its subdivision into several endotypes.ObjectiveTo evaluate allergy-driven endotypic differences in AD patients and identify proteomic signatures to distinguish between inflammatory responses. To perform proteomic profiling of allergen sensitivity, antibody levels to S. aureus antigens, and circulating inflammatory mediators to characterize AD subsets in 76 subjects with moderate-to-severe AD and 39 healthy controls.MethodsSera was collected from 76 subjects with moderate-to-severe AD and 39 healthy controls with no history of skin disease. Serum was tested for levels of total serum IgE and allergen-specific IgE using a panel of 119 allergens as well as IgE antibodies against S. aureus antigens, and was profiled for more than 1100 proteins by SOMAscan® to detect differential expression of inflammatory mediators.ResultsTotal serum IgE levels were significantly (p
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Authors: Kim J, Kim BE, Ahn K, Leung DYM Abstract Staphylococcus aureus commonly colonizes the skin of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and contributes to the development and exacerbation of AD. Multiple factors are associated with colonization of AD skin by S. aureus, including the strength of S. aureus-corneocyte adhesion, deficiency of antimicrobial peptides, decreased levels of filaggrin and filaggrin degradation products, overexpressed Th2/Th17 cytokines, microbial dysbiosis and altered lipid profiles. S. aureus colonization on AD skin causes skin barrier dysfunction through virulence factors such as superantig...
Source: Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Allergy Asthma Immunol Res Source Type: research
Purpose of review The skin is home to a diverse milieu of bacteria, fungi, viruses, bacteriophages, and archaeal communities. The application of culture-independent approaches has revolutionized the characterization of the skin microbiome and have revealed a previously underappreciated phylogenetic and functional granularity of skin-associated microbes in both health and disease states. Recent findings The physiology of a given skin-niche drives the site-specific differences in bacterial phyla composition of healthy skin. Changes in the skin microbiome have consistently been associated with atopic dermatitis. In parti...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: SKIN ALLERGY: Edited by Thomas Werfel and Torsten Zuberbier Source Type: research
A combination Janus and spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor improves eczema scores, but now researchers are examining its effect on Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Pathology Headlines - Category: Pathology Tags: Allergy & Clinical Immunology News Source Type: news
Endolysin treatment against Staphylococcus aureus in this randomized vehicle-controlled trial was well tolerated, but had no topical corticosteroid sparing effect in patients with atopic dermatitis. The effective run-in with corticosteroids may have influenced the results.
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Staphylococcus aureus density is increased in many patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and is thought to contribute to disease pathogenesis, interacting with an altered skin barrier and immunologic changes.1 S aureus might induce or aggravate inflammation through different mechanisms, for example through excretion of virulence factors, even if the S aureus overgrowth is primarily caused by other factors.2 Current guidelines only recommend antimicrobial therapy directed against S aureus in patients with clinically infected AD  based on a Cochrane review in which no clinical benefit of short-term antimicrobial treatmen...
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Conclusions In conclusion, articles in this Research Topic made a very significant contribution to our understanding of the role played by environmental factors, dysbiotic conditions, and infections in triggering diseases. Since this is a rapidly expanding area of research, many other factors contributing to the onset of these diseases are not covered here. We are confident, however, that further studies will expand the list as well as bring a better understanding of mechanisms involved in the onset of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Author Contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and i...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
François Chassagne1†, Xinyi Huang1†, James T. Lyles1 and Cassandra L. Quave1,2* 1Center for the Study of Human Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States 2Department of Dermatology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States In the search for new therapeutic solutions to address an increasing number of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens, secondary metabolites from plants have proven to be a rich source of antimicrobial compounds. Ginkgo biloba, a tree native to China, has been spread around the world as an ornamental tree. Its seeds have been used as snacks and medical mater...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 30895603 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The British Journal of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Br J Dermatol Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is correlated with the development of persistent severe inflammatory disease of the upper airway including chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). The presence ofS. aureus is associated with atopic disease including allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis and is associated with poor outcomes.Recent FindingsSeveral different strains ofS. aureus generate different toxins and gene products that can account for organism pathogenicity.S. aureus bacteria and its antigens shape the bacterial and fungal microbiome and the mucosal niche which generates host respo...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Skin barrier dysfunction has been reported in both atopic dermatitis (AD) and food allergy (FA). However, only one-third of patients with AD have FA. The purpose of this study was to use a minimally invasive skin tape strip sampling method and a multiomics approach to determine whether children with AD and FA (AD FA+) have stratum corneum (SC) abnormalities that distinguish them from AD without FA (AD FA–) and nonatopic (NA) controls. Transepidermal water loss was found to be increased in AD FA+. Filaggrin and the proportion of -hydroxy fatty acid sphingosine ceramide content in nonlesional skin of children with AD F...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
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