Role of the nitric oxide–soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway in obstructive airway diseases

Publication date: October 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 29, Issue 1 Author(s): Lisa L. Dupont , Constantinos Glynos , Ken R. Bracke , Peter Brouckaert , Guy G. Brusselle Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseotransmitter, which is involved in many signaling processes in health and disease. Three enzymes generate NO from l-arginine, with citrulline formed as a by-product: neuronal NO synthase (nNOS or NOS1), endothelial NOS (eNOS or NOS3) and inducible NOS (iNOS or NOS2). NO is a ligand of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), an intracellular heterodimer enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic GMP (cGMP). cGMP further activates protein kinase G that eventually reduces the smooth muscle tone in bronchi or vessels. Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) degrades cGMP to GMP. However, NO reacts with superoxide anion ( O 2 − ), leading to formation of the pro-inflammatory molecule peroxynitrite. Under physiological conditions, NO plays a homeostatic bronchoprotective role in healthy subjects. In obstructive airway diseases, NO can be beneficial by its bronchodilating effect, but could also be detrimental by the formation of peroxynitrite. Since asthma and COPD are associated with increased levels of exhaled NO, chronic inflammation and increased airway smooth muscle tone, the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway could be involved in these highly prevalent obstructive airway diseases. Here we review the involvement of NO, NO synthases, guanylyl c...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Related Links:

ConclusionsHospitalization for HRF is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Our observation that home oxygen use was associated with increased mortality suggests that oxygen use could be a risk factor for death in patients with HRF.
Source: Lung - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Zhao Z, Chang MY, Frerichs I, Zhang JH, Chang HT, Gow CH, Möller K Abstract BACKGROUND: Since bronchial abnormalities often exhibit spatial non-uniformity which may be not correctly assessed by conventional global lung function measures, regional information may help to characterize the disease progress. We hypothesized that regional air trapping during mechanical ventilation could be characterized by regional end-expiratory flow (EEF) derived from electrical impedance tomography (EIT). METHODS: Twenty-five patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD grade 3 or 4) or severe...
Source: Minerva Anestesiologica - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Minerva Anestesiol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2019Source: Joint Bone SpineAuthor(s): Chang-Fu Kuo, Patricia B. Burns, Jung-Sheng Chen, Lu Wang, Kevin C. ChungAbstractObjective: The purpose of the study is to investigate the risk of preventable hospitalization among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Methods: We identified 11,852 incident RA patients and 59,260 age-, sex-, and index year-matched controls from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. Index date was the RA diagnosis date for cases, which was assigned to their matched controls. The odds ratios (OR) of preventable hospitalizations between RA patients...
Source: Joint Bone Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
In this study, we report the design and fabrication of a high-performance HPV sensor based on nanocomposites of nanofibers of a porphyrin derivative (oxo-[5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrinato]titanium(IV) (TiOTPyP)) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) at room temperature. Two types of HPV sensor transducers were fabricated using pristine SWCNTs only and TiOTPyP nanofiber/SWCNT nanocomposite and the sensor responses were compared. The significant differences in reproducibility and selectivity of the two sensors reflected the significant impact of the added TiOTPyP nanofibers on the device performance. The respons...
Source: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Source: Lung - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Induced sputum is a non-invasive method of collecting cells from airways. Gene expression analysis from sputum cells has been used to understand the underlying mechanisms of airway diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Suitable reference genes for normalisation of target mRNA levels between sputum samples have not been defined so far. The current study assessed the expression stability of nine common reference genes in sputum samples from 14 healthy volunteers, 12 asthmatics and 12 COPD patients. Using three different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper), we identified HPRT1 and...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Lung biology and experimental studies Original Articles: Lung biology Source Type: research
The recent paper in the European Respiratory Journal by Janson et al. [1] on testing bronchodilator responsiveness suggests that it has no value in distinguishing asthma from COPD. The authors correctly state that "there are many different ways of defining bronchodilator reversibility." However, they do not then mention any of them other than using the change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) standardised by the start value. This can lead to a sex and size bias in assessing bronchodilator response [2]. One method, that was recommended by the European Respiratory Society many years ago [3], standardises th...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Original Articles: Correspondence Source Type: research
Conditions:   Asthma;   COPD Interventions:   Device: Omron NE-U17 Ultrasonic nebuliser;   Device: Akita Jet Inhalation System Sponsor:   University of Nottingham Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Authors: Friedlander HM, Ford JA, Zaccardelli A, Terrio AV, Cho MH, Sparks JA Abstract Introduction: Smoking is an established risk factor for both lung diseases and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Chronic mucosal airway inflammation may result in immune tolerance loss, neoantigen formation, and production of RA-related autoantibodies that increase the subsequent risk of RA. In this review, we aimed to summarize the current evidence supporting the role of obstructive lung diseases and subsequent risk of RA.Areas covered: We identified scientific articles discussing the biologic mechanisms linking mucosal airway inflamma...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research
COPD and asthma exacerbations are commonly triggered by rhinovirus infection. Potentially promoting exacerbations, impaired anti-viral signaling and attenuated viral clearance have been observed in diseased bronchial epithelium. Oxidative stress is a feature of inflammation in asthma and COPD and is prominent during exacerbations. It is not known whether oxidative stress affects the anti-viral signaling capacity. Bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic and COPD donors were infected with rhinovirus or treated with the oxidative stressor H2O2 followed by exposure to the synthetic viral replication intermediate poly(I:C). P...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
More News: Asthma | Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary | Drugs & Pharmacology | Neurology | Respiratory Medicine