Role of Interferon (IFN)α in “Cocktails” for the Generation of (Leukemia-derived) Dendritic Cells (DCleu) From Blasts in Blood From Patients (pts) With Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and the Induction of Antileukemic Reactions

Strategies to stabilize remissions by specific elimination of residual acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts are needed. Leukemia-derived dendritic cell (DCleu/DC) generated from myeloid blasts improve antileukemic T-cell reactivity and install T-cell memory. Interferon (IFN)α-DC methods produce DCleu from chronic myeloid leukemia-patients (pts’) blood. Various INFα-containing versus other DC methods were studied to produce DCleu (evaluated by flowcytometry) from AML-pts’ blast-containing mononuclear (MNC) or whole blood (WB). After DCleu/DC stimulation in mixed lymphocyte cultures, T cells’ potential to gain antileukemic cytotoxicity was studied and correlated with different DC methods and DCleu/DC counts. (1) Generation of DCleu/DC: (a) “IFN-GIT” [containing granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)+IFNα+ tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] produced DC successfully (≥10% DC, ≥5% DCleu/cells) from AML-MNC (WB) in 54 (56%), “MCM-Mimic” in 76 (75%), “Picibanil” in 83 (64%), and “Calcium-ionophore” in 42 (67%) of cases. Proportions of DC subtypes in MNC (WB) were comparable with all DC methods, (b) IFNα combinations containing only GM-CSF+IFNα or only IFNα showed low efficiency to produce DCleu/DC from MNC (WB) compared with “IFN-GIT.” (2) Antileukemic functionality: DCleu/DC-stimulated T cells showed improved leukemia cytotoxicity compared with...
Source: Journal of Immunotherapy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Basic Studies Source Type: research

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Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes involved in our defense against certain virus-infected and malignant cells. In contrast to T cells, NK cells elicit rapid anti-tumor responses based on signals from activating and inhibitory cell surface receptors. They also lyse target cells via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, a critical mode of action of several therapeutic antibodies used to treat cancer. A body of evidence shows that NK cells can exhibit potent anti-tumor activity against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, disease-...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: The Journal of Molecular DiagnosticsAuthor(s): M. Isabel Prieto-Conde, Luis A. Corchete, María García-Álvarez, Cristina Jiménez, Alejandro Medina, Ana Balanzategui, Montserrat Hernández-Ruano, Rebeca Maldonado, M. Eugenia Sarasquete, Miguel Alcoceba, Noemí Puig, Verónica González-Calle, Ramón García-Sanz, Norma C. Gutiérrez, Marcos González-Díaz, María Carmen ChillónAbstractAcute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) are currently genomically characterized by karyotype, fluore...
Source: The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
ConclusionsDLI was associated with a durable efficacy and low toxicity in pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies. However, larger studies and standardized approaches are required to identify the outcome predictors of this treatment modality.Legal entity responsible for the studyThe authors.FundingHas not received any funding.DisclosureAll authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Machine learning (ML) offers opportunities to advance pathological diagnosis, especially with increasing trends in digitalizing microscopic images. Diagnosing leukemia is time-consuming and challenging in many areas globally and there is a growing trend in utilizing ML techniques for its diagnosis. In this review, we aimed to describe the literature of ML utilization in the diagnosis of the four common types of leukemia: acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Using a strict selection criterion, utilizing M...
Source: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Int J Lab Hematol Source Type: research
Abstract Recent genetic analysis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) vastly improved the understanding of molecular mechanism of hematological malignancies. Many molecular targeting drugs have since been used in the clinic, which is timely as clinical outcomes using conventional chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) reached a plateau. The first memorable success in this field was imatinib, a first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), which has been applied in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) since 2001. Imatinib drastically changed CML treatment and many CML patients no longer req...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract Mutation and translocation of fibroblast growth factor receptors often lead to aberrant signaling and cancer. This work focuses on the t(8;22)(p11;q11) chromosomal translocation which creates the BCR-FGFR1 fusion protein. This fusion occurs in stem cell leukemia/lymphoma, which can progress to atypical chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, or B-Cell lymphoma. This work focuses on biochemical characterization of BCR-FGFR1 and identification of novel therapeutic targets. The tyrosine kinase activity of FGFR1 is required for biological activity as shown using transformation assays, IL-3 independe...
Source: Haematologica - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Haematologica Source Type: research
In conclusion, TARP qualifies as a relevant target for immunotherapeutic T-cell therapy in acute myeloid leukemia. PMID: 31371409 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Haematologica - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Haematologica Source Type: research
Conclusion: The results indicate that oral candidiasis is a prevalent fungal infection in the patients with hematologic malignancies with C. albicans being the main etiological agent. However, other species of Candida cause similar infections in these patients. PMID: 31341565 [PubMed]
Source: Iranian Journal of Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: Iran J Microbiol Source Type: research
Authors: Xie X, Feng M, Wang Q, Wang J, Yin R, Li Y, Zhang H Abstract Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are leukemia-initiating population with the capacity to self-renew, differentiate, and stay quiescent. Human hematopoietic malignancies such as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are derived from this cell population. LSCs are also responsible for disease relapse due to its resistance to drug treatment. This rare cell population is phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous. Increasing evidence indicates that this heterogeneous cellular state of LSCs might determine the different dru...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 July 2019Source: Cancer GeneticsAuthor(s): Hongyu Ni, Xinlai Sun, Yin Xu, Derek Lyle, Paris Petersen, Xianfeng Zhao, Hong Drum, Bei You, Dongfang Liu, Chen Liu, Jie-Gen JiangABSTRACTEmergence of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in Philadelphia chromosome-negative (CCA/Ph-) cells in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients during the treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is an interesting phenomenon. Although previous studies revealed some potential impact of CCA/Ph- on CML patients’ outcome, clinical significance of CCA/Ph- in CML patients remains to be further elucidat...
Source: Cancer Genetics - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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