2009 Swine Flu Pandemic Infected 1 In Every 5 People

Data gathered from 19 different countries reveals that the global swine flu pandemic which began in 2009 infected close to 20% of the population and almost 50% of all schoolchildren. The virus which originated in Mexico is thought to have killed close to 200,000. Swine flu is a respiratory disease commonly found in pigs - around 1 to 4 percent of pigs that develop the disease die from it. It is caused by a highly contagious strain of Influenza A virus and it's spread by direct and indirect contact with pigs...
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Swine Flu Source Type: news

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In conclusion, the reported results highlight the importance of AIV attachment to trachea in many avian species. Finally, the importance of chickens and mallards in AIVs dynamics was illustrated by the abundant AIV attachment observed. Introduction Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are pathogens of global concern in both human and veterinary medicine (Webster et al., 1992; Stöhr, 2002; Olsen et al., 2006; Wiethoelter et al., 2015). Wild birds are well-described hosts of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and longitudinal surveillance studies have demonstrated a plethora of low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) circulating in wild...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
María Maximina B. Moreno-Altamirano1*, Simon E. Kolstoe2 and Francisco Javier Sánchez-García1* 1Laboratorio de Inmunorregulación, Departamento de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico 2School of Health Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom Over the last decade, there has been significant advances in the understanding of the cross-talk between metabolism and immune responses. It is now evident that immune cell effector function strongly depends on the metabolic pathway in w...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Jennifer M. Rudd1, Sivasami Pulavendran1, Harshini K. Ashar1, Jerry W. Ritchey1, Timothy A. Snider1, Jerry R. Malayer1, Montelongo Marie1, Vincent T. K. Chow2 and Teluguakula Narasaraju1* 1Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, United States2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore Exaggerated host innate immune responses have been implicated in severe influenza pneumonia. We have previously demonstrated that excessive neutrophils recruited during in...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Affect appears to play a role in risk perception of influenza and willingness to take protective measures against it in people with schizophrenia. PMID: 30983379 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Australasian Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Australas Psychiatry Source Type: research
Abstract We performed swine influenza virus (SIV) surveillance in Midwest USA and isolated 100 SIVs including endemic and reassortant H1 and H3 viruses with 2009 pandemic H1N1 genes. To determine virus evolution when different genotypes and subtypes of influenza A viruses circulating in the same swine herd, a virus survival experiment was conducted in pigs mimicking field situations. Five different SIVs were used to infect five pigs individually, then two groups of sentinel pigs were introduced to investigate virus transmission. Results showed that each virus replicated efficiently in lungs of each infected pig, b...
Source: Virology - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virology Source Type: research
This study describes the development and validation of a TaqMan based - one-step multiplex RT-qPCR to discriminate the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the three major IAV subtypes circulating in pigs in Brazil. The RT-qPCR assays presented 100% (95.7-100, CI 95%) of diagnostic sensitivity in the analysis of 85 IAVs, previously characterized by sequencing. The limits of detection ranged from 5.09 × 101 to 5.09 × 103 viral RNA copies/μL. For the analytical specificity, 73 pig samples collected during 2017 and 2018 were analyzed, resulting in the identification of the subtyp...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
In this study, we used a swine pH1N1 challenge virus to investigate the efficacy of whole inactivated virus vaccines homologous or heterologous to the challenge virus as well as a commercial vaccine. We found that vaccine-mediated protection was most effective when vaccine antigen and challenge virus were homologous and correlated with the specific production of neutralising antibodies and a cellular response to the challenge virus. We conclude that a conventional whole inactivated SwIV vaccine must be antigenically matched to the challenge strain to be an effective control measure. PMID: 30914224 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Svenja Mamerow, Robert Scheffter, Susanne Röhrs, Olga Stech, Ulrike Blohm, Theresa Schwaiger, Charlotte Schröder, Reiner Ulrich, Jan Schinköthe, Martin Beer, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Jürgen StechAbstractInfluenza A viruses (IAV) have caused seasonal epidemics and severe pandemics in humans. Novel pandemic strains as in 2009 may emerge from pigs, serving as perpetual virus reservoir. However, reliably effective vaccination has remained a key issue for humans and swine. Here, we generated a novel double-attenuated inf...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
(CNN) — From climate change to superbugs, the World Health Organization has laid out 10 big threats to our global health in 2019. And unless these threats get addressed, millions of lives will be in jeopardy. Here’s a snapshot of 10 urgent health issues, according to the United Nations’ public health agency: Not vaccinating when you can One of the most controversial recent health topics in the US is now an international concern. “Vaccine hesitancy — the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines — threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-prevent...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Local TV Source Type: news
The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the PA subunit on the replication and airborne transmission of the H9N2 subtype AIV. By reverse genetics, a reassortant rSD01-PA was derived from the H9N2 subtype AIV A/Chicken/Shandong/01/2008 (SD01) by introducing the PA gene from the pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus A/swine/Shandong/07/2011 (SD07). Specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and guinea pigs were selected as the animal models for replication and aerosol transmission studies. Results show that rSD01-PA lost the ability of airborne transmission among SPF chickens because of the single substitution of the PA...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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