Peripheral immune response in the African green monkey model following Nipah-Malaysia virus exposure by intermediate-size particle aerosol

In this study, intermediate-size aerosol particles (~7 μm) of NiV-Malaysia were used to mimic potential routes of exposure by focusing viral deposition in the upper respiratory tract. Our previous report showed this route of exposure extended the disease course and a single animal survived the infection. Here, analysis of the peripheral immune response found minimal evidence of systemic inflammation and depletion of B cells during acute disease. However, the animal that survived infection developed an ear ly IgM response with rapid development of neutralizing antibodies that likely afforded protection. The increase in NiV-specific antibodies correlated with an expansion of the B cell population in the survivor. Cell-mediated immunity was not clearly apparent in animals that succumbed during the acute phase of disease. However, CD4+ and CD8+ effector memory cells increased in the survivor with correlating increases in cytokines and chemokines associated with cell-mediated immunity. Interestingly, kinetic changes of the CD4+ and CD8bright T cell populations over the course of acute disease were opposite from animals that succumbed to infection. In addition, increases in NK cells and basophils during convalescence of the surviving animal were also evident, with viral antigen found in NK cells. These data suggest that a systemic inflammatory response and “cytokine storm” are not major contributors to NiV-Malaysia pathogenesis in the AGM model using this exposure ro...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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SUMMARY: When preparing for the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and its effects on the CNS, radiologists should be familiar with neuroimaging appearances in past zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks. Organisms that have crossed the species barrier from animals to humans include viruses such as Hendra, Nipah, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, and influenza, as well as bacteria and others. Brain CT and MR imaging findings have included cortical abnormalities, microinfarction in the white matter, large-vessel occlusion, and features of meningitis. In particular, the high sensitivity of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in det...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research
Background: Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a zoonotic disease. Bangladesh identified first NiV in 2004; until 2019, Bangladesh reported 307 NiV cases with 70% case fatality rate (CFR). Drinking raw date palm sap (RDPS) and human-to-human infection are common modes of transmission. Study showed>3% contacts might develop NiV following exposure for>12 –24h. In February 2019, four deaths and one critically ill patient were reported in a northern district of Bangladesh. We investigated the outbreak to identify source, mode of transmission and establish control measures.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: 0605 Source Type: research
We report a case of Nipah Virus Encephalitis, which had a sub-acute presentation, had prolonged viral shedding with symptoms but no documented secondary cases in spite of many having prolonged and close contact with the patient.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: 0589 Source Type: research
In this study, NiV serosurveillance was performed in Peninsular Malaysia.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: 0585 Source Type: research
Background: Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging pathogen that, unlike other priority pathogens identified by WHO, is endemic to Southeast Asia. It is transmitted through exposure to saliva, urine or excrement from Pteropus fruit bats or direct contact with intermediate animal hosts or human-to-human transmission. However, little is known about the circulation of NiV and its epidemiology in Cambodia.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: 0529 Source Type: research
hoeyen : Viruses have been repurposed into tools for gene delivery by transforming them into viral vectors. The most frequently used vectors are lentiviral vectors (LVs), derived from the human immune deficiency virus allowing efficient gene transfer in mammalian cells. They represent one of the safest and most efficient treatments for monogenic diseases affecting the hematopoietic system. LVs are modified with different viral envelopes (pseudotyping) to alter and improve their tropism for different primary cell types. The vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) is commonly used for pseudotyping as it enhances ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
It ’s not just Covid-19. Pathogens once confined to nature are making their way into humans on a more regular basis. And it’s our fault.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Daszak, Peter China EcoHealth Alliance Nipah Virus Lyme Disease Congo, Democratic Republic of (Congo-Kinshasa) Quammen, David Wildlife Conservation Society SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) Wildlife Trade Source Type: news
Asma Ayesha Rahim, Thomas V ChackoIndian Journal of Community Medicine 2020 45(3):261-265 Although Kerala was the first state in India to report COVID cases, it was well prepared drawing on its past experience in managing effectively the Nipah outbreak and Kerala floods. It knew and initiated the measures required for containment because of its prior experience with mobilizing community-based groups, involvement of local-self government in decentralized planning, and participation in the containment and relief measure as well as a system-ready health system and infrastructure. The measures taken to “flatten the curv...
Source: Indian Journal of Community Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
Credit: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR)By Lawrence SurendraBANGKOK, Thailand, Aug 24 2020 (IPS) The COVID 19 Pandemic continues relentlessly. Deaths approaching a million globally, 22 million infected and growing. Brazil, India, the US and Russia accounting for almost 50% of the total cases in the world. Medically the promise of a vaccine is given as signs of hope; what surprises awaits us when such a vaccine is available, would be another story. Economically, to address the uncertainty and the grim future ahead, the UN, some governments and even Joe Biden the US Presidential hopeful, are waving ...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Development & Aid Featured Global Headlines Health Humanitarian Emergencies IPS UN: Inside the Glasshouse Population Poverty & SDGs TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news
Nipah virus (NiV) is a fatal zoonotic agent that was first identified amongst pig farmers in Malaysia in 1998, in an outbreak that resulted in 105 fatal human cases. That epidemic arose from a chain of infecti...
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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