Women caught in a pickle by their own immune systems

(Arizona State University) A team of scientists at Arizona State University is presenting a new hypothesis to explain why there are differences between women and men when it comes to human diseases. Called 'The Pregnancy Compensation Hypothesis,' the theory sets the stage for novel research avenues focused specifically on treating autoimmune diseases and cancer.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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AbstractBackgroundTNBC is an aggressive subtype of metastatic breast cancer. Eribulin has been shown to have activity in metastatic TNBC and has enhanced efficacy if TGF- β is downregulated. Additionally, down-regulating TGF-β in the tumor microenvironment may decrease tumor growth and increase responsiveness to checkpoint blockade. Bintrafusp alfa* (M7824) is an innovative first-in-class bifunctional fusion protein composed of the extracellular domain of the TGF-β RII receptor (a TGF-β “trap”) fused to a human IgG1 mAb blocking PD-L1. Therefore the combination of eribulin with bintrafusp al...
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Sandhya Shrivastava, Rupali Naik, Hema Suryawanshi, Neha GuptaJournal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology 2019 23(2):311-311 Microchimerism is the presence of cells from one individual in another genetically distinct individual. Pregnancy is the main cause of natural microchimerism through transplacental bi-directional cell trafficking between mother and fetus. In addition to a variety of cell-free substances, it is now well-recognized that some cells are also exchanged in pregnancy. Furthermore, it is now known that microchimerism persists decades later both in mother and in her progeny. The consequences of pregnancy-rel...
Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
Igaz P, Molnár B Abstract The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) are considerably high in Central European countries, it is the second most common cancer in both men and women in Hungary with 10,000 newly registered patients per year. These data indicate the necessity of new screening methods that are more comfortable for patients, hence the compliance can be increased. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) level in blood is elevated in certain physiological conditions, such as pregnancy or high physical activity. Furthermore, cfDNA concentration alterations can also be detected in some pathological process...
Source: Orvosi Hetilap - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Orv Hetil Source Type: research
Abstract We hypothesize that, ancestrally, sex-specific immune modulation evolved to facilitate survival of the pregnant person in the presence of an invasive placenta and an immunologically challenging pregnancy - an idea we term the 'pregnancy compensation hypothesis' (PCH). Further, we propose that sex differences in immune function are mediated, at least in part, by the evolution of gene content and dosage on the sex chromosomes, and are regulated by reproductive hormones. Finally, we propose that changes in reproductive ecology in industrialized environments exacerbate these evolved sex differences, resulting...
Source: Trends in Genetics : TIG - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Trends Genet Source Type: research
Publication date: July 2019Source: Trends in Genetics, Volume 35, Issue 7Author(s): Heini Natri, Angela R. Garcia, Kenneth H. Buetow, Benjamin C. Trumble, Melissa A. WilsonWe hypothesize that, ancestrally, sex-specific immune modulation evolved to facilitate survival of the pregnant person in the presence of an invasive placenta and an immunologically challenging pregnancy – an idea we term the 'pregnancy compensation hypothesis' (PCH). Further, we propose that sex differences in immune function are mediated, at least in part, by the evolution of gene content and dosage on the sex chromosomes, and are regulated by re...
Source: Trends in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Discussion Facial nerve palsy has been known for centuries, but in 1821 unilateral facial nerve paralysis was described by Sir Charles Bell. Bell’s palsy (BP) is a unilateral, acute facial paralysis that is clinically diagnosed after other etiologies have been excluded by appropriate history, physical examination and/or laboratory testing or imaging. Symptoms include abnormal movement of facial nerve. It can be associated with changes in facial sensation, hearing, taste or excessive tearing. The right and left sides are equally affected but bilateral BP is rare (0.3%). Paralysis can be complete or incomplete at prese...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) play various critical roles in both innate and adaptive immunity through processes such as presenting antigens to T cells and serving as ligands for receptors expressed on NK cells. Among the HLA class I family, the clinical significance and biological function of HLA-F have been the least investigated and have remained elusive for a long period of time. Previous studies have revealed that HLA-F expression might be involved in various physiological and pathological processes, such as pregnancy, viral infection, cancer, transplantation and autoimmune diseases. However, recent data have shown ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Regulatory T cells, a subpopulation of suppressive T cells, are potent mediators of self-tolerance and essential for the suppression of triggered immune responses. The immune modulating capacity of these cells play a major role in both transplantation, autoimmune disease, allergy, cancer and pregnancy. During pregnancy, low numbers of regulatory T cells are associated with pregnancy failure and pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. On the other hand, in cancer, low numbers of immunosuppressive T cells are correlated with better prognosis. Hence, maternal immune tolerance toward the fetus during pregnancy and the e...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we reviewed major human studies on the health risks of radiation exposure and showed that sex-related factors may potentially influence the long-term response to radiation exposure. Available data suggest that long-term radiosensitivity in women is higher than that in men who receive a comparable dose of radiation. The report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR VII) published in 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences, United States emphasized that women may be at significantly greater risk of suffering and dying from radiation-induced cancer than men exposed to the same dose of radiation....
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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