The UK's pandemic influenza research portfolio: a model for future research on emerging infections

In this Personal View, the authors describe the projects that were set up, the challenges of putting these projects into a maintenance-only state, and ongoing activities to maintain readiness for activation, and discuss how to plan research for a range of major incidents.
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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Background: A/H5N1 influenza virus has significant pandemic potential, and vaccination is the main prophylactic measure. This phase 2, randomized, observer-blind, multicenter study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of two MF59-adjuvanted, cell culture-derived H5N1 (aH5N1c) vaccine formulations in healthy pediatric subjects 6 months to 17 years old. Methods: Subjects (N = 662) received 2 aH5N1c doses 3 weeks apart, containing either 7.5 μg (full dose) or 3.75 μg (half dose) hemagglutinin antigen per dose. Local reactions and adverse events (AEs) were assessed by age. Antibody responses were measured by hema...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: EpidemicsAuthor(s): Timothy C. Germann, Hongjiang Gao, Manoj Gambhir, Andrew Plummer, Matthew Biggerstaff, Carrie Reed, Amra UzicaninAbstractWe used individual-based computer simulation models at community, regional and national levels to evaluate the likely impact of coordinated pre-emptive school dismissal policies during an influenza pandemic. Such policies involve three key decisions: when, over what geographical scale, and how long to keep schools closed. Our evaluation includes uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, as well as model output uncertainties arising fr...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, we have established reverse genetics to generate a qualified reassortant H5N2 vaccine virus for further development.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ConclusionBased on high seroprevalence of antibodies against H1N1 virus during pandemic, vaccination of general population is not recommended. However, high-risk groups and HCWs need to be protected with flu vaccine. There is a need to encourage HCWs for accepting vaccination.
Source: Medical Journal Armed Forces India - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe demonstrate the anti-IAV activity of WEPO and strongly recommend the use of WEPO, as an herbal regimen, to prevent and treat H1N1 infection at an early stage.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Influenza A viruses (IAV) are subject to species barriers that prevent frequent zoonotic transmission and pandemics. One of these barriers is the poor activity of avian IAV polymerases in human cells. Differences between avian and mammalian ANP32 proteins underlie this host range barrier. Human ANP32A and ANP32B homologues both support function of human-adapted influenza polymerase but do not support efficient activity of avian IAV polymerase which requires avian ANP32A. We show here that the gene currently designated as avian ANP32B is evolutionarily distinct from mammalian ANP32B, and that chicken ANP32B does not support...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Microbiology and Infectious Disease Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONSAs healthcare systems continue to grow, a more flexible, regional approach to pandemic planning with structured interventions that can be tailored to each site is vital to maintain a safe environment.
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): R. Farrukee, J. Butler, P.C. Reading, A.C. HurtAbstract:Avian A(H7N9) infections in humans have been reported in China since 2013 and are of public health concern due to their severity and pandemic potential. Oseltamivir and peramivir are neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) routinely used for the treatment of A(H7N9) infections, but variants with reduced sensitivity to these drugs can emerge in patients during treatment. Zanamivir and laninamivir are NAIs that are used less frequently. Herein, we performed in vitro serial passaging experiments w...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: BiologicalsAuthor(s): Kathryn Edwards, Germaine Hanquet, Steve Black, Emmanuel Mignot, Christopher Jankosky, Tom Shimabukuro, Elizabeth Miller, Hanna Nohynek, Pieter NeelsAbstractA group of scientific and public health experts and key stakeholders convened to discuss the state of knowledge on the relationship between adjuvanted monovalent inactivated 2009 influenza A H1N1 vaccines used during the 2009 influenza pandemic and narcolepsy. There was consensus that an increased risk of narcolepsy was consistently observed after Pandemrix (AS03-adjuvanted) vaccine, but simila...
Source: Biologicals - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Abstract Avian A(H7N9) infections in humans have been reported in China since 2013 and are of public health concern due to their severity and pandemic potential. Oseltamivir and peramivir are neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) routinely used for the treatment of A(H7N9) infections, but variants with reduced sensitivity to these drugs can emerge in patients during treatment. Zanamivir and laninamivir are NAIs that are used less frequently. Herein, we performed in vitro serial passaging experiments with recombinant viruses, containing the neuraminidase (NA) from influenza A/Anhui/1/13 (H7N9) virus, in the presence of e...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
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