How much does reduced food intake contribute to cancer-associated weight loss?
Purpose of review An international consensus group defined cancer cachexia as a syndrome of involuntary weight loss, characterized by loss of skeletal muscle (with or without fat loss), which is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and altered metabolism. This review presents recent studies that evaluated the contribution of reduced food intake to cancer-associated weight loss. Recent findings Four studies examined food intake in relation to weight loss. Heterogeneity among studies rendered aggregation and interpretation of results challenging. Despite these limitations, reduced food intake had consistent significant, independent associations with weight loss. However, reduced food intake did not explain all the variation in weight loss; and limited data suggests factors related to alterations in metabolism (e.g. increased resting energy expenditure, systemic inflammation) are also contributing to weight loss. Summary Reduced food intake is a significant contributor to cancer-associated weight loss. Understanding the magnitude of the association between food intake and weight loss may improve when it is possible to account for alterations in metabolism. Efforts to align clinical assessments of food intake to reduce heterogeneity are needed.
ConclusionsBevacizumab was the only prescribed targeted therapy in first-line treatment. Considering the limited number of patients receiving first-line bevacizumab and the unknown reasons to prescribe additional targeted therapy, the corresponding survival rates of patients treated with and without additional bevacizumab in first-line treatment might suggest a limited clinical effect of bevacizumab in addition to first-line palliative chemotherapy on OS. Future research should focus on identifying the subgroup of patients who might benefit OR benefiting from anti-VEGF therapy in metastatic SBA.
AbstractLocal excision following chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer is an organ-preserving procedure which aims at reducing morbidity and functional disorders associated with total mesorectal excision (TME) in selected patients. Although TME after chemoradiotherapy remains the gold standard for locally advanced mid and low rectal cancer, in the last years multicenter research trials have offered encouraging oncologic results which have allowed to preserve the rectum in patients with a pathologic complete response after chemoradiotherapy. A review of the available literature on this topic was conducted to define the state o...
Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology, Volume 26, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): SR Pena, J Brown, M Wally, R Seymour, JR Hsu, RW NaumannStudy ObjectiveTo determine opioid and benzodiazepine prescribing practices in the gynecologic oncology population and determine if this patient population is at risk for narcotic abuse.DesignThis was an IRB-approved, retrospective study of opioid and benzodiazepine prescriptions for cervical, ovarian (including fallopian tube and primary peritoneal), and uterine cancer patients within a single healthcare system from January 2016 to ...
Journal of Palliative Medicine, Ahead of Print.
Journal of Palliative Medicine, Ahead of Print.
This study aimed to evaluate the value of palliative resection or radiation of primary tumor for metastatic esophageal cancer using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Additionally, we constructed prognostic nomograms for both preoperative and postoperative risk factors. We found that palliative resection or radiation could improve the survival of such patients, across both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. AbstractPurposeWe aimed to explore the value of palliative resection or radiation of primary tumor for metastatic esophageal cancer (EC) patients.MethodsSurveillance, Epidemiology, and En...
A phase II trial was proposed to define the efficacy of a short-course radiotherapy for symptomatic palliation of metastatic or locally advanced oesophageal cancer in a low resourced setting where only a 2D-radiotherapy technique was available. Results showed that the delivery of a total dose of 12 Gy in 4 fractions, twice-a-day, over 2 days, ≥ 8 hours apart, was tolerated and effective for the symptomatic palliation of metastatic or locally advanced oesophageal malignancies.
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) are aggressive neuroendocrine tumors with poor survival rates [1 –3]. For stage IV SCLC, treatment has not advanced significantly over the last decades and consists of palliative chemotherapy. The same applies to stage IV LCNEC, were no standard treatment exists and palliative chemotherapy with SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) regimens are both deeme d appropriate . Recently, targeted therapy focusing on delta like protein 3 (DLL3) has received attention to improve outcomes for SCLC and LCNEC .
CONCLUSION: Indian patients with colon cancer, at a tertiary referral center, tend to present at more advanced stages of the disease as compared to the West. However, curative treatment with surgery and chemotherapy offers similar survival outcomes when compared stage for stage.
This article gives an outline of the history, existing radiotherapy facilities and future trends related to radiotherapy practice in India.