Knowledge and risk factors for foot-and-mouth disease among small-scale dairy farmers in an endemic setting

This study reports risk factors associated with clinical FMD at the farm level in a densely populated smallholder farming area of Kenya. These results can be used to inform the development of risk-based strategic plans for FMD control and as a baseline for evaluating interventions and control strategies.
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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AbstractIn Xayaboury province, located in the northern region of Lao PDR, the foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccination campaign just began in 2009. Up until now, a small number of farms have been vaccinated. When FMD outbreaks occur, it is interesting to determine the risk factors of FMD, especially in the area where vaccination rates are low. The questionnaire survey, using a case-control design at the household level, was carried out. From 59 villages with a total number of 434 households, 181 households who experienced FMD were assigned as case households, 146 households without FMD occurrence inside the outbreak villag...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis report confirms 12 azithromycin-resistantSalmonella Typhi strains and one Paratyphi A strain. The molecular basis of this resistance is one mutation in the AcrB protein at position 717. This is the first report demonstrating the impact of this non-synonymous mutation in conferring macrolide resistance in a clinical setting. With increasing azithromycin use, strains with R717 mutations may spread and be acquired by XDR strains. An azithromycin-resistant XDR strain would shift enteric fever treatment from outpatient departments, where patients are currently treated with oral azithromycin, to inpatient departm...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractHepatitis A, an acute inflammatory liver disease caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection from close contact with infected people, is highly endemic in the Indian subcontinent. Due to poor sanitary conditions, most of the population is exposed to the virus in childhood. At this age, the disease is asymptomatic and provides life-long protection against the disease. Due to rapid socioeconomic development in some areas, however, pockets of the population are reaching adolescence/adulthood without prior exposure to the virus and are thus susceptible to infection. At these ages, infection carries a higher risk of sym...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Recently, genomes recombination and genetic diversity of African swine fever virus (ASFV) was studied in this journal.1 ASFV causes hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine with a high mortality rate (nearly 100%), which poses a devastating threat to pig industry due to lack of effective vaccines or drugs against its infection up to now.2 ASFV was first discovered and maintained endemic in Africa till 1957, subsequently it spread into several other countries in Europe and Latin America.3 In 2007, a serious ASF outbreak occurred in Georgia, after which the virus spread through Russia and other countries in Eastern Europe.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
hard J.P. Brown Yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen, transmitted by mosquito vectors to humans from primate reservoirs. Sporadic outbreaks of YFV occur in endemic tropical regions, causing a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) associated with high mortality rates. Despite a highly effective vaccine, no antiviral treatments currently exist. Therefore, YFV represents a neglected tropical disease and is chronically understudied, with many aspects of YFV biology incompletely defined including host range, host–virus interactions and correlates of host immunity and pathogenicity. In this a...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract Flaviviruses are group of single stranded RNA viruses that cause severe endemic infection and epidemics on a global scale. It presents a significant health impact worldwide and the viruses have the potential to emerge and outbreak in a non-endemic geographical region. Effective vaccines for prophylaxis are only available for several flaviviruses such as Yellow Fever virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Dengue Virus and Japanese Encephalitis Virus and there is no antiflaviviral agent being marketed. This review discusses the flavivirus genome, replication cycle, epidemiology, clinical presentation and pat...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
Amer J Perinatol DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1697670In 2000, the United States had effectively eliminated endemic measles. Unfortunately, due to misinformation and non-scientific based concerns, the rate of measles vaccination has declined. The United States is in the midst of its largest outbreak of measles since 2014, with 1,095 confirmed cases as of June 2019. The reasons for the re-emergence of measles and what this epidemic illustrates about the anti-vaccine culture in the United States are explored in this article. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table ...
Source: American Journal of Perinatology - Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Momena Habib, Tahir Yaqub, Aziz-ul-Rahman, Tayyebah Sohail, Muhammad Shahbaz, Wasim Shehzad, Muhammad Munir, Muhammad Zubair ShabbirAbstractNewcastle disease (ND), caused by Avian orthoavulavirus 1 (AOAV-1), affects multiple avian species around the globe. Frequent disease outbreaks are not uncommon even in vaccinates despite routine vaccination and, in this regards, viruses of diverse genotypes originating from natural reservoirs (migratory waterfowls) play an important role in a disease endemic setting. Though genomic characterizati...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
by Victoria J. Brookes, Salome D ürr, Michael P. Ward Canine rabies was endemic pre-urbanisation, yet little is known about how it persists in small populations of dogs typically seen in rural and remote regions. By simulating rabies outbreaks in such populations (50–90 dogs) using a network-based model, our objective was to determine if rabies-ind uced behavioural changes influence disease persistence. Behavioural changes–increased bite frequency and increased number or duration of contacts (disease-induced roaming or paralysis, respectively)–were found to be essential for disease propagation. Spre...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Purpose of review Climate change, deforestation, urbanization, and increased population mobility have made the risk of large outbreaks of yellow fever more likely than ever. Yellow fever vaccine production barely meets demands. In this review, we address the causes of the recent yellow fever outbreaks, why fractional dose yellow fever vaccination works, the role of virus neutralizing antibodies in the protection against yellow fever, and the need for revaccination. Recent findings Human activities have profoundly changed the epidemiology of yellow fever. The excess of infectious viral particles in routine yellow fever...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina Coyle Source Type: research
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