Hepatitis C virus strategies to evade the specific-T cell response: a possible mission favoring its persistence.

Hepatitis C virus strategies to evade the specific-T cell response: a possible mission favoring its persistence. Ann Hepatol. 2016 Jan - Feb;15(1):17-26 Authors: Quarleri JF, Oubiña JR Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small, enveloped RNA virus. The number of HCV-infected individuals worldwide is estimated to be approximately 200 million. The vast majority of HCV infections persist, with up to 80% of all cases leading to chronic hepatitis associated with liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The interaction between HCV and the host have a pivotal role in viral fitness, persistence, pathogenicity, and disease progression. The control of HCV infection requires both effective innate and adaptive immune responses. The HCV clearance during acute infection is associated with an early induction of the innate and a delayed initiation of the adaptive immune responses. However, in the vast majority of acute HCV infections, these responses are overcome and the virus persistence almost inexorably occurs. Recently, several host- and virus-related mechanisms responsible for the failure of both the innate and the adaptive immune responses have been recognized. Among the latter, the wide range of escape mutations to evade the specific-T-and B-cell responses as well as the T cell anergy and the CD8+ T cell exhaustion together with the interference with its function after prolonged virus exposure hold a pivotal role. Other HCV strategies incl...
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research

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Conclusions Despite a limited number of patients, a male predominance and late-onset psoriasis were frequently observed. Although interferon therapy for HCV can exacerbate psoriasis, it is not contraindicated. All conventional treatments and anti-TNFs can be used, provided that there is strict collaboration with hepatologists. PMID: 31418622 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Dermatological Treatment - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Dermatolog Treat Source Type: research
Abstract The human microbiota is a variety of different microorganisms. The composition of microbiota varies from host to host, and it changes during the lifetime. It is known that microbiome may be changed because of a diet, bacteriophages and different processes for example, such as inflammation. Like all other areas of medicine, there is a continuous growth in the area of microbiology. Different microbes can reside in all sites of a human body, even in locations that were previously considered as sterile; for example, liver, pancreas, brain and adipose tissue. Presently one of the etiological factors for liver ...
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Medicina (Kaunas) Source Type: research
Authors: Hayes CN, Imamura M, Chayama K Abstract Introduction: Over 70 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), increasing the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Areas covered: Since the approval of the first interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy in 2011, a number of DAAs have been approved, and HCV is now considered curable. Until recently, however, there were no clear guidelines on how to re-treat patients who fail DAA therapy. Current protease inhibitors (PIs) are generally unaffected by earlier resistance-associated variants (RAVs), but many NS5A inhibitors continue...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
Conclusion: We find an annual incidence of HCC in alcoholic cirrhosis of 1.5% indicating need for surveillance in these patients. Survival after HCC diagnosis was worst in alcoholic cirrhosis due to more advanced stage at diagnosis with few patients eligible for treatment. PMID: 31389730 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: Seminars in Cell &Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Srikanta Dash, Yucel Aydin, Tong WuAbstractThe molecular mechanism(s) how liver damage during the chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection evolve into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. HCV infects hepatocyte, the major cell types in the liver. During infection, large amounts of viral proteins and RNA replication intermediates accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the infected hepatocyte, which creates a substantial amount of stress response. Infected hepatocyte activates a differen...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
i RSB Abstract Recurrent hepatitis C (HCV) after liver transplantation (LT) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Antiviral treatment is recommended to avoid unfavorable outcomes. Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have transformed HCV treatment, with higher efficacy and fewer side-effects than interferon-based therapies traditionally used. To evaluate DAA treatment outcomes at a Brazilian transplant unit, data of patients who finished HCV treatment at the Liver Transplant Unit of the University of Campinas were analyzed. Treatment consisted of sofosbuvir, daclatasvir, and ribavirin, for 12 or 24 weeks, ac...
Source: Braz J Med Biol Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Braz J Med Biol Res Source Type: research
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common and deadly malignancy. The disease usually develops on a background of chronic liver disease. Until recently, the most common etiology was infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The advent of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies has been a major breakthrough in HCV treatment. Sustained virologic response can now be achieved in almost all treated patients, even in patients with a high risk for the development of HCC, such as the elderly or those with significant fibrosis. Early reports raised concerns of a high risk for HCC occurrence after DAA therapy bot...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Objective Persistent chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is associated strongly with serious complications such as hepatitis C virus-associated liver cirrhosis (HCV-LC) and hepatitis C virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCV-HCC). The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes among HCV-positive patients and examine the potential associations between viral and host-associated factors with the risk of developing HCV-HCC. Patients and methods HCV-positive patients (n = 300) were enrolled and divided into three groups: CHC (n = 171), HCV-LC (n = 51), and HCV-HCC (n = 78)....
Source: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Hepatology Source Type: research
ConclusionsA laparoscopic isolated total caudate lobectomy for HCC located in the paracaval portion of the cirrhotic liver seems to be feasible and safe in selected patients.
Source: Annals of Surgical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
It is unclear if hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk declines over time after hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication. We analyzed changes in HCC annual incidence over time following HCV eradication and identified dynamic markers of HCC risk.
Source: Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
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